TIPP 2020Postponed

Whistler Conference Centre 4010 Whistler Way, Whistler, BC V8E 1J2 CANADA
Fabrice Retiere (TRIUMF), Nigel Hessey (TRIUMF)

Sadly we have had to postpone TIPP-2020 due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated travel restrictions. It is now an all-virtual TIPP-2021.


TIPP 2020 is the fifth Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics conference in the new series of international conferences in the field of particle physics sponsored by IUPAP. The program focuses on all areas of detector development and instrumentation in particle physics, astro-particle physics and closely related fields like microlectronics and medical instrumentation.

Since this is a science driven cross-disciplinary conference on Technology and Instrumentation, the overview talks should start from science motivations, then focus on the challenges in technology and instrumentation, how the experiment did overcome those challenges, the experience of designing and building the systems and the lessons learned. What would especially be good to hear is not only what the challenges were, but what challenges one is still struggling with! This conference is not for polished talks about all that is beautiful and works well. We'd like to hear what the limitations are in the current experiments and focus on ideas on how to break the barriers. The program will be organized around four central themes:

I) SENSORS. Dedicated to recent developments in various detector technologies. Individual sessions will cover detectors based on absorption of electromagnetic or hadronic showers in dense media, on charge collection in semiconductor devices, on signal generation in gaseous media, on photon detection, and other novel technologies. Typical examples are sampling, crystal calorimeters, and dual-readout calorimeters; silicon strips and pixel detectors; proportional and time-projection chambers; phototubes and silicon photo-multipliers.

II) EXPERIMENTS. Multi-component detector systems and upgrades to existing detectors. This theme includes overview talks from the major experiments and projects across the fields (collider experiments and upgrades, intensity frontier experiments, astrophysics and cosmology, neutrinos, dark matter searches, gravitational waves,  large scale R&D projects , etc). We encourage contributions illustrating the  limitations of the current experiments and focus on ideas on how to break these barriers.

III) READOUT AND DATA PROCESSING. This theme includes all aspects of data processing that act in combination with detectors: front-end electronics for amplification and signal conditioning; electronics, firmware and software for event triggering and data acquisition; data storage and preservation.

IV) TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND IMPACT ON OTHER SCIENCES. Although large experiments designed and operated over decades do not always allow operation at the forefront of technology, a large number of experts in leading labs in particle physics are nevertheless active on this frontier.  As a result, new sensor and chip development, precision mechanics, and computing developments did find their way to industry and society (e.g. material science, health care and biology). Conversely, the particle physics community profits from advances in industry like smaller CMOS technology.  This theme is concerned with the question: can particle physics labs and industry move from the present situation of mutual interest  toward a more integrated strategy?

All of these can include novel technologies that, albeit not yet extensively used in existing detectors, may offer solutions to overcome some of the present technological barriers. Typical examples are processes to achieve 3D integration, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, novel techniques for the cooling of detectors and electronics, usage of photonics for light detection and the transmission of signals, and technologies from other fields of science that seem to hold a potential for particle physics.

plenary and a few parallel sessions will be devoted to each of these themes.

    • 6:00 PM
      Registration & welcome reception
    • Plenary: Plenary 1
    • 10:30 AM
    • Plenary: Plenary 2
    • 12:30 PM
    • Experiments: Calorimeters: Block 1
      • 1
        A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept, description and R&D and beam test results

        The increase of the particle flux at the HL-LHC with luminosities of L ≃ 7.5 × $10^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$ will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector reconstruction and trigger performance. The end-cap and forward region where the liquid Argon calorimeter has coarser granularity and the inner tracker has poorer momentum resolution will be particularly affected. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the LAr end-cap calorimeters. Covering a pseudo-rapidity range from 2.4 to 4.0 two double sided silicon sensor layers will provide timing information a resolution better than 30 ps per track for vertex identification. Readout cells have a size of 1.3 mm × 1.3 mm, leading to a highly granular detector with 3 millions of channels. Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) technology has been chosen as it provides enough gain to reach the large signal over noise ratio needed.The requirements, overall specifications and test beam results of the HGTD will be presented.

      • 2
        Upgrade II of the LHCb Calorimeter

        The LHCb Upgrade 2 will run at a luminosity of $(1..2)*10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ to collect ~300 $fb^{-1}$ of data. This will require a major revision of the LHCb Calorimeter. The increased luminosity will result in very high particle densities and radiation doses in the central area. The ECAL has to provide high quality energy and position measurement for electromagnetic showers. One option for the central part is a sampling scintillation ECAL with tungsten-based converter. Radiation hard crystal scintillators of garnet type can be used as active elements. Measuring the time of arrival of neutrals with an accuracy of few tens of picosecond is crucial to mitigate pile-up. The preferred option is to use the intrinsic time resolution of the ECAL modules. An R&D campaign started to optimize the ECAL. It includes studies of radiation hard scintillating materials, beam tests as well as simulation studies. We present the R&D results and the current status of the LHCb Calorimeter upgrade.

      • 3
        Status and plans for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter upgrade project

        The CMS Collaboration is preparing to build replacement endcap calorimeters for the HL-LHC era. The new high-granularity calorimeter (HGCAL) is, as the name implies, a highly-granular sampling calorimeter with approximately six million silicon sensor channels (~1.1cm^2 or 0.5cm^2 cells) and about four hundred thousand channels of scintillator tiles readout with on-tile silicon photomultipliers. The calorimeter is designed to operate in the harsh radiation environment at the HL-LHC, where the average number of interactions per bunch crossing is expected to exceed 140. Besides measuring energy and position of the energy deposits the electronics is also designed to measure the time of their arrival with a precision on the order of 50 ps. We will present the current status of the project, the many lessons learnt so far and our future plans.

        Speaker: Thorben Quast (Rheinisch Westfaelische Tech. Hoch. (DE))
      • 4
        CMS ECAL upgrade for precision timing and energy measurements at the High-Luminosity LHC

        A dual gain trans-impedance amplifier and an ASIC providing two 160 MHz ADC channels, gain selection, and data compression will be installed. The noise increase in the APDs, due to radiation-induced dark current, will be contained by reducing the temperature at which ECAL is operated. The trigger decision will be moved off-detector and performed by powerful and flexible FPGA processors, allowing for more sophisticated trigger algorithms to be applied.
        The upgraded ECAL will be capable of high-precision energy measurements and will greatly improve the time resolution for photons and electrons above 10 GeV. Together with the introduction of a new timing detector designed to perform timing measurements with the resolution of a few tens of picoseconds for minimum ionizing particles, the CMS detector will be able to precisely reconstruct the primary interaction vertex under the described pile up conditions.

        Speaker: Thomas Reis (Science and Technology Facilities Council STFC (GB))
      • 5
        Compact LumiCal prototype tests for future e+e- collider

        The FCAL collaboration is preparing large-scale prototypes of special calorimeters to be used in the very forward region at a future e+e- collider for a precise and fast luminosity measurement and beam-tuning. LumiCal is designed as Si_W sandwich calorimeter with very thin sensor planes to keep the Moliere radius small, facilitating such the measurement of electron showers in the presence of background. Dedicated FE electronics has been developed to match the timing and dynamic range requirements. A partially instrumented prototype was investigated in a 1 to 5 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. In the recent beam tests, a multi-plane compact prototype equipped with thin detector planes fully assembled with readout electronics were installed in 1 mm gaps between tungsten plates of one radiation length thickness. High statistics data were used to perform sensor alignment, and to measure the longitudinal and transversal shower development in the sandwich.

    • Experiments: Dark Matter Detectors: Block 1
      • 6
        The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter experiment: Construction and commissioning of the liquid xenon detector

        The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment is a next generation dark matter search designed to achieve unprecedented sensitivity to a wide range of dark matter candidates. At the core of the LZ detector is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber (TPC) with a 7 ton active mass. LZ will begin taking data in 2020 and achieve a sensitivity of about $1.4\times10^{-48} cm^2$ at $40~GeV/c^2$ WIMP mass after 1000 days of live time. In this talk, I will present the construction and commissioning status of the LZ detector, as well as the anticipated physics reach of the experiment.

      • 7
        Ultra-low energy calibration of the XENON1T detector with a diluted $^{37}$Ar source

        In 2018 the XENON1T experiment set the most stringent constraints on the interaction cross-section between nucleons and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. A crucial role for the inference of such results is played by the accurate modelling of the detector response.
        We report about a new calibration test with a $^{37}$Ar source diluted into the liquid xenon, performed in the XENON1T detector at the end of its operation.
        The isotope undergoes electron capture, emitting a cascade of Auger electrons and X-rays with a energy of 2.8 keV or 270 eV, hence providing a unique opportunity to study the detector response, including threshold effects and spatial dependencies, directly in the energy range of Dark Matter searches.
        To deal with the 35 days half-life of the source, the complete removal has been ensured by cryogenic distillation, which reduced the activity by 5 orders of magnitude in ~25 days, opening the way for a regular use of this method in the successor experiment XENONnT.

        Speaker: Dr Matteo Alfonsi (J. Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz)
      • 8
        Towards the DARWIN Astroparticle Physics Observatory

        The DARWIN observatory will be the ultimate xenon-based detector for WIMP dark matter complemented by a rich science program of other rare event searches. It will operate 40t of natural liquid xenon in a time projection chamber, combining light- and charge-signal measurements for background reduction and an optimal energy resolution. We aim at reducing all background sources for the WIMP search to a level well below the ones induced by neutrinos.

        These prerequisites of excellent TPC performance and high radio purity of materials and the xenon target requires intense R&D. We present the DARWIN project and its science, highlights from the ongoing R&D efforts and discuss the investigated options regarding TPC design and light sensors.

        Speaker: Fabian Kuger (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)
      • 9
        Development of DarkSide-20k Time Projection Chamber

        The liquid argon (LAr) detector technology has strong potential to push the sensitivity for WIMP detection several orders of magnitude beyond current levels. The Global Argon Dark Matter Collaboration includes scientists from all the major groups currently working with this technology with the goal to build a sequence of future detectors that maximally exploit the advantages of LAr as a detector target. The immediate objective is the DarkSide-20k two-phase detector with a fiducial mass of 20 t of LAr, currently in construction at the Gran Sasso laboratory. DarkSide-20k will have ultra-low backgrounds, with the ability to measure its backgrounds in situ, and sensitivity to WIMP-nucleon cross sections down to 7.4 x 10^-48  cm^2  for WIMPs of 1TeV/c^2  mass in an exposure of 200 t yr.  The DarkSide-20k Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will utilize several new technologies to achieve the required performance. This talk will discuss the design of the TPC and status of the development.

      • 10
        Correcting Signal Saturation in DEAP-3600

        DEAP-3600 is a tonne-scale, liquid argon (LAr) experiment searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which are a leading candidate for dark matter. The detector is located at SNOLAB in Sudbury, Ontario, and comprises 3279 kg of LAr as a scintillator, viewed by 255 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). While DEAP is optimized for detecting WIMPs at recoil energies on the order of 10 keV, vital background analyses probe higher energy regimes—up to a few MeV, where signal saturation in the PMTs and digitizers are important systematic effects. In this presentation, a novel approach to correcting such nonlinear behaviour is discussed, with the goal of decoupling saturation effects in different components. A physics-driven model for PMT saturation has been developed and applied to re-linearize the PMT response. This talk will report on the development of this technique and its validation in data using alpha decays in the LAr bulk of the DEAP-3600 detector.

        Speaker: Mr Joe McLaughlin (Royal Holloway University of London)
    • Readout: Front-end electronics: Block 1
      • 11
        Electronics and Triggering Challenges for the CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter

        The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), presently being designed by the CMS collaboration to replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the High Luminosity phase of LHC, will feature six million channels. The requirements for the front-end electronics are extremely challenging, including high dynamic range (0-10 pC), low noise (~2000e- to be able to calibrate on single MIP throughout the detector lifetime), high accuracy time information in order to mitigate the pileup effect (25 ps binning) and low power consumption (~15mW/channel), as well as the need to select and transmit trigger information with a high granularity. The front-end electronics will face a harsh radiation environment, reaching up to 200 Mrad at the end of life. About 1/6 of the channels will form part of the CMS Level 1 trigger and, together with tracking information, should allow particle-flow techniques to be used as part of this trigger.

      • 12
        Development of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Readout Electronics for the HL-LHC

        To meet new TDAQ buffering requirements and withstand the high radiation doses at the high-luminosity LHC, the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout electronics will be upgraded. The calorimeter signals are amplified and shaped by analog electronics over a dynamic range of 16 bits, with low noise and excellent linearity. Developments of radiation-hard, low-power preamplifiers and shapers and a 40 MHz ADC to meet these requirements are ongoing. The signals will be sent off-detector at 40 MHz where FPGAs connected through high-speed links will perform energy and time reconstruction. Reduced data are sent with low latency to the first level trigger, while the full data are buffered until the reception of trigger accept signals. The data-processing, control and timing functions will be realized by dedicated boards. Results of tests of prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

      • 13
        The Phase-I Trigger Readout Electronics Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

        Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter for the Phase-I upgrade during the LHC shut-down of 2019-2020. Trigger signals with higher spatial granularity and higher precision are needed in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates, already at the Level-1 trigger. The LAr Trigger Digitizer system will digitize the 34,000 channels at a 40 MHz sampling frequency with 12 bit precision after the shaping of the front-end system. The data will be transmitted to the back-end LAr Digital Processing system to extract the transverse energies and perform the bunch-crossing identification. A demonstrator installed during Run-2 has helped validate the chosen technologies. Results of the ASIC developments and the status of the first boards installed will be presented, along with the overall system design.

