Connecting experimental measurements, numerical simulations and microscopic theory to form a genuine understanding of nuclear matter in extreme conditions requires robust statistical tools. In this talk I will discuss Bayesian techniques, which allow the practitioner to make explicit her prior knowledge, as well as uncertainty, in a well controlled manner. As examples for application of Bayesian techniques in the realm of the strong interactions I will discuss the extraction of spectral functions from lattice QCD [1,2] and the recent estimates of transport properties from hydrodynamic modeling .
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