Measurements of the production of light- and heavy-flavor hadrons are of great importance for studies of the matter produced in high-energy collisions. The ALICE experiment has excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities, which have been used to measure a wide variety of hadrons as a function of multiplicity in pp collisions. Studies of light- and heavy-flavor hadrons in high-multiplicity pp collisions have revealed intriguing qualitative similarities to observations in larger collision systems. An overview of the multiplicity dependence of light- and heavy-flavor hadron production in pp collisions at LHC energies will be presented. Topics covered will include strangeness enhancement, the production of light (anti-)nuclei and hadronic resonances, the enhancement of baryon production at intermediate transverse momenta, and charm production. These results will be compared to phenomenological models, with an emphasis on the effects of multiple partonic interactions, as well as results from other collision systems and energy regimes.