      • 14
        HGCROC-V2: the front-end readout ASIC for the CMS High Granularity Calorimete

        HGCAL, presently being designed by CMS to replace the endcap for the High Luminosity LHC, require extremely challenging specifications for the front-end electronics: high dynamic range, low noise, high accuracy time information and low power consumption as well as the need to select and transmit trigger information with a high transverse and longitudinal granularity.
        HGCROV-V2 is the second prototype of the front-end ASIC. It has 72 channels of the full analog chain: low noise and high gain preamplifier and shapers, 10-bit 40 MHz SAR-ADC, which provides the charge measurement over the linear range of the preamplifier. In the saturation range of the preamplifier, a discriminator and TDC provide the charge information from TOT (200 ns dynamic range and 50 ps binning). A fast discriminator and TDC provide timing information to 25 ps accuracy.
        We will report on the performances about: noise, charge and time performances, DAQ and Trigger paths, TID and SEU.

        Speaker: Mr Damien Thienpont (OMEGA - Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS/IN2P3)
      • 15
        Development of Low Temperature Analog Readout (LTARS 2018) for LAr-TPC

        We currently developed a new front-end electronics for a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) detector, which has been developed for neutrino oscillation and nuclear decay search experiments.
        We developed the electronics (LTARS 2018) to have a wide dynamic range for input charge up to 1600 fC and a function to output a signal with an appropriate time constant for signals having various peaking times. These unique properties may make the LTARS 2018 multi-purpose, for example, not only for LAr-TPC but also a negative-ion gas TPC for dark matter search.
        In this paper we will report the design concept of the LTARS2018, and results of the evaluation test on the noise and charge signal conversion performance. In addition, the results of the test at cryogenic temperature will be described.

        Speaker: Shota Sumomozawa (Iwate University)
    • Sensors: Solid-state position sensors: Block 1
      • 16
        Characterisation of 3D Silicon pixel sensors for the high luminosity phase of the CMS experiment at LHC

        The R&D covers both planar and single-sided 3D columnar pixel devices made with the Si-Si Direct Wafer Bonding technique, which allows for the production of sensors with 100 μm and 130 μm active thickness, for planar sensors, and 130 μm for 3D sensors, the thinnest ones ever produced so far. Prototypes of hybrid modules have been bump-bonded to the RD53A readout chip. The RD53A readout chip have been developed by the RD53 collaboration as a first step to the design of a readout chip for the pixel detectors of the ATLAS and CMS experiments during the high luminosity phase of the LHC. Test beam studies, both of thin planar and 3D devices, have been performed by the CMS collaboration at the CERN, Fermilab and Desy test beam facilities. First results of the 3D modules performance before and after irradiation are reported in this presentation.

        Speakers: Davide Zuolo (Universita & INFN, Milano-Bicocca (IT)), Davide Zuolo (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
      • 17
        Innovative Silicon Technologies for the Inner Detectors at the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC)

        The R&D programme of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) aims to fulfil the ambitious requirements of the inner detectors. This contribution provides an overview of these innovative technology studies, with an emphasis upon recent results and developments. Various monolithic prototypes are currently being investigated for the tracking detector in High-Voltage CMOS, High-Resistivity CMOS, and Silicon on Insulator technologies. The CLICpix2 small-pitch, hybrid readout ASIC has been produced in a 65nm commercial CMOS process to target the vertex detector requirements. CLICpix2 samples have been bump-bonded to planar active-edge silicon sensors, as well as capacitively- coupled to High-Voltage CMOS sensors. The characterisation and modelling of these devices has also lead to the development of a set of software and hardware tools, including Allpix2 for Monte Carlo simulations, Corryvreckan for test-beam data reconstruction, and the Caribou modular DAQ system.

      • 18
        Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

        Silicon pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As the closest detector component to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the innermost layers will receive a fluence of 1-5_1015 1 MeV neq=cm2 and the HL-HLC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. Simulating radiation damage is critical in order to make accurate predictions for current future detector performance. A model of pixel digitization is presented that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS pixel sensors for the first time. In addition to a thorough description of the setup, predictions are presented
        for basic pixel cluster properties alongside early studies with LHC Run 2 proton-proton collision data.

        Speakers: Marco Bomben (LPNHE & Université Paris Diderot, Paris (FR)), Marco Bomben (U. di Trieste)
      • 19
        New beam test results of 3D pixel detectors constructed with poly-crystalline CVD diamond

        Detectors based on Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond have been used successfully in beam conditions monitors in the highest radiation areas of the LHC. Future experiments at CERN will to accumulate an order of magnitude larger fluence. As a result, an enormous effort is underway to identify detector materials that will operate after fluences of >10^{16}/cm^2.

        Diamond is one candidate due to its large displacement energy that enhances its radiation tolerance. Over the last 2 years the RD42 collaboration has constructed 3D CVD diamond pixel detectors that use laser fabricated electrodes to enhance radiation tolerance. We will present beam test results of these devices. The cells in these detectors had a size of 50µm x 50µm with columns 2.6µm in diameter ganged in 1 x 5 and 3 x 2 patterns to match the ATLAS and CMS pixel read-out electronics. In beam tests, a tracking efficiency of 99.3% was achieved. The efficiency of both devices plateaus at a bias voltage of 30V.

        Speaker: Harris Kagan (Ohio State University (US))
      • 20
        Development of beam telescopes with high time resolution based on Timepix3 and 4 ASICs

        A high rate beam telescope based on the Timepix3 ASIC has been built in order to perform detailed studies of tracking prototypes using charged particle beams. The telescope is optimised for spatial precision, reaching $<$ 1.6 $\mu$m pointing resolution. Timepix3 features per pixel TDCs with a bin size of $\approx$, and after detailed systematic correction, a temporal precision of 680 (270) ps per plane (track) was achieved. The most recent results from the Timepix3 telescope will be presented.

        The success of the Timepix3 telescope led to the proposal of a new 4D beam tracker based on the Timepix4 ASIC that has TDCs with 60 ps RMS precision per pixel, which leads to unprecedented improvements in the pattern recognition. The ASIC has been submitted at the end of 2019 and detector assemblies are expected by summer 2021. The conceptual design of a Timepix4 telescope will be discussed.

    • 3:30 PM
    • Poster: Poster Session
      • 21
        Simulation of Dark Current in Resistive Plate Chambers

        The dark current characteristic of an RPC is often simplistically represented by the current flown in an electrical circuit of diode and resistance. It follows mainly from the variation of electrical conductivity of the gas medium with the applied voltage. We have developed a detailed model to simulate the dark current from the first principle considering the electrical properties of all the device components. The conductivity of the gas medium has been introduced as a function of the first Townsend coefficient of the gas mixture used. The simulation has been carried out using COMSOL Multiphysics with the gas transport properties calculated by MAGBOLTZ. The model is expected to predict the V-I characteristic
        curve for any gas mixture in any RPC geometry. For verification, the simulation results have been compared to the experimental measurement carried out with a Bakelite RPC filled with Freon and isobutane (95:5 by volume).

        Speakers: Jaydeep Datta, SRIDHAR TRIPATHY (SAHA INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS), Nayana Majumdar (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics)
      • 22
        Comparative aging studies on a Single Wire Proportional Chamber

        In this contribution the authors will present the result of two couples of tests performed on a
        Single Wire Proportional Chamber (SWPC). During the first test the SWPC was irradiated with
        X-rays and alpha particles sources with the same hit rate until the same integrated charge was
        reached. Nevertheless the performance loss during the X-ray irradiation was larger, traces of
        polymers were found on the wire only in the case of alpha irradiation. The second test was
        performed irradiating the SWPC with alphas and X-ray, but this time with the same anodic
        current. The irradiation continued until the wire chamber lost half of the initial gas gain. In the
        case of alpha irradiation the integrated charge needed for the goal was lower with respect to
        the one needed during the X-ray radiation. However the electron microscope analysis revealed,
        once again, a large polymer deposit on the alpha irradiated wire while no deposit was found
        on the X-ray irradiated one.

      • 23
        Charge sharing in Gas Electron Multipliers

        GEM has become a widely used technology for high-rate particle physics experiments. Radiation hardness, ageing resistance and discharge stability are the main criteria for long-term operation of such detectors. In particular, discharge is a serious issue as it may cause irreversible damages to the detector and readout electronics. The charge density inside the amplification region is the limiting factor of detector stability against discharges. Also, the suppression of ion feedback is very crucial for their applications in TPC which again increases the discharge probability. So, studying charge sharing and charge density in different layers of multi-GEM structures to optimize geometric and electromagnetic configurations for its stable and long term operation, is of particular interest. In this work, we will present the effect of different electric field configurations and gas mixtures on charge density in GEM holes for single, double and triple GEMS using Garfield simulation framework.

        Speaker: Ms Promita Roy (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI)
      • 24
        Strategies for reducing the use of greenhouse gases from particle detectors operation at the CERN LHC experiments

        A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of the gaseous detectors at the CERN LHC experiments. Some gases, as C2H2F4, CF4, C4F10 and SF6, are greenhouse gases (GHG) with high global warming potential and therefore subject to a phase down policy.
        The reduction of GHG emissions is of paramount importance for CERN, which has identified four different strategies.
        The first strategy is based on the optimization of the gas mixture recirculation plants already in use. The second approach is the recuperation of used gas mixtures followed by separation of the GHG for its re-use. Several R&D are ongoing to evaluate this possibility and prepare the design of final systems. A third approach is making use of industrially available solutions for disposal of GHGs. Finally, the search of new eco-friendly gases is object of many R&D programs by the detector communities.
        The four strategies will be compared by considering investment required, return benefit and technological readiness.

        Speaker: Roberto Guida (CERN)
      • 25
        Studies on impurities and F-radicals production in gaseous detectors operated with Freon based gas mixtures at LHC Experiments

        At the CERN LHC experiments several gaseous detectors are operated with Freon based gas mixtures. CF4 is used for wire chambers and Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors while C2H2F4 and SF6 for Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs).Under the effects of electric field and radiation, these gases undergo radiolytic dissociation producing new molecules and radicals, which could be detrimental to detector long term operation.
        During LHC Run 2 several gas analyses were performed on the gas mixtures of RPCs and GEMs operated in ALICE, CMS and LHCb experiments.It was observed that several impurities and F- radicals are created inside the detectors and their concentration depends on several factors. Systematic studies on F- production in RPC and GEM detectors have been performed at CERN GIF++ with high background radiation. Correlations between impurities, gas flow, integrated charge, rate and detector currents were established.
        A comprehensive overview of the results obtained will be presented

        Speaker: Beatrice Mandelli (CERN)
      • 26
        Characterization of Photon readouts and Scintillators for Direct Dark Matter Search

        As a precursor to setting up a Dark Matter (DM) direct search experiment involving scintillators at low temperatures, we have investigated the change in characteristic properties of the photon readout channel. Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM), known for its high gain, miniature size, and low mass was studied. Leakage current of SiPM was found to have sensitive dependence on the temperature and also a shift in the operating bias was observed. Photon response to a temperature-stabilized light-emitting diode (LED) pulsar was used to study the SiPM bias compensation as a function of temperature, from ambient to about 30 K. We find that the voltage compensation, though reported to be linear within a small temperature range, is fairly nonlinear when operated over such a wide temperature range. Using the voltage compensation data, we have studied the temperature dependence of the light output of some doped and un-doped scintillators which can serve as potential detectors for direct DM search.

        Speaker: Mr Sayan Ghosh (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI)
      • 27
        Mechanical design of multi-PMT for the intermediate water Cherenkov detector of Hyper-K

        Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) is a next generation water Cherenkov neutrino detector for discovery of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, determination of the neutrino mass ordering as well as potentially discover proton decay. A new Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector (IWCD) is proposed for Hyper-K to cancel the neutrino flux and cross section uncertainties located 1-2 km away from the neutrino source at J-PARC.

        This work presents the mechanical development of the new multi-PMT (mPMT) prototype with 19-front facing 3-inch PMTs in a pressure vessel consisting of an acrylic dome, PVC cylinder and stainless steel backplate. The IWCD requires the assembly of about 500 mPMT. The prototype consists of PMT support matrix, scintillator-plate and read out electronics board. This work also presents the design and analysis of the 6m tall and 8m wide cylindrical support structure for the 500 mPMT modules.

