Sep 2 – 6, 2019
Europe/Zurich timezone

CATIA: APD readout ASIC for the CMS phase 2 ECAL electronics upgrade

Sep 3, 2019, 5:20 PM
Poster ASIC Posters


CMS collaboration CMS collaboration Olivier Gevin (Université Paris-Saclay (FR))


The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will be upgraded to maintain detector performance in the challenging environment of the High Luminosity LHC. The front-end readout electronics of the ECAL barrel will be replaced, while maintaining the existing crystals and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Moreover, the upgrade will optimize the timing resolution of the system. The new front-end electronics consists of two cascading ASICs: a fast, dual gain trans-impedance amplifier (CATIA) and a dual ADC, designed in 130 nm and 65 nm CMOS, respectively. The latest test beam and laboratory test results of CATIA coupled with an ADC will be presented.


CATIA : APD readout ASIC for CMS phase 2 ECAL electronics upgrade.
The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) program will provide about one order of
magnitude of additional integrated luminosity than the current LHC program did after ten years. The
impact of the increased luminosity has been carefully taken into account for the current Compact
Muon Solenoid (CMS) Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) barrel detector. Although the legacy
crystals and avalanche photo-diodes (APD) will survive the challenging environment of the HL-LHC
with acceptable performance, the ECAL readout electronics must be upgraded to accommodate the
higher data rates. In addition, to deal with the increase in hit density, CMS is adopting a new strategy
for the selection of data by the Level 1 trigger by extending the data retention latency and increasing
the granularity by using single crystal information.
The ECAL barrel readout electronics are being completely redesigned to deal with the bandwidth
limitation and increase of Level 1 trigger latency. The new ECAL electronics topology is designed
for a continuous readout of the detector, displacing to the back-end electronics the Level 1 trigger
generation and buffering. Fitting the continuous readout system, the proposed solution for the front-
end electronics is a cascade of two custom Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) : a fast,
dual gain trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) —named CATIA— designed in a 130 nm CMOS process
and a 12-bit, 160 MSPS dual analog to digital converter (ADC) implementing gain selection and data
compression, designed in a 65 nm CMOS process.
Between legacy APD and a new ADC, CATIA has to fulfill the constrains of both old and new
electronics system. On one hand, the readout ASIC has to achieve an integral non-linearity (INL)
better than ± 0.1 % over 2 TeV of dynamic range. The noise level of the new front-end has to cope
with the expected increase of APD leakage current and the loss of transparency of the crystals due
to aging. On the other hand, the continuous readout requires the new front end to deliver to the back
end electronics a signal shape resolute enough in time to discriminate the anomalous signals due to
direct interaction of particles in the APD silicon from the scintillation signals. These requirements are
achieved in CATIA by using the high bandwidth provided by a Regulated Common-Gate TIA and a
dual gain channel with their differential outputs designed to drive the input stages of the foreseen
After a first successful prototype in 2017, a full features CATIA (V1) ASIC came back from foundry
in September 2018 implementing the TIA, the two gains, the two ADC driver amplifiers, a 12-bit
calibration system, an internal temperature sensor and a triplicated I2C slow control. The latest tests
from the former prototype in test-beam and CATIA V1 in laboratory, in both cases driving an ADC
as in the final setup, has shown results within expectation.

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