While the crucial role of gauge topology was recognized from 1970’s,
confinement was associated with monopoles and chiral symmetry breaking with instantons.
Recognizing presence of non-zero holonomy, van Baal and others discovered
splitting of the instantons into their constituents — the instanton-dyons.
Several groups now work out properties of their ensembles, which generate
both the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The results of mean field and
numerical simulations are in good agreement with lattice data for QCD-like theories.
Furthermore, introducing variable phases for quark periodicity conditions —
known as flavor holonomies — one can switch quark coupling to different dyons, which dramatically
change both transitions. First lattice studies of
modified — so called $Z_N$-symmetric QCD — have also found these effects,
thus confirming the instanton-dyon mechanism.