      • 28
        MPGD-based photon detectors for the upgrade of COMPASS RICH-1 and beyond

        After the realization of the MWPCs with CsI PC for the RICH detector of the COMPASS experiment at CERN SPS, we have upgraded COMPASS RICH by four novel gaseous Photon Detectors (PD) based on MPGD technology, never used before in RIChes, covering a total active area of 1.5 m2. The new PDs consist of two layers of THGEMs, the first also acting as a reflective PC thanks to CsI coating, and a bulk Micromegas on a pad-segmented anode; the signals are read-out by analog APV-25-based F-E.
        Presently, we are further developing the MPGD-based PDs for operation at the future EIC. A compact collider setup imposes to construct a RICH with a short radiator length, hence limiting the number of photons. The last can be increased by detecting the photons in the far UV region. Another challenge is the need of improved space resolution, related to the shorter lever arm.
        All aspects of the COMPASS RICH-1 PDs upgrade are presented, as well as the on-going development for collider application

      • 29
        A DAQ System for Pixel Array Detectors for Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

        Pixel array detectors (PAD) are widely used in the synchrotron radiation facilities (SRF). This work aims to develop a common data acquisition (DAQ) system for PAD users. It provides the most essential functionalities such as data readout and real-time image display, and offers the customized functionalities including run control, data processing & transmission, event building, lossless compression, data storage, etc. The DAQ software consists of a dataflow layer and an interactive layer. The user interface is developed with the open source QT framework. In order to verify the DAQ design and performances, a prototype system has been built and tested with the HEPS-BPIX 1M detector, which is a high-frame-rate pixel detector working in the single-photon-counting mode. During the tests, all functionalities have been demonstrated, and the system can run stably with ~2GB/s readout bandwidth. The detailed design, implementation and performance tests will be presented.

      • 30
        A Large Area Microchannel Plate Detector for Low Energy Proton Detection.

        A custom large area (150 mm x 150 mm) microchannel plate (MCP) detector has been built to characterize the 30 keV proton source at the University of Manitoba (UofM), Canada. Two MCP plates from Incom, Inc. are arranged in the chevron configuration to provide a gain of $\sim10^6$. The detector is constructed using vacuum compatible materials and is operated in a $\sim10^{-7}$ Torr vacuum. A 144 pixel anode board covering the full area of the MCP moves charge from the detector into 144 custom amplifiers which are then multiplexed into a LabView DAQ system. The facility at UofM is an ideal facility to characterize low energy proton detectors and is currently characterizing the large diameter silicon detectors used by the Nab neutron beta decay experiment at Oak Ridge National Lab. The construction and operation of the MCP detector will be presented along with rate and beam position stability of the proton source as measured by the MCP detector.

      • 31
        Batch test of PMTs for the water Cherenkov detector array in LHAASO project

        The Large High-Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) is being built at an elevation of 4410 meters in Haizi Mountain, Sichuan province of China. One of its main goals is to survey the northern sky for very high energy gamma ray sources via its ground-based Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA). WCDA is consisted of 3120 water detector cells, divided into 3 water ponds. A hemispherical 8-inch photomultiplier tube (PMT) CR365 (made in Beijing Hamamatsu Photon Techniques INC)is installed at the bottom center of each cell in the first water pond, collecting Cherenkov photons produced by air shower when cosmic ray crossing the water. By the end of 2019, over 900 PMTs have been tested and installed in the WCDA, taking physics data. This presentation introduces the batch calibration and performance test of CR365, including the PMT batch test system and test result in detail.

        Speaker: Dr Xin Li (University of Sicence and Technology of China)
      • 32
        The Semi Digital Hadronic CALorimeter (SDHCAL)

        The successful running of the technological prototype of the Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimter (SDHCAL) developed within the CALICE collaboration and proposed to equip the future ILD detector of the ILC has provided excellent results in terms of energy linearity and resolution but also tracking and PID capabilities.

        To validate completely the SDHCAL option for ILD, a new R&D activities have started. The aim of such activities is to demonstrate the ability to build large detectors (> 2m2) GRPC with a new version of readout electronics and a new detector interface board with the aim to have the capability to address up to 432 ASICs of 64 channels each by the latter.

        In addition, a new mechanical structure using electron beam welding is used to build the mechanical that will host the active layer made of GRPC and their embedded electronics.

      • 33
        Development of Si-W sampling Calorimeter for the ALICE FoCal upgrade

        The LHC-ALICE experiment plans to install a Forward Calorimeter (FoCal) for the measurement of direct photon at forward rapidity ($3.2 <\eta≈<5.8$). By this , we expect to be able to access the gluon saturation region at small-x. It is a key to understand the initial state of nuclear collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP).
        The FoCal is composed of an electromagnetic calorimeter (FoCal-E) and a hadron calorimeter (FoCal-H). The FoCal-E is a Si-W sampling calorimeter consisting of pad layer for a precise measurement of photon energy and pixel layers readout to distinguish between decay photons and direct photons.
        We have constructed a prototype calorimeter consisting of 20 alternating layers of tungsten (W) and silicon (Si) pads. The performance of this prototype has been evaluated with positron and hadron beams at CERN PS and SPS in 2018. The results of these test beam measurements will be reported and the possibility of improvement about the readout system will be discussed.

      • 34
        A fast method for particle tracking and triggering using small-radius silicon detectors

        We propose an algorithm, deployable on a highly-parallelized graph computing architecture, to perform rapid reconstruction of charged-particle trajectories in the high energy collisions at the Large Hadron Collider and future colliders. We use software emulation to show that the algorithm can achieve an efficiency in excess of 99.95% for reconstruction with good accuracy. The algorithm can be implemented on silicon-based integrated circuits using field-programmable gate array technology. Our approach can enable a fast trigger for massive charged particles that decay invisibly in the tracking volume, as in some new-physics scenarios related to partic- ulate dark matter. If production of dark matter or other new neutral particles is mediated by metastable charged particles and is not associated with other triggerable energy deposition in the detectors, our method would be useful for triggering on the charged mediators using the small-radius silicon detectors.

        Speaker: Ashutosh Kotwal (Duke University (US))
      • 35
        A Read-Out System with Charge Measurement using Time-Over-Threshold Property of NINO ASICs using FPGA.

        A simple inexpensive read-out system has been developed for an RPC based muon imaging system. The Time-Over-Threshold property of the fast pre-amplification, discrimination chip NINO, can be utilized to measure the pulse-height and hence the charge content of a detector signal. The charge profile of an event can be obtained from the fired strips, which localizes the particle track. This alternative way of charge-measurement can reduce the cost of electronics required for a muon tracker with hundreds of readout channels. The NINO output pulse-width from a read-out strip, that triggered by a scintillator hodoscope has been measured using a 1 GHz, 5GS/s oscilloscope. The mean value of the pulse-width has been found to be around 25 ns in the avalanche mode and 60 ns in the streamer mode. The same measurement is also being done with Altera MAX-10 FPGAs. A 400 MHz clock produced using a Phase-Locked loop clock generator can measure the pulse width with an uncertainty of 2.5 ns.

        Speakers: sridhar tripathy, Jaydeep Datta, Nayana Majumdar (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics), Supratik Mukhopadhyay (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (IN))
      • 36
        An In-Situ Movable Calibration Source for Cryogenic Particle Detectors

        It is important to understand how particle detector responses depend on the detailed location of an event in the detector volume. This can be particularly difficult to measure directly in cryogenic detectors because the cryostats in which they are operated generally restrict access. One solution is to develop in-situ calibration sources which can be moved without significant interruption to normal detector operation. This talk presents a prototype device capable of moving a radioactive calibration source to multiple positions near a cryogenic particle detector. It utilizes a modified commercial stepper motor and has been demonstrated by scanning a calibration source across multiple positions along the radius of a prototype dark matter detector. Construction, heat load, and operation of the device are discussed, as is the effect of the motor on the particle detector operation. Finally, this talk presents analysis of the position sensitivity datasets obtained with this new technique.

      • 37
        ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Commissioning for LHC Run-3

        Liquid Argon sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry. After successful operation in Run-1, Run-2 of the LHC started in 2015 and approximately 150fb$^{-1}$ of data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV was recorded. With the end of Run-2 in 2018 a multi-year shutdown for the Phase-I detector upgrades was begun.

        As part of the Phase-I upgrade, new trigger readout electronics for the liquid Argon calorimeter have been developed. Installation began at the start of the LHC shut down in 2019 and is expected to be completed in 2020. A commissioning campaign is underway in order to realize the capabilities of the new, higher granularity and higher precision level-1 trigger hardware in Run-3 data taking. This contribution will give an overview of the new trigger readout commissioning and compare to Run-2 performance, preparations for Run-3 detector operation and changes in the monitoring and data quality procedures to cope with the increased pileup.

      • 38
        ATLAS Level-0 Endcap Muon Trigger for HL-LHC

        The design for the Level-0 endcap muon trigger of the ATLAS experiment at High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) and the status of the development are presented. In the upgraded trigger system, the track reconstruction is achieved on a pattern matching algorithm using hit information on the detectors and predefined lists of the hits corresponding to tracks. Hardware implementation is planned to be done on a Virtex UltraScale+ FPGA, and a first implantation of the trigger logic as a firmware is also presented.

        The efficiency was estimated to be greater than 90%, a few percent higher than the current system. The trigger rate also has been evaluated with proton-proton collision data taken with random trigger overlaid to account for the pileup rate of 200. The obtained value for momentum threshold of 20 GeV, primary threshold assumed for single muon trigger, is about 30 kHz, which constitutes only about 3% of the assumed total Level-0 trigger rate of 1 MHz.

        Speakers: Ren Kobayashi (Kyoto University), Ren Kobayashi (Kyoto University (JP))
      • 39
        ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger for LHC Run 3

        The Large Hadron Collider is expected to increase its center-of-mass energy to 14 TeV for Run 3 scheduled from 2021 to 2023. In order to cope with the high event rate, an upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is required. The Level-1 Endcap Muon trigger system identifies muons with high transverse momentum by combining data from a fast muon trigger detector. In the ATLAS Phase-I upgrade, new muon detectors will be installed in the inner station region and provides finer track information as part of the muon trigger logic to enhance the trigger performance. Some electronics have been newly developed, including the trigger processor board. The board has a modern FPGA to make use of Multi-Gigabit transceiver technology, and to implement more sophisticated logic by bigger FPGA resource. This talk presents the upgrades of the ATLAS Level-1 Endcap Muon trigger system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the new algorithm in the processor board and the expected trigger performance.

        Speaker: Kaito Sugizaki (University of Tokyo (JP))
      • 40
        Ba-ion extraction from high pressure Xe gas for double-beta decay studies with nEXO

        An RF-only ion funnel has been developed to efficiently extract single Ba ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) xenon gas into vacuum. Gas is injected into the funnel where ions are radially confined by an RF field while the neutral gas escapes. Residual gas flow alone transports the ions longitudinally through the funnel. In the downstream chamber the ions are detected while the Xe is captured for reuse.
        With the current test setup ions were extracted from xenon gas of up to 10 bar. A mass spectrometer is being developed for spectroscopic identification of the extracted ions.
        This approach of ion extraction is intended for application in a future large-scale Xe-136 neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment like nEXO. The technique aims to extract the ββ-decay product, Ba-136, from liquid to gaseous xenon to vacuum and identify it. This identification enables a higher level of sensitivity to the 0νββ decay half-life and allows an unambiguous verification of a possible 0νββ signal.

      • 41
        Development of the fast timing driver board for SiPM

        We investigated a fast time -resolved SiPM driver board that could be used in the CEPC-TOF and other large experimental facilities with high time resolution. General the commercial SiPM driver boards are only available for certain models of SiPM. And this kind of driver board is unique for single-channel testing in the laboratory. This obviously does not apply to batch testing in large scientific engineering. Therefore, A new type of SiPM driver circuit has been developed which can realize the multi-channel test. In addition, compared with the commercial driver board, this type of new SiPM driver plate developed in this paper have achieved simultaneously the functions of voltage regulation, temperature compensation and multi-channel cascade readout of SiPM on a smaller volume, and also better time resolution of the SiPM.

        Speaker: Sen Qian (Institute of High Energy Physics,CAS)
      • 42
        Electrical Properties of Fe-Implanted Silicon Based Schottky Diodes for Detectors in High Energy Physics Experiment.

        The current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out on un-implanted and Iron (Fe) implanted n-type Silicon to establish and study a change in electrical properties of the diode with Fe doping concentration. The n-type silicon (n-Si) material was doped with Fe at fluences of 10^15,10^16 and 10^17 ion/cm^2 and schottky diodes were fabricated. The (I-V) data were used to determine the effect of Fe in the n-Si diode. The results obtained exhibited a non-ohmic behavior for un-implanted n-Si and an ohmic behavior for the Fe-n-Si. This also confirmed that the defects have created deep levels within the energy gap of Si which acts as recombination or generation centres. The introduction of Iron at difference fluences has changed the material from a lifetime material to a relaxation material which will make the diodes efficient for detectors in radiation harsh environments.

        Speaker: Mr Joseph Bodunrin (Department of Physics, University of South Africa. )
      • 43
        Front-End Electronics development for TPC/MPD detector of NICA project

        Time Projection Chamber is the main tracker of the Multi-Purpose Detector. The detector will operate at one of beam interaction points of the collider NICA and it is optimized to investigate both hot and dense baryonic matter. The TPC Front-End Electronics will operate with event rate up to 7 kHz at average luminosity 10^27 cm^-2s^-1 for gold collisions at √SNN = 9 GeV/n. The electronics is based on the novel ASIC SAMPA, FPGAs and high-speed serial links. Each of 24 readout chambers will serve by 62 Front-End Cards and one Readout and Control Unit. The whole system will contain 1488 FECs, 24 RCUs which gives us 95232 registration channels. The poster report presents current status of the FEE development and results of the FEC testing.

