We will review recent results that suggest that, in any standard theory of quantum gravity, information available on the bulk of a Cauchy slice must also be available near the boundary of the slice. These ideas indicate how holography should be extended to four dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes but they also shed light on the origins of AdS/CFT. We contrast this picture with the paradigm of islands and argue that islands are consistent only in theories of massive gravity.
1) "Holography from the Wheeler-DeWitt equation"
2) "Inconsistency of Islands in Theories with Long-Range Gravity"
3) "Lessons from the Information Paradox" (review)