      • 44
        Front-End Electronics for LEGEND-200

        LEGEND (Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay) is a ton-scale $^{76}$Ge-based neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) experimental program with discovery potential at a half-life greater than $10^{28}$ years.

        The first 200-kg phase (LEGEND-200) is currently under construction and will start data taking in 2021. In order to achieve its projected half-life sensitivity of $10^{27}$ years, a background index in the signal region of interest around $Q_{\beta \beta} = 2039$ keV of only 0.6 cts / FWHM / ton / year will be required. A key to achieving this goal are the ultra-clean, low-noise front-end electronics used to read out the HPGe detectors. In this contribution, I will present the design and implementation of the front-end electronics for LEGEND-200 and discuss ongoing R&D efforts to develop novel readout electronics for the ton-scale phase of LEGEND(LEGEND-1000)

      • 45
        Improvement of Energy Resolution in KamLAND-Zen by Implementing Signal Amplifier in Low-gain PMTs

        KamLAND-Zen is a neutrinoless double-beta($0\nu2\beta$) decay search experiment using $^{136}\mathrm{Xe}$ installed to ultra-low background environment of KamLAND detector, which is composed mainly of liquid scintillator and photo multiplier tubes(PMT).

        The most dominant source of background within the $0\nu2\beta$ decay region of interest is $2\nu2\beta$ decay. Since the only way to separate $0\nu2\beta$ decay from $2\nu2\beta$ decay is energy, the energy resolution of the detector is of great importance.

        However, the energy resolution of KamLAND detector is getting worse because the number of masked PMTs due to the decreasing gain is increasing. So, to recover the energy resolution of the detector, I developed signal amplifiers for such ''low-gain PMTs''. In this presentation, I will report the recovery of PMT performance and the improvement of the energy resolution of the detector by the signal amplifiers.

      • 46
        LLAMA - A novel system for in-situ monitoring of optical parameters in liquid argon

        Large volume liquid argon (LAr) detectors require a precise assessment of optical key parameters for both modeling and interpreting the data. These parameters include light yield, the triplet lifetime and in particular, the attenuation length of the 128 nm primary scintillation wavelength. A change in impurity concentrations within the LAr volume affects these values and therefore requires a dedicated monitoring system, especially for long-term measurements.
        The next-generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment LEGEND employs the LAr technology as part of its active veto system. The LLAMA (LEGEND Liquid Argon Monitoring Apparatus) will reside permanently in the LAr volume of LEGEND, measuring the aforementioned optical key parameters continuously. In advance of the installation in LEGEND, LLAMA will be utilized for characterizing the LAr used in the GERDA experiment.
        An overview of LLAMA, as well as first results will be presented.

        Speaker: Mr Mario Schwarz (TUM)
      • 47
        Low radioactivity and Multi- disciplinarily Underground Laboratory of Modane (LSM)

        The Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) is located 1700 m (4800 m.w.e) below Fréjus peak (Alpes chain) mountain in the middle of the Fréjus tunnel between France/Italy. The LSM is a multi-disciplinary platform for the experiments requiring low radioactivity environment. Several experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, low-level of High Purity of Germanium gamma ray spectrometry, biology and home land security hosted in the LSM. It’s equipped by Anti-Radon facility where all of the detectors are under Radon depleted Air. In this paper, we will present LSM infrastructure and facilities, after review of last physic result of experiments installed at LSM.

      • 48
        Measurement results for the ASoC: A High Performance Waveform Digitizer System-on-Chip

        Data acquisition systems for state of the art imaging based particle identification detectors are expected to handle large numbers of channels, high accuracy timing, and operate under limited spatial and power constraints. In many applications, full waveform digitization is considered necessary to guarantee the required timing resolution and avoiding the undesirable degradation due to time walk, pile-up and other sources of noise. Such acquisition systems are even more problematic in that the data volume and the computational requirements push the power, cost and space limits even further.
        Based on such requirements a new multi-channel Waveform digitizer the ASoC (Analog Readout System on a Chip) has been designed and fabricated. This 4 channel front-end chip operates at 3.2GSa/s and has 16k of sampling depth per channel. In this summary, measurements of analog and digital performance of the asic will be reported. The device has been fabricated in 250 nm process.

      • 49
        OpenIPMC: a free and open source Intelligent Platform Management Controller

        We present a free and open source firmware designed to operate as an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC). An IPMC is a fundamental component for electronic boards conformant to the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard, being adopted by a number of high energy physics experiments, and is responsible for monitoring the health parameters of the board, managing its power states, and providing board control, debug and recovery functionalities to remote clients. OpenIPMC is based on the FreeRTOS real-time operating system and is designed to be architecture-independent, allowing it to be run on a variety of different microcontrollers. Having a fully free and open source code is an innovative aspect for this kind of firmware, allowing full customization by the user. This work aims to describe its development, features and usage.

        Speaker: Luigi Calligaris (UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista (BR))
      • 50
        Performance Simulations of High-Speed, Low-Bit Resolution Analog-to-Digital Converters

        Direct digitization of signals at low-bit resolution can be realized directly using FPGAs, allowing for systems that have very high channel density, and more information bandwidth than simple discriminator-based designs. Such systems may be a good candidate for high channel density, low power, integrated readouts for future high energy physics applications. We have studied such systems at 3- and 4-bit resolution, running at sampling rates of 1 and 2 GSPS, consistent with designs that can be implemented on low-cost FPGAs. In particular, we will present the simulated performance of such systems on silicon photomultiplier data, focusing on pulse height and timing resolution. We will also discuss the analysis algorithms, and progress on adapting them for realtime implementation in experimental systems.

        Speaker: Erica Sawczynec (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
      • 51
        Preliminary Design and implementation of CGEM DAQ software

        The BESIII spectrometer offers an unique experimental setup to investigate Particle Physics. The CGEM(Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier) is designed to replace the BESIII inner drift chamber in order to avoid deterioration of its performance due to radiation background. This work aims to develop the CGEM DAQ software in current BESIII DAQ framework. The functional requirements of CGEM DAQ include: IGUI, RUN control, event building, online monitoring , FEE configuration and data readout, raw data check and different run modes. The performance requirements should meet the 4KHz designed event rate and dead time should be less than five percent. Our work is mainly focused on upgrading the software framework to add a new layer of CGEM detector, and developing the CGEM specific functions. An integration testing system has been set up to perform preliminary test run and system verification. The detailed design, implementation and test results of the system will be presented.

      • 52
        Research on Comprehensive Diagnosis Analysis Platform at CSNS Spectrometer

        In this data driven concept era of instrument, we will need the versatile platforms to visualize and analyse their event data to explore, interpret and understand the information hide in the data at the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). At present, the online instrument monitoring service based on EPICS and CSS is too professional to be suitable for the new real-time distributed data streaming framework. In this talk, a new comprehensive diagnostic analysis platform is developed based on Open-falcon and Grafana. Data can be freely and autonomously uploaded to the platform where provides comprehensive diagnostic and analysis service on the webpage. The current and historical data and curves can be conveniently browsed on the PC and mobile terminal anytime, anywhere. Moreover a platform application about the value stability of neutron normalization is presented in scattering experiment.

      • 53
        Scintillation balloon for neutrino-less double-beta decay search with a liquid scintillator detector

        KamLAND-Zen experiment is a low background liquid scintillator (LS) detector and searches for neutrino-less double-beta decay (0$\nu\beta\beta$) of $^{136}$Xe. In order to suppress backgrounds proportional to volume (cosmo-genic muon spallation products, solar $^{8}$B $\nu$, etc.), $^{136}$Xe loaded LS is stored in the inner balloon (IB) made of nylon. The IB was made as clean as possible, however, the contamination of $^{238}$U still remains and its daughter nuclei $^{214}$Bi will be one of the largest backgrounds for 0$\nu\beta\beta$ search. Although $^{214}$Bi could be rejected by tagging with $^{214}$Po, the $\alpha$ from $^{214}$Po is absorbed in the nylon IB. If the IB is made of a scintillation film, it enables us to detect the $\alpha$ and tag $^{214}$Bi. Therefore, we are planning to use a scintillation film for an IB in a future project, KamLAND2-Zen. In this presentation, we describe a performance of the scintillation IB and its potential for pulse shape discrimination.

        Speaker: Mr Rikuo Nakamura (Tohoku Univ.)
      • 54
        Simultaneous Bidirectional Data-Transmitter for Future HEP Experiments

        This work presents a design and implementation of an I/O circuit block capable of simultaneous bidirectional-transmission in CMOS integrated circuits. In High Energy Experiments at high luminosity, reducing material of silicon trackers in the inner vertex layers is of major importance to suppress multiple-scattering and to achieve good overall detector performance. Merging data-transmitter and receiver into common bonding pad is feasible not only to reduce the number of transmission lines from a considerable number of chips. The circuit block presented here is designed on the basis of current subtractor and conventional current-mode logic (CML) drivers. Its principle is also applicable to widely-used low-voltage differential signal (LVDS) drivers. The prototype chip was fabricated in TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology. Working principle has been demonstrated in preliminary laboratory testing.

        Speaker: Tetsuichi Kishishita (KEK,Open-It)
      • 55
        The ALICE Muon Tracking Chambers Upgrade

        The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is being upgraded during the ongoing second long shutdown of the LHC (2019-21) to enhance the vertexing, tracking and readout capabilities. This would improve upon the present physics measurements, provide insights into new measurements and to fully exploit the scientific potential of the LHC with heavy ions at high luminosity. In Runs 3 and 4 from 2021, ALICE should be able to handle an interaction rate of 50kHz. To cope with these higher rates, the ALICE Muon Tracking Chambers (MCH) would require an upgrade to the front-end electronics and the entire readout chain. The MCH detector, based on Cathode Pad Chambers, would remain the same. The new front-end electronics is based on a new ASIC (SAMPA). The readout chain consists of the Dual Sampa card hosting SAMPA, new front-end links, a new concentrator card (SOLAR) and the Common Readout Unit. In this presentation we will discuss the concept, features and performance of the MCH upgrade system.

        Speaker: Sabyasachi Siddhanta (Universita e INFN, Cagliari (IT))
      • 56
        The LHCb Upstream Tracker

        The LHCb experiment is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider designed to study the decays of beauty and charm hadrons. During the recently concluded data-taking phase, LHCb produced a vast dataset in flavour physics and in additional physics topics that take advantage of the forward acceptance of the experiment.
        In the ongoing second long shutdown, a major upgrade of the detector is being installed and commissioned. The upgraded detector will take data at higher luminosity and will implement a flexible software trigger that requires all the detector components to push out their full information at 40 MHz. The Upstream Tracker is a new silicon strip detector placed upstream of the LHCb bending magnet, composed of four planes of silicon microstrip detectors.
        This contribution presents a brief overview of the different components of the readout followed by an update on their status and the challenges solved in the course of installation and commissioning.

      • 57
        The new software based read out driver for the ATLAS experiment

        In order to maintain sensitivity to new physics in the coming years of LHC operations, the ATLAS experiment performing a number of trigger and detector upgrades. All new components will be read out via a newly developed system featuring an application called the Software Readout Driver (SW ROD), which will run on a commodity server receiving front-end data via the Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) system. The SW ROD will perform event fragment building and buffering as well as serving the data on request to the High Level Trigger. The SW ROD application has been designed as a highly customizable high-performance framework providing support for detector specific event building and data processing algorithms at the expected input trigger rate of 100 kHz. This document will cover the design and the implementation of the SW ROD application and the results of performance measurements taken with the server models selected to host SW ROD applications in Run 3.

        Speaker: Yiming Abulaiti (Argonne National Laboratory (US))
      • 58
        Multi-PMTs for IWCD neutrino detector

        Abstract: We are using multi-PMTs (mPMTs) as the photosensors for the
        Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector (IWCD), the proposed near detector
        for the approved Hyper-Kamiodande experiment. The IWCD mPMT design has
        nineteen 3" PMTs enclosed in a water-tight pressure vessel, along with
        the associated electronics. The 3" PMTs provide excellent spatial
        imaging of the neutrino-induced Cherenkov light ring. This talk will
        describe the mechanical design of the mPMT, as well as the design of the
        digitizing electronics. Some of the key features of the mPMT design
        i) new Hamamatsu 3" PMTs with improved timing resolution.
        ii) UV-transparent acrylic dome with gel coupling between the PMTs and the acrylic.
        iii) FADC digitization in order to handle the expected high rate of
        neutrino interactions during the J-PARC beam spill.
        We will describe the results from several different prototype mPMTs we
        have constructed, as well as the plans for mass production.

      • 59
        A Novel High Rate Readout System for a High Efficiency Cosmic Ray Veto for the Mu2e Experiment

        The Mu2e Cosmic Ray Veto must veto cosmic-ray muons over a large area with an efficiency of 99.99\% in the presence of high background rates. It consists of 5,376 scintillator extrusions with embedded 1.4\,mm wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to $2{\times}2$\,mm$^2$ silicon photomultipliers. A custom readout system consists of: (1) small circuit board, the Counter Mother Board, which provides the bias, a temperature sensor, flasher LEDs, and passive SiPM pulse shaping; (2) a Front End Board which digitizes, zero-suppresses, and stores in on-board memory signals from up to 64 Counter Mother Boards, provides bias to the SiPMs, pulses to the LEDs, and a measurement of the SiPM currents; and (3) a Readout Controller which collects data from the Front End Boards via Cat6 cables, which also deliver 48V power to the Front End Boards using PoE.

      • 60
        Development of a System for Luminosity and Abort at the HL-LHC based on polycrystalline CVD diamond

        The High Luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will increase LHC Luminosity by an order of magnitude increasing the density of particles on the detector by an order of magnitude. For protecting the inner detectors of experiments and for monitoring the delivered luminosity, a radiation hard beam monitor is being developed. We are developing a set of detectors based on poly-crystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamonds and a dedicated ASIC. Due to the large range of particle flux through the detector, flexibility is very important. To satisfy the constraints imposed by the HL-LHC, our solution is based on segmenting each single diamond sensor into multiple devices of varying size and reading them out with a new multichannel readout chip. In this talk we describe the proposed system, present preliminary results from the first detectors fabricated using our prototype ASIC and present the noise distribution and efficiency for single MIPs.

        Speaker: Andrej Gorisek (Jozef Stefan Institute (SI))
      • 61
        Test of a prototype Microstrip Silicon Detector for the FOOT experiment

        The goal of the FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experiment is to measure the fragmentation cross-section of protons into H, C, O targets at beam energies of interest for hadrontherapy (50–250 MeV for protons and 50–400 MeV/u for Carbon ions). Given the short range of the fragments, an inverse kinematic approach has been chosen, hence requiring precise tracking capabilities in a magnetic volume for charged ions. A key subsystem for this task will be the Microstrip Silicon Detector, based on 150 micrometer thick single side microstrip sensors. In this work, we present the results of a test of the new version of a 64 channel low-noise/low power high dynamic range charge sensitive preamplifier-shaper readout ASIC, compared with the old version used in AMS-02 experiment. The test has been carried with 70-228 MeV proton beams. We also present a novel approach to evaluate the dynamic range of readout chips using a proton beam impinging at different angles on the sensor surface.

        Speaker: Gianluigi Silvestre (Universita e INFN, Perugia (IT))
      • 62
        Development of pixelated silicon sensor integrated with junction field effect transistor

        We fabricated a pixelated silicon sensor with junction field effect transistor (JFET) on a 650 μm-thick, high resistivity (> 5 kΩ·cm) n-type and double-sided polished 6-inch silicon wafer using double-sided fabrication process. The JFET with cylindrical structure acts as a switch to readout charges accumulated in the pixelated sensor. We presented electrical characteristics of the fabricated pixelated silicon sensors integrated with the JFET with a size of 100x100 um2. The drain currents as a function of the drain voltage for different the gate voltages were measured to verify the performance of the JFET as a switch and we determined the optimized design parameters of the pixelated sensor to provide the proper functioning of the switch. LEDs and X-rays were irradiated to the fabricated pixelated silicon sensor integrated with the JFET to measure the sensor's response and the results were also presented.

      • 63
        Radiation-Hard Silicon Strip Sensors for the ATLAS Phase-2 Upgrade

        The ATLAS upgrade for HL-LHC operations includes an entirely new all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk). The silicon strip region comprises 165 m$^2$ of instrumented area, made possible by mass production of silicon strip sensors. This area is covered in a nearly hermetic way. Slim edge technology is used to minimize inefficiency gaps between adjacent devices. Multiple shapes with curved edges are utilized to provide a continuous coverage of the disc surface in the endcap. As a result, there are 8 different strip sensor types in the system. They all feature AC-coupled n-in-p strips with polysilicon biasing, developed for 1.6e15 neq/cm$^2$ fluence and 66 Mrad dose.

        Following many years of R&D and 4 prototype submissions and evaluations, the project transitioned into pre-production, where 5% of the total volume is produced in all 10 designs. Deliveries are scheduled for early 2020. We will report on the evaluation program, test results, and experience with the pre-production sensors.

      • 64
        Design and simulation on depleted HVCMOS 50μm×50μm sensor using 150 nm CMOS technology for particle detector

        Monolithic particle detector is expected to be used in ATLAS upgrade project and CEPC. Results of monolithic chip with pixel size 250μm×50μm designed by CPPM using LFoundry 150nm technology show that the depleted HVCMOS sensor has good performance on particle detecting. To improve the spatial resolution, the research work of sensors with small pixel size of 50μm×50μm was performed, and its performance was simulated and optimized by using Sentaurus TCAD tools. By using one Dnwell electrode and reducing the area of Dnwell, the size of the sensor can be reduced to 50μm×50μm. The output capacitance of sensor will be improved from 280fF to less than 15fF. The depleted area of the sensor can be adjusted by applying high voltage from top Dnwell electrode and backside, but the total voltage that can be applied to the sensor is affected by the distance between two Dnwells. And sensor’s performance after irradiation was simulated. The design of new sensor with different parameters was finished.

        Speaker: Dr Mei Zhao (Chinese Academy of Sciences (CN))
      • 65
        Design and construction of a small PET/SPECT scanner with GAGG/CsI phoswich assemblies

        New GAGG/CsI phoswich assemblies are being developed at the Galician Institute for High Energy Physics, aiming to provide improvements in sensitivity, and spatial resolution for PET and SPECT medical imaging devices. The phoswich technique is used in PET developments to improve spatial resolution by obtaining the depth of interaction (DOI) measurement. In this work, a scanner made of two sets of GAGG/CsI scintillator phoswich units, and with ADP-based read-out, is proposed. The first proof-of-concept and the already done simulations show that the conceptual design described here is a suitable candidate por a PET and SPECT imaging scanner.

      • 66
        A fully silicon based multi-proton Computed Tomography Device

        Proton Computed Tomography directly measures the proton stopping power in a patient to improve proton radiotherapy treatment plans. Conventionally the energy measurement in proton CT is performed via scintillators or range trackers which are limited to at most a few protons per readout cycle. We present here a proton CT device which utilises silicon strip trackers oriented at non orthogonal angles to improve rate capabilities coupled with a CMOS MAPS which integrated the energy deposited by multiple protons per pixel. We will describe the devices used, the reconstruction method for achieving a proton CT, and present proof of principle results obtained using the University of Birmingham MC40 cyclotron.

      • 67
        Underground Muography with Portable Gaseous Detectors

        Muography is a novel imaging technology to reveal density structure of hill-sized objects. The cosmic muons lose their energy and penetrate hundreds of meters into the ground, thus their differential local flux correlates with the density-lenght they traveled through.

        Exploiting the high flux around the zenith the imaging of the internal structure of hills could be done underground. Various fields could benefit from this non-invasive imaging, eg. speleology, mining, and cultural heritage targets.

        The main challenges are portability, low power consumption, and robustness
        against the out-of-the-laboratory environment, while keeping excellent detector performance.
        Portable gaseous tracking detector system has been designed and built, and successfully operated in several underground locations.

        The preseatation will focus on the designed portable tracking system,
        the main requirements, and the measurement campaigns for
        calibration, natural caves, and cultural heritage targets.

        Speaker: Dr Gergo Hamar (Wigner RCP, Budapest)
      • 68
        Integrated Readout Electronics for Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors

        Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD) are a new generation of microchannel plate photomultipliers. LAPPDs use 28 stripline anodes to give 1-3 mm spatial resolution via fast timing at low channel density. We have developed extremely compact and low-power electronics that mate directly to LAPPD tiles. An FPGA controls readout and parallel digitization of 2x28 channels, sampled by DRS4 switched-capacitor array ASICs. This fast data pathway is multiplexed with a slow control pathway operated by a soft-core processor. All data flows over a single commodity Gigabit fiber using standard UDP and IP protocols. An open-source ecosystem for firmware, embedded software, and DAQ has been developed, providing complete control of the device and "plug and play" operation within existing environments and commodity hardware. In this report, we describe our project status and report results from the first tests mated to an LAPPD tile.

        Speaker: Kevin Croker
      • 69
        Test Beam Studies of Barrel and End-Cap Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector before and after Irradiation

        ATLAS is preparing for the HL-LHC. In order to cope with occupancy and radiation doses expected, we will replace our Inner Detector with an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk). The strip system will be built from modules, consisting of one n+-in-p sensor, and one or two PCB hybrids containing the front-end electronics glued directly on the active sensor surface.
        Several prototypes have been tested at DESY-II and CERN SPS, built from rectangular ATLAS17LS barrel sensors and annular ATLAS12EC sensors, designed for the innermost ring (R0) of the ECs.
        A carbon-fibre based support, with two R0 modules positioned back-to-back has been measured, as well as two separate irradiated R0s. We present results of the module performance, incl. charge collection, noise occupancy, detection efficiency, and tracking performance. The good tracking resolution allows for detailed studies of various sensor features. The results give confidence that the ITk strip detector will meet the HL-LHC requirements.

      • 70
        Module development for the ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

        In HL-LHC operation the instantaneous luminosity will reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The innermost part of ITk will consist of a state-of-the-art pixel detector.
        Several different silicon sensor technologies will be employed in the five barrel and endcap layers.
        Based on first modules assembled using the RD53A prototype readout chip, numerous issues are being studied. These include production issues like bump bonding of large area, thin modules, as well as layout issues like optimization of the bandwidth and sharing of links between multiple chips and modules. The talk will present results of many of these studies, which directly impact the construction and assembly of modules with using the first production version of the readout chip ITKpixV1, which will become available shortly.

      • 71
        Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

        The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, consisting of four barrel layers at 33, 50.5, 88.5, and 122.5 mm from the geometric center of the ATLAS detector and a total of six disk layers, three at each end of the barrel region. It has undergone significant hardware and readout upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are delivered by the LHC, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 2 x 1034 cm-2 s-1.
        By the end of the proton-proton collision runs in 2018, the innermost layer IBL had received an integrated fluence of Φ = 9 × 1014 1 MeV neq/cm2.
        The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency will be described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience.

      • 72
        Novel calibration techniques and their effect on the performance of the CMS tracker in the Legacy reprocessing

        A new, more precise reconstruction algorithm was introduced to recover broken clusters at the edge of the pixel sensors. Many improvements were done in handling the pixel bad components as well: an occupancy based bad component determination was developed, while a dynamical bad component simulation was introduced in MC to handle scenarios with temporary, or permanent issues like failures of DC-DC converters. In the strip detector simulation, a dynamic efficiency loss mechanism was implemented to improve agreement with data. A novel approach to allow the simultaneous fit of an unprecedented number of degrees of freedom was followed in re-aligning the detectors. In this talk, we will present details on the offline calibration procedures and their effects on detector performance in the frame of this Legacy Run-2 data reprocessing, with a special focus on the novel techniques developed for this purpose.

      • 73
        CALICE SiW ECAL - Beam test performance of a technological prototype of a highly granular silicon tungsten calorimeter

        A highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) is the reference design of the ECAL for International Large Detector (ILD) concept, one of the two detector concepts for the detector(s) at the future International Linear Collider. Prototypes for this type of detector are developed within the CALICE Collaboration. The technological prototype addresses technical challenges such as integrated front-end electronics or compact layer and readout design.
        During Autumn/Winter 2019/20 a stack of up to 18 layers with a dimension of ~$18\times18\times0.2\,{\rm cm^3}$ will be compiled for a beam test at DESY in March 2020. We will present preliminary results on the linearity w.r.t. to electromagnetic showers and the energy resolution as well as on shower shapes. An outline on the next steps will be given. One aspect that has to be addressed in the future is the proper technical implementation of power pulsing with local, i.e. next to the ASICs, power storage.

      • 74
        Performance of CMS high granularity calorimeter prototypes in testbeam experiments

        The present electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters of the CMS experiment will be upgraded to cope up with the harsh radiation environment and pileup conditions posed by the high luminosity operations of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to start in 2026. CMS has opted for a sampling calorimeter, based on silicon and scintillator technologies, with unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation to facilitate particle identification, particle-flow reconstruction and pileup rejection. As part of the ongoing development and testing phase of the HGCAL, prototypes of both the silicon and scintillator based calorimeter sections have been tested in 2018 in beams at CERN. We report on the performance of the prototype detectors in terms of stability of noise and pedestals, MIP calibration, longitudinal/lateral shower shapes, as well as energy linearity and resolution for electrons and pions. We compare the measurements with a detailed GEANT4-based simulation.

      • 75
        Calibration and Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter in LHC Run2

        The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a fundamental instrument for these analyses and its energy resolution is crucial for the Higgs boson mass measurement. Recently the energy response of the calorimeter has been precisely calibrated exploiting the full Run2 data, aiming at a legacy reprocessing of the data. A dedicated calibration of each detector channel has been performed with physics events exploiting electrons from W and Z boson decays, photons from pi0/eta decays, and from the azimuthally symmetric energy distribution of minimum bias events. This talk presents the calibration strategies that have been implemented and the excellent performance achieved by the CMS ECAL with the ultimate calibration of Run II data, in terms of energy scale stability and energy resolution.

        Speakers: Jin Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences (CN)), Jin Wang (Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 76
        The Next Generation of Crystal Detectors for Future HEP Calorimetry

        Precision calorimeters consisting of inorganic crystal scintillators have been playing an important role in the experimental high energy physics (HEP) experiments. In the last two decades, it faces challenges of the hostile radiation environment expected at the HL-LHC, the unprecedented event rate expected at accelerator based rare process search experiments and the low cost required by the homogeneous hadron calorimeter concept. This paper reports current status of crystal detectors and candidate crystals for future HEP calorimeters to be operated in the next decades.

      • 77
        An extension of Associative Memory approach to tracking with a drift-tube detector using timing information and its demonstration for HL-LHC ATLAS muon trigger

        The Associative Memory (AM) approach has been developed and used in the HEP experiments in terms of online track-finding based on silicon detector hits. We intend an extension of the AM approach to tracking with a drift-tube detector, taking advantage of the drift time information to define the AM pattern in the parameter space of observables. As a benchmark, our study demonstrates the feasibility of the extended concept of the AM pattern with timing information, aiming at the online muon reconstruction with LHC-ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) detector for Phase-2 Level-0 muon trigger system. The detailed design study shows the AM approach has a capability of a high-speed track finding with drift-tube detectors, satisfying the latency requirement for the ATLAS Phase-2 trigger system. The detailed design study, a methodology of the efficient pattern training, and an algorithm chain to realize online muon reconstruction and performance study will be presented.

        Speaker: Yunjian He (Tokyo Institute of Technology (JP))
      • 78
        Aging study for the present CMS-RPC system at HL-LHC

        Due to the increased luminosity, the background conditions at HL-LHC will be much harsher and can affect the performance of the RPC detector being used in CMS Experiment at LHC. In order to understand the sustainability of CMS-RPC system, a dedicated longevity study is ongoing at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). For this study, few spare RPC detectors are being exposed to intense gamma radiations to estimate the impact of HL-LHC conditions up to an integrated charge equivalent to the integrated luminosity of 3000 $fb^{-1}$. The main RPC detector parameters (currents, rate, resistivity) are regularly monitored as a function of the integrated charge in order to check any degradation/aging effect in detector performance. After having collected a significant amount of the total irradiation to RPC detectors, preliminary results based on performance the detectors will be presented.

      • 79
        Artificial Material Composites for Potential Sensor Applications

        Artificially structured composites, also known as meta-materials can emerge with unusual electromagnetic (em) properties. Owing to Transformation Optics (TO) a variety of em-devices with extraordinary pre-designed functions can be defined. As the development of meta-materials progresses, many novel em-devices designed with TO have been experimentally demonstrated and used in specific applications.
        One of the potential applications is to utilize the Cherenkov effect by means of manipulating the radiator medium. One of the media's desired property is to anomalously and largely tune light scattering in an ultra-compact volume and concurrently achieve excellent performance. As a consequence, small volumes might be exploited and relatively cheaply and with small efforts implemented. However, a variety of challenges have to be controlled and extensive R&D must be conducted to realize such implementation. In this presentation, we will discuss the challenges and possible realizations.

        Speaker: Klaus Dehmelt (Stony Brook University USA)
      • 80
        Automatic quality check system of scintillator cubes using image analysis technique for T2K near detector upgrade

        T2K is a long-baseline neutrino experiment in Japan that aims to observe CP violation in neutrino oscillations. The upgrade of the T2K near detector (ND280) is ongoing now.
        In the ND280 upgrade, a new detector, SuperFGD, that reconstructs the tracks of charged particles from neutrino-nuclear interactions with very fine granularity is planned to be introduced. It consists of two million plastic scintillator cubes, 60 thousand wavelength shifting fibers and photodetectors to readout the scintillation lights in three directions.
        There is a large manufacturing variation of the scintillator cubes, and it prevents cubes from being assembled properly. Therefore, we developed a system to automatically check the quality of the cubes and reject bad ones by taking and analyzing their pictures. In this talk, we will report the performance demonstration of this system and its application to our prototype detector.

        Speaker: Mr Mao Tani (Kyoto University)
      • 81
        Development of Structured Scintillator Tiles for High-Granularity Calorimeters

        In order to improve the jet energy resolution and particle identification of future high-energy physics experiments, the calorimeters of the detector systems need a fine 3-D segmentation. Depending on the size and technology, millions of individual channels consisting of a photosensor coupled to a scintillator tile have to be assembled. The usage of structured plastic scintillators with optically separated segments simplifies the mass production. We present the design, production, and performance of a 36cm x 36cm scintillator tile divided into 144 segments matching the geometry of the SiPM-based calorimeter frontend developed by the CALICE collaboration. This approach features a full integration of scintillators, sensors, and electronics. For several prototypes the light yield of the channels and an upper limit for the optical crosstalk have been measured in a cosmic-ray test stand. Conclusions from the development process on the optimum design and production technique are drawn.

        Speaker: Quirin Weitzel (PRISMA Detector Laboratory, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz)
      • 82
        High precision magnetometry requirements for the search of the electric dipole moment of the neutron

        The TRIUMF Ultra-Cold Advanced Neutron (TUCAN) collaboration is currently developing a new ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) search experiment. Finding a nonzero nEDM, or improving its current upper limit will shed light on the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) - given that any measurable nEDM violates CP-symmetry which is also a crucial ingredient of BAU. The TUCAN goal is to reach a sensitivity of 1×10−27 e·cm.
        This requires extreme magnetic field control: UCN will undergo spin precession even in a low magnetic field (~1 muT). To maximize statistical sensitivity and control systematic uncertainties, the magnetic field must be controlled at a relative level of 10^-6 or better. This contribution will give an introduction to the applied techniques, which rely on tools such as passive magnetic shielding by high permeability material, scalar and vector magnetometry, magnetic field manipulation coils, and non-magnetic field mapping robots.

      • 83
        Locating Vertices in 4 Dimensions

        LHCb has recently submitted a physics case to upgrade the detector to be able to run at instantaneous luminosities of 2$\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$, an order of magnitude above Upgrade I, and accumulate a sample of more than 300 fb$^{-1}$. At this intensity, the mean number of interactions per crossing would be 56, producing around 2500 charged particles within the LHCb acceptance. The LHCb physics programme relies on an efficient and precise vertex detector (VELO) to correctly identify the origin point of the b/c decays. To meet this challenge it is necessary to use temporal precision on each hit at the pixel detector region. To achieve this goal a new 4D hybrid pixel detector with enhanced rate and timing capabilities in the ASIC and sensor will be developed. Improvements in the mechanical design will be needed to allow periodic module replacement and lower detector material.

        The early stages of R&D and conceptual design of a 4D VELO will be presented.

      • 84
        Microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

        The upgraded VELO modules will each host 12 VeloPix ASICs with a total power consumption of up to 30 W. To mitigate the radiation damage an efficient cooling system is to keep the sensors below -20 C. The solution created is to use a cooling substrate composed of thin silicon plates with embedded micro-channels that allow the circulation of boiling CO2. The advantages of this technique are: low material contribution, same CTE as the sensor-ASIC tiles, radiation hardness of CO2 and high heat transfer capacity.

        A leak-tight fluidic connector soldered with a flux-free solution was developped maintaining the planarity and the correct positioning required for the subsequent construction of a precise tracking system.

        Two back-up alternatives were designed, with small impact on physics performance. This talk will cover the key points of the microchannels R&D including fabrication, robustness tests, performance and the comparison with the backup options.

      • 85
        Noise performance of the ALPIDE-based ALICE Inner Tracking System

        The new ALICE Inner Tracking System is the first large-scale MAPS-based tracking system. It is covering an active surface of 10 m², with a total of 12.5 billion pixels. Several optimisations of the pixel chip lead to a quasi noise-free operation, with measured fake-hit rates of below 1 hit per pixel and billion events (on system level), numbers compatible with the order of magnitude expected from cosmic and natural background radiation.
        This contribution covers a detailed study of fake hits as recorded in the innermost detector barrels, made of the highest quality chips. It reveals a localised noise pattern that could be traced down to originate from decoupling capacitors present on the detector module. It can most-likely be explained by the radiative decay of Pb-210, which is present in trace amounts in the lead-based solder that was used to mount these capacitors on the detector modules. This hypothesis is substantiated with a dedicated simulation study and laboratory measurements.

      • 86
        Performance and Running Experience of the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

        In spring 2019 the Belle II experiment started data taking at the energy of the Y(4S) resonance. The SuperKEKB collider of KEK (Japan) aims to provide 50 ab-1 of e+e− collision events at the unprecedented luminosity of 8 10^35 cm-2 s-1.
        The challenge for the Belle II detector is to record high-quality data in the new high-luminosity environment, characterized by increased backgrounds.
        The new vertex detector consists of two inner layers of DEPFET-based pixels (PXD) and four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (SVD).
        The SVD was operated reliably during the 2019 physics run, showing high stability of the noise levels and calibration parameters. The SVD performance was measured with first data, showing excellent hit and tracking efficiency, high signal-to-noise ratio. Detailed studies of the good spatial resolution achieved will be shown. The excellent hit-time resolution will be exploited for background rejection in the coming years of running at higher luminosity.

      • 87
        Precision survey of the readout elements of small-strip Thin Gap Chambers using collimated X-rays for the muon spectrometer upgrade of the ATLAS experiment

        For the LHC luminosity upgrade, the muon end-cap inner station of ATLAS detector will be replaced by New Small Wheels (NSWs) in 2020. The NSWs will effectively improve the online muon identification and maintain the current muon transverse momentum resolution despite the increased detector hit rates. The NSWs combine the Micromegas and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) technologies. The sTGC detector modules are arranged in wedges of 4 detector layers each counting up to 1000 readout strips used for precise muon trajectory measurements. The positioning of individual readout strips must be known to within 100 microns to satisfy the performance targets. Non-conformities of the sTGC strip-pattern are therefore measured on finished wedges using an X-ray gun precisely positioned at fixed reference points. The working principles and experimental procedure of this technique will be shown as well as validation studies based on measurements carried out on the early production of sTGC wedges.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 88
        The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Clustering and Energy reconstruction for LHC Run3

        During Run III, the LHC is expected to operate at a higher average instantaneous luminosity of around 2x10^34cm-2s-1, and to deliver an integrated luminosity of up to 100fb-1 per year. This will result in higher average pileup values during LHC fills and larger detector ageing effects. We propose to mitigate the increase in the noise contribution to the signal due to the ECAL barrel front-end readout components ageing and to the crystals transparency loss, by revisiting the clustering algorithm. We will show the results obtained for the simulated reconstruction efficiency of the photons/electrons superclusters, their reconstructed energy and the resolution obtained for the latter when refining the interplay between the different noise thresholds in the reconstruction of clusters and exploring less conventional methods for the collection of signals contributing to the electromagnetic shower, such as machine learning.

        Speaker: Anne-Mazarine Lyon (ETH Zurich (CH))
      • 89
        The performance and operational experience of ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker in Run-2 at LHC

        The performance of ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) in Run-2 at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been reviewed during the current long shutdown. The LHC successfully completed its Run-2 operation (2015-2018) with a total integrated delivered luminosity of $156~{\rm fb^{-1}}$ at the centre-of-mass $pp$ collision energy of $13~{\rm TeV}$. The LHC high performance provide us a good opportunity for physics analysis. It came with high instantaneous luminosity and pileup conditions that were far in excess of what the SCT was originally designed to meet. The first significant effects of radiation damage in the SCT were also observed during Run-2. This talk will summarise the operational experience and performance of the SCT during Run-2, with a focus on the impact and mitigation of radiation damage effects.

        Speaker: Kazuya Mochizuki (Universite de Montreal (CA))
    • 6:00 PM
      Reception (to be confirmed)
    • Experiments: Dark Matter Detectors: Block 2
      • 90
        The Scintillating Bubble Chamber (SBC) Experiment for Dark Matter and Reactor CEvNS

        The Scintillating Bubble Chamber (SBC) experiment is a new low-background technique aimed at detecting low-mass (0.7-7 GeV/c$^{2}$) WIMP interactions and reactor CEvNS. The detector consists of a quartz-jar filled with liquid Argon (LAr), spiked with 100 ppm of liquid Xenon (LXe) acting as a wavelength-shifter, and instrumented with Cameras, Silicon-Photo-Multipliers and Piezo-acoustic sensors. The target fluid is de-pressurized into a super-heated state by a mechanically controlled piston. Particles interacting with the target can generate heat (bubbles) and scintillation light, depending on the energy intensity and density.
        With an estimated threshold for nuclear recoils of 100 eV, the SBC projected WIMP-sensitivity is 3.0x10$^{-43}$ cm$^{2}$, at 0.7 GeV/c$^{2}$. In this talk, I will present the overall design and update on the ongoing construction/commissioning at Fermilab. Finally, I will discuss the collaboration’s plans for the SNOLAB installation and the reactor CEvNS search.

      • 91
        Detection of low mass WIMPs with Spherical Proportional Counters

        NEWS-G (New Experiments With Spheres-Gas) is an experiment searching for dark matter using the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC) technique. Such detectors can operate kg scale targets in meter sized spheres, while keeping single ionization electron detection sensitivity. They can be filled with low mass gases such as hydrogen, helium, and neon. NEWS-G aspires to extend the sensitivity of direct dark matter searches to the mass range from 0.1GeV to few GeV, opening a window to non-standard model physics.

        The talk will cover principle of operations of the SPC and a description of the 140cm diameter detector and compact shielding, with projected WIMP detection sensitivity. Preliminary results obtained with a temporary shield at the underground laboratory of Modane (LSM, France) with neon and methane as target gases will be presented. Installation is ongoing in SNOLAB (Canada) and commissioning is expected in April 2020. Very early results might be included in this talk.

      • 92
        CUTE – a low background facility at SNOLAB for testing cryogenic detectors : status

        The Cryogenic Underground Test (CUTE) facility, installed at SNOLAB, is designed for testing and characterization of cryogenic detectors in a low-background and low-vibration environment. The cryostat that provides the low operating temperatures of ~15 mK is surrounded by a layered shielding of water and low-activity lead leading to an estimated background of order of a few events/(keV.kg.d) at energies in the few keV range. A dedicated cleanroom protects the detectors during the change of the payload from radon and dust deposits.
        The facility is currently at the commissioning stage, operating SuperCDMS detectors. In this presentation we will discuss the design and construction of the facility, provide first performance data from the commissioning and will give an outlook at uses of the facility in the near and medium term future.

      • 93
        The SABRE Dark Matter Experiment

        SABRE is a particle dark matter experiment whose aim is to conclusively test the claim of dark matter detection by the DAMA collaboration, who have measured an anomalous annual modulation in their NaI:Tl detector for many years. To this end, SABRE has developed NaI:Tl crystals of unsurpassed purity, which will serve as a low-background target and operate submerged within a large liquid scintillator veto to be used to further suppress backgrounds. SABRE will also operate twin underground detectors: in Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy and a new underground laboratory at Stawell, Australia.

        This talk will give an overview of the SABRE design and expected sensitivity, and present results from recent detector development and characterisation activities. These include underground measurements of the first full-sized crystals at Gran Sasso; liquid scintillator development, characterisation, and material compatibility testing; and NaI:Tl quenching factor measurements.

      • 94
        Dark Matter Detector Calibration with Neutron Capture

        Ongoing experiments are searching for dark matter or coherent neutrino scattering signals via the identification of nuclear recoils using germanium and silicon as detector materials. At the sub-keV recoil energy scales being probed by the latest generation of such experiments, the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in germanium and silicon is an important, but poorly characterized, material property. A technique has been proposed to measure this yield using the spectrum of nuclear recoils resulting from nuclear de-excitation following thermal neutron capture in the detector crystal. This talk will discuss experiments undertaken to measure this signal in germanium and silicon detectors developed for the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at SNOLAB and a preliminary yield measurement from a silicon detector will be presented.

    • Readout: Front-end electronics: Block 2
      • 95
        pSLIDER32: a 32 channels mixed-signal processor for the GAPS Si(Li) Tracker

        This work describes the first experimental results from the characterization of a 32 channels mixed-signal processor developed for the readout of lithium-drifted silicon, Si(Li), detectors of the General AntiParticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment to search for dark matter. The instrument is designed for the identification of antideuteron particles from cosmic rays during an Antarctic balloon mission scheduled for late 2021.
        A full custom integrated circuit, named pSLIDER32 (32 channels Si-LI DEtector Readout ASIC prototype), has been produced in a commercial 180 nm CMOS technology. The ASIC is comprised of 32 low-noise analog readout channel featuring dynamic signal compression to comply with the wide input range, an 11-bit SAR ADC and a digital back-end section which is responsible for channel setting and for sending digital information to the data acquisition system (DAQ). The circuit design criteria and the first experimental results will be presented at the conference.

        Speaker: Massimo Manghisoni (University of Bergamo - Italy)
      • 96
        A Readout System for ALPIDE sensors of the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

        The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC will install a fast, ultralight Inner Tracking System made of monolithic active pixel sensors (ALPIDE) during the ongoing second long shutdown of the LHC (2019-21) to improve upon the present physics measurements and provide insights to new measurements. ALPIDE is based on TowerJazz 180 nm technology and is a result of an intensive R&D programme over the last few years. Several ALPIDE prototypes with different design parameters were developed before converging on the final design. A portable readout system was developed at INFN Cagliari in collaboration with CERN to characterize and test the ALPIDE prototypes and the final sensor.The readout system was used to conduct comprehensive tests on ALPIDE chips and its prototypes in the laboratory and in beam testing facilities. These results helped to converge on and validate the design parameters. In this presentation we will discuss about the concept, features and performance of the readout system.

        Speaker: Sabyasachi Siddhanta (Universita e INFN, Cagliari (IT))
      • 97
        Hybrid Circuits to Read Out the Forward Strip Inner Tracker at the ATLAS Detector for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade

        The ATLAS Experiment will upgrade its tracking system for the High Luminosity LHC, replacing the existing tracker by an all-silicon Inner Tracker, which consists of a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The forward strip detector is based on wedge shaped strip sensors with varying strip length and pitch. The strips are read out by means of low mass radiation-hard circuits, which are a flexible multi-layer copper-polyimide construction, carrying the radiation-hard read-out ASICs. The end-cap geometry requires designing 13 different circuits, with varying numbers of ASICs depending upon their radial location, as occupancy and width of the area change. This contribution discusses the multi-step R&D process that lead to the final designs of the read-out electronics circuits that recently passed the Final Design Review and started the pre-production phase. We will show details on production, quality control, testing and performance of the end-cap front-end electronics circuits.

      • 98
        Pixel Chip Developments and Radiation Qualification for the High Luminosity LHC

        The RD53 collaboration is a joint effort between the ATLAS and CMS experiments facing the challenges of developing hybrid pixel readout chips for their Phase-2 upgrades in the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider).

        A prototype chip, called RD53A, was designed to qualify the chosen 65nm CMOS technology. Among all its features, this large size demonstrator contains design variations for testing purposes, different analog front-end and digital architectures, and radiation test structures. The chip has been extensively used for sensor characterization and the design, test, and verification of the system architectures of ATLAS and CMS.

        A summary of test results will be shown highlighting the radiation characterization including dose rate effects, vital for the correct performance of the chip in the harsh environment of the HL-LHC. The final chips, designed based on these results, will be presented as well as the first preliminary test results.

      • 99
        High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for High Energy Electron Beam Compton Polarimetry

        Precision polarimetry for high energy electron beams is a crucial aspect of the precision physics experiments that are either under construction or planned at facilities such as Jefferson Lab, the EIC (electron-ion collider), or the proposed upgrade for SuperKEKB polarized beam. Compton polarimetry can be implemented as a non-invasive continuous measurement. The technique is well known and has been used to make the highest precision polarimetry measurements to date 1% during the Jefferson Lab QWeak experiment. In this talk we report on our design and prototyping progress, for a Compton electron detector, proposed for the Jefferson Lab MOLLER experiment, the SuperKEKB polarized beam upgrade and as a possible technology for the future EIC. The detectors will use high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors, operated under vacuum and actively cooled. We will report on the current prototype development status, including the implementation of the carrier PCB, and the cooling design.

        Speaker: Dr Preeti Pandey (University of Manitoba,Winnipeg,Canada)
    • Sensors: Photo-detectors: Block 2
      • 100
        The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter Silicon Sensors/Modules and Scintillator/SiPM Tileboards

        We will present the evolving design, results on the performance of irradiated SiPMs, the optimisation of scintillator tiles, the status of active element prototypes with integrated electronics, and the preparations for automated production. In the higher radiation zone silicon has been chosen due to its intrinsic radiation hardness. The silicon sensors will be of hexagonal shape, with three nominal thicknesses of 120 um, 200 um and 300 um, optimized for regions of different radiation levels. They will be segmented into several hundred cells with hexagonal shape of 0.5 to 1.1 cm^2 in size, each of which is read out individually. A comprehensive campaign is in progress to converge on optimal sensor design choices and parameters, such as bulk doping, layouts and production methods. In this talk, results from full electrical sensor characterization are presented for different sensors, together with first results from an irradiation campaign of large-area silicon sensors.

      • 101
        The development of Silicon Geiger Hybrid Tube (SiGHT), and the first prototype.

        The Silicon Geiger Hybrid Tube (SiGHT) is a novel photosensor designed for future generations of rare event search experiments using noble liquids. The idea is to replace conventional multi-dynode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a hybrid technology, consisting of a low temperature sensitive bi-alkali photocathode for conversion of photons into photoelectrons and a low dark count Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) for photoelectron signal amplification. SiGHT can achieve ultra low internal radioactivity, high quantum efficiency and stable performance at low temperatures, which are required features for direct dark matter detection and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. The R&D work of SiGHT, as well as the fabrication and test of the first prototype, will be presented.

      • 102
        SiPM Reflectivity and Optics for nEXO detector

        The nEXO experiment is a TPC planned to search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0𝝂𝛽𝛽) in Xe136 enriched liquid xenon, with a projected sensitivity sufficient to probe the neutrino mass inverted hierarchy. The isotope Xe136 is the 2𝝂𝛽𝛽 source while the remaining xenon acts as the detection medium, using silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) to detect scintillation light. The largest contribution to the required energy resolution of 1% at 2.45MeV is the light collection efficiency. To properly simulate photons in the detector the reflectivity and absorption of detector materials, along with SiPM efficiency must be characterized for all angles of incidence at xenon scintillation wavelengths. This talk will highlight work at TRIUMF using our VRAE setup (Vacuum ultraviolet Reflectivity, Absorption and Efficiency) which can measure reflectivity and absorption of detector materials at room temperature, or simultaneously measure SiPM efficiency and reflectivity at cryogenic temperatures.

        Speaker: Austin de St. Croix (TRIUMF/UBC)
      • 103
        Characterization of SiPMs at TRIUMF

        Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) have emerged as a compelling photo-sensor solution. In contrast to the widely used Photo-Multipliers Tubes, SiPMs have high single Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) with low radioactivity. For these reasons, large-scale low-background cryogenic experiments, such as the next-generation Enriched Xenon Observatory experiment (nEXO), are migrating to a SiPM-based light detection system. The aim of this talk is to show a quantitative understanding of the processes that affect the SiPM performances. In particular we will show how the SiPM PDE depends from the light quantum yield and how we can describe it as a function of the bias voltage using a minimum set of parameters. We will then use this parametrization to describe the SiPM dark noise, after-pulsing and cross-talk. Finally we will show the latest results of reflectivity and efficiency measurements performed at TRIUMF for the nEXO experiment.

        Speaker: Giacomo Gallina (TRIUMF)
      • 104
        Photon detection innovation: the VSiPMT

        The Vacuum Silicon PhotoMultiplier Tube (VSiPMT) idea was born in Naples with the intent of substituting PMTs dynode chain, which bring many problems due to the gain concept adopted. Looking at the history of photodetectors, one can notice that there are different attempts to overcome the ”dynode problem”. Over the years, SiPMs and HPDs went closer to the solution of the problem. Neverthless, the former are limited to small-medium detection surfaces, while the latter need a too high operation voltage.
        With the VSiPMT we want to offer a new solution that allows to overcome the covering problems of SiPMs and at the same time can work with a reasonable voltage supply (~ 2 kV).
        The VSiPMT is obtained by substituting the dynode chain of a standard PMT with a special SiPM, called SiEM (Silicon Electron Multiplier). This design allows to export the SiPM detection features over the photocathode area.
        We here present the results of the latest prototype manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics.

        Speaker: Felicia Carla Tiziana Barbato (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
    • Sensors: Solid-state position sensors: Block 2
      • 105
        Low Gain Avalanche Detectors for Precision Timing in the CMS MTD Endcap Timing Layer

        The time information assigned to each track will enable the use of 4D reconstruction algorithms and will further discriminate in the time domain interaction vertices within the same bunch crossing to recover the track purity of vertices in current LHC conditions. The endcap region of the MTD, called the Endcap Timing Layer (ETL) will be instrumented with silicon-based low gain avalanche detectors (LGADs), covering the high radiation pseudo-rapidity region between |η|=1.6 and 3.0. Each endcap will be instrumented with a two-disk system of LGADs, read out by Endcap Timing Readout Chips (ETROCs), being designed for precision timing measurements. We will present an overview of the MTD ETL design, which is detailed in the recent technical design report. We will also present the R&D and test beam studies that were integral for achieving the ETL design, as well as recent progress on the development of the ETROC readout electronics.

      • 106
        Performance of the HADES T0 and beam tracking prototype system based on Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors

        The HADES collaboration [1] at GSI Darmstadt, Germany, is developing a new T0 and beam tracking system based on the Low Gain Avalanche Diodes (LGAD) [3,4], aka Ultra Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD).
        The group has prepared a demonstration system realized as a beam telescope consisting of two UFSD strip sensors with size of about 5mm x 5mm and the strip structure with a 140 µm pitch. They are equipped with multi-stage analog amplifying circuits connected to leading edge discriminators whose outputs were digitized by a TDC system based on the FPGA-TDC concept.
        In a series of experiments conducted at COSY Synchrotron at Jülich, we have demonstrated a timing precision of 56 ps. To our knowledge, these are the best results obtained so far using this type of sensors integrated in a complete detection system.
        We would like to acknowledge N. Cartiglia, V. Sola and M. Ferrero from INFN Torino for their help in the setup preparation.
        [1] Agakishiev, G. et al. Eur. Phys. J. A41:243-277, 2009

        Speaker: Dr Jerzy Pietraszko (GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany)
      • 107
        Latest Developments for Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs)

        Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs) are thin silicon detectors (20 to 50 $\mu m$ in thickness) with moderate gain (up to ~50). LGADs have good time resolution (~17 ps), fast rise time (~500ps), and short full charge collection time (~1ns), which are suitable for numerous future applications.

        The first implementation of LGADs will be with the ATLAS and CMS detectors in preparation for the HL-LHC. The primary challenge is to produce radiation hard LGADs that can withstand fluences up to 3e15 $n_{eq}/cm^2$. In this talk, we will report on the results of radiation campaigns with neutron and proton irradiated LGADs produced by FBK and HPK.

        Another ongoing project for LGADs is to achieve higher granularity. In this talk, we will explore varieties of newly-proposed LGAD designs that can potentially achieve the granularity goal of 50x50 $\mu m^2$. These approaches include AC-coupled LGADs, Trench-Isolated LGADs, Inverted-Junction LGADs, and a new approach: the Deep-Junction LGADs.

        Speakers: Yuzhan Zhao (University of California Santa Cruz), Yuzhan Zhao (University of California,Santa Cruz (US))
      • 108
        New results from MALTA monolithic CMOS sensors with small electrode size on high resistivity substrate.

        In parallel to the impending upgrade of the LHC towards the High Luminosity LHC, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor is being developed to withstand the higher radiation environment foreseen. This novel sensor makes use of a 180 nm TowerJazz CMOS imaging technology process featuring small collection electrode designs and small pixel sizes of 3 um and 36.4 um, respectively. These sensors can be depleted with a relatively low bias voltage. In this contribution, efficiency measurements obtained through test-beam campaigns at ELSA and DESY will be presented along with a focus on the performance of chips with extra process modifications, including those produced on Czochralski substrate, both before and after irradiation up to 2E15 neq/cm2.

      • 109
        Investigation of nitrogen enriched silicon detectors

        A promising approach to increase the radiation hardness of existing detector designs are defect engineering and the dedicated and controlled enrichment of the silicon bulk with foreign atoms. NitroStrip is a RD50 project with the goal of understanding the effect of nitrogen enrichment on the radiation hardness of high resistivity float zone silicon.
        Previous works suggest an increased radiation hardness for nitrogen enriched silicon, but only bare silicon wafers and simple pad detectors were investigated.
        In the framework of the NitroStrip project fully processed strip detectors with sample groups consisting of oxygen and nitrogen enriched as well as pure float zone silicon and magnetic Czochralski silicon were studied.
        This presentation will give an overview of the findings and
        challenges the NitroStrip project encountered. We conclude that the treatment of the wafers during the processing of the detectors makes gaining from the Nitrogen enrichment of the Silicon wafers difficult.

        Speaker: Jan Cedric Honig (Albert Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (DE))
    • 10:30 AM
    • Experiments: Neutrino: Block 1
      • 110
        The upgrade project of the T2K near detector ND280

        After a decade of fruitful datataking, the T2K near detector ND280 is scheduled for upgrade. The new setup includes three detector systems utilizing novel technologies: an active fine-grained plastic scintillator target (SuperFGD) with two TPCs above and below it to cover the region of large scattering angles and six planes of the time-of-flight (TOF) detector that enclose the entire setup. SuperFGD is composed of about two million optically independent 1x1x1 cm3 cubes which are read out along three orthogonal directions by wavelength shifting fibers. Two new TPCs will have the readout system based on the Resistive Micromegas technology which will provide better performances in respect of spark resistance and either point resolution or reduction of electronics channels. Six TOF planes serves to reject those particles originated in the areas outside the SuperFGD. Each plane is assembled of 20 plastic scintillator bars which are read out by arrays of large-area SiPMs.

      • 111
        An Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector for Hyper-Kamiokande

        The Hyper-Kamiokande (HK) experiment will detect neutrinos produced at an upgraded 1.3 MW J-PARC 30 GeV accelerator with a new water Cherenkov detector that is 8 times larger than Super-Kamiokande. This will allow HK to accumulate neutrino events 20 times faster than the currently operating T2K experiment. To take advantage of the high statistics HK will collect, systematic uncertainties on neutrino production and interaction modeling must be reduced. The Intermediate Water Cherenkov Detector (IWCD) is 1 kiloton scale water Cherenkov detector to be located ~1 km from the neutrino source at J-PARC that will study neutrino production and interactions. The IWCD has the unique feature that it can be moved to different positions relative the beam, which enables measurements that probe the relationship between neutrino energy and particles produced in neutrino interactions. I will describe the IWCD design, measurement program and the key technologies that will be deployed in the detector.

      • 112
        ProtoDUNE Dual Phase: status and first results

        DUNE is a dual-site experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies, neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The Far Detector will consist of four 10 kton fiducial mass LAr TPCs. The dual phase (DP) technology, in which the charge is extracted, amplified, and detected in gaseous argon above the liquid, is foreseen for one of these modules. It allows a fine readout pitch, a low energy threshold, and good pattern reconstruction of the events. The ProtoDUNE-DP detector is a 300 ton LAr TPC currently operating at the CERN Neutrino Platform. This prototype is crucial to demonstrate the capabilities of the DP technology on a massive scale and to gain experience in building and operating such a large-scale DP detector. In this talk, the status on the different subsystems of ProtoDUNE-DP will be described and commissioning results will be shown. In addition, some of the technological challenges faced during the construction and operation of the detector will be presented.

      • 113
        Extending DUNE Physics Reach in MeV-Scale with Innovative Charge and Light Collection Systems

        One of the primary physics goals of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is the detection of neutrinos produced in explosions of core-collapse supernovae. These neutrinos, with an energy range from a few to a few tens of MeV, are uniquely suited to characterize the detailed features of the supernovae and to search for non-standard interactions from neutrino mixing in extreme conditions.
        To accurately extract all the information in the detectors from supernova neutrinos may require charge and light collection systems optimized to this energy regime. I will outline the requirements on detector resolution for distinguishing benchmark supernova neutrino fluxes from the most recent predictions and for measuring other physics processes occurring in supernova explosions. I will further discuss the proposed charge and light collection systems for the fourth module of the DUNE far detector, with the specific goal to extend the detector requirements for supernova neutrino detection.

      • 114
        Research and Developments for xenon bubble chamber detector for neutrinoless double beta decay search

        Neutrinoless double beta decay (0$\nu\beta\beta$) search is an only-one realistic experiment for the Majorana neutrino test (neutrino = anti-neutrino). Some experiments have already set the lower limit on the half-life of 0$\nu\beta\beta$ as 10$^{\rm 25 - 26}$ years, however, the future high sensitivity search experiment need scalability and background rejection methods.
        We propose a xenon bubble chamber as a 0$\nu\beta\beta$ search experiment. This detector has a possibility of particle identification by tracking of charged particles by bubble production in superheated liquid. The scintillation light by liquid xenon is also used for energy reconstruction and trigger to take pictures of bubbles. The liquid xenon detector has scalability and it is already established the purification methods by distillation.
        We will present the possibility of xenon bubble chamber detector as a 0$\nu\beta\beta$ search experiment and current status of developments with a few ten cc vessel.

        Speaker: Yoshihito Gando (Tohoku Univ.)
    • Experiments: Trackers: Block 1
      • 115
        ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector Overview

        For the HL-LHC upgrade the current ATLAS Inner Detector is replaced by an all-silicon system. The Pixel Detector will consist of 5 barrel layers and a number of rings, resulting in about 14 m$^2$ of instrumented area. Due to the huge non-ionizing fluence (1e16 n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$) and ionizing dose (5 MGy), the two innermost layers, instrumented with 3D pixel sensors (L0) and 100µm thin planar sensors (L1) will be replaced after about 5 years of operation. All hybrid detector modules will be read out by novel ASICs, implemented in 65nm CMOS technology, with a bandwidth of up to 5 Gb/s. Data will be transmitted optically to the off-detector readout system. To save material in the servicing cables, serial powering is employed for low voltage.
        Large scale prototyping programs are being carried out by all sub-systems.
        The talk will give an overview of the layout and current status of the development of the ITk Pixel Detector.

      • 116
        Status of the Phase-2 Tracker Upgrade of the CMS experiment at the HL-LHC

        The Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS experiment is designed to prepare its detectors for operation at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). The upgraded collider will begin operation in 2026, featuring new challenging conditions in terms of data throughput, pile-up and radiation, reasons for which the tracker detector will be entirely replaced by a new design. We present the current development activities ongoing in CMS aimed at the design, test and validation of the components of the tracker detector, and its read-out, calibration, control, and data processing chains.

        Speaker: Luigi Calligaris (UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista (BR))
      • 117
        The ATLAS ITk Strip Detector System for the Phase-II LHC Upgrade

        ATLAS is preparing for the HL-LHC upgrade, where integrated and instantaneous luminosity will reach unprecedented values. For this, an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) is under development with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The strip system consists of 4 barrel layers and 6 EC disks. After completion of FDRs in key areas, such as Sensors, Modules, Front-End electronics and ASICs, prototyping has been completed successfully. Pre-production is about to start. We present an overview of the Strip System, and highlight the final design choices of sensors, module designs and ASICs. We will summarise R&D results achieved during prototyping, including irradiated modules demonstrating the radiation hardness achieved. In addition, we will outline the current status of pre-production on various detector components, with an emphasis on QA and QC procedures. We will also discuss the plans for the forth-coming pre-production and production phase distributed over many institutes.

        Speaker: Dennis Sperlich (Albert Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (DE))
      • 118
        Development and evaluation of prototypes for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

        The ATLAS tracking system will be replaced by an all-silicon detector for the HL-LHC upgrade around 2025. The innermost five layers of the detector system will be pixel detector layers which will be most challenging in terms of radiation hardness, data rate and readout speed. A serial power scheme will be used for the pixel layers to reduce the radiation length and power consumption in cables. New elements are required to operate and monitor a serially powered detector including a detector control system, constant current sources and front-end electronics with shunt regulators. Prototypes for all subsystems are built to verify the concept and operate multiple serial power chains as a system test. The evaluation of both the readout of multi-modules and mechanical integration are further aims of the prototyping campaign. In the contribution, results will be presented of this prototyping effort. Moreover, details and features of serial powering for full detector systems will be given.

      • 119
        Test-beam activities and results for the ATLAS ITk pixel detector

        The Phase-II upgrade of the LHC will result in an increase of the instantaneous luminosity up to about 5×1034 cm−2s−1. To cope with the challenges the current Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) system. The Pixel Detector will have to deal with occupancies of about 300 hits/FE/s as well as a fluence of $2×10^{16}$n$_{eq}$cm$^{−2}$. 3D Pixel sensors will be installed in the innermost layer, planar sensors in the outer layers. After extensive characterization of the sensors in the lab, their charge collection properties and hit efficiency are measured in common testbeam campaigns. The setups used in the ITk Pixel testbeam campaigns will be presented, including the common track reconstruction and analysis software. Results from the latest measurements will be shown, highlighting some of the developments and challenges for the ITk Pixel sensors.

    • Sensors: Photo-detectors: Block 3
      • 120
        NanoUV: a novel UV-light detector based on aligned Carbon nanotubes

        We present the latest results on NanoUV, a novel UV light detector concept based on aligned carbon nanotubes. The efficiency of today’s UV light detectors is limited by the quantum efficiency of photocathodes, which for photons in the UV range rarely exceeds 20-30% in commercial models. This is because photoelectrons produced by UV photons have low energy, and are therefore easily re-absorbed in the photocathode before they can be extracted. NanoUV aims to revolutionize UV light detectors by making photocathodes of aligned carbon nanotubes: in this way the ejected photoelectrons can travel inside the hollow tube axis without being re-absorbed. We will report the results of the first NanoUV prototype, on its extensive characterization with UV photons and low energy electrons from the electron gun facility of University of Roma Tre, and on the construction of a carbon nanotube growing facility in the University of Rome Sapienza.

        Speaker: Francesco Pandolfi (INFN Rome)
      • 121
        The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD) 8” MCP-PMT: Recent Results

        The LAPPD is a 400 cm2 microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PMT) with a timing resolution better than 60 pS. The large area and high speed makes the LAPPD suitable for viewing large area scintillators or large experimental volumes, and for applications such as neutron detectors or Cerenkov light detectors. It has sensitivity to single photoelectrons with a gain of ~7E6 or higher. It incorporates a bi-alkali Na2KSb photocathode, with a peak sensitivity below 365 nm. Photocathodes have quantum efficiencies of 25-30% at 365 nm. The standard LAPPD has an interior stripline anode. An alternative version of the LAPPD has been developed that capacitively couples pulses to an external signal board. The signal board may have any pattern, including striplines or pixels. This flexibility facilitates observations of high rate or spatially localized phenomena. This work presents new results for time resolution, position and gain response as a function of event rate.

        Speaker: Dr Mark Popecki (Incom, Inc.)
      • 122
        the Tynode: a new vacuum electron multiplier for ultra fast pixelized particle detectors

        By placing, in vacuum, a stack of transmission dynodes (tynodes) on top of a CMOS pixel chip, a generic, digital, single free electron detector could be made with potentially one ps time resolution. Its essential element is the tynode: an ultra thin membrane, which emits, at the impact of an energetic electron on one side, a multiple of electrons at the other side. The electron yields of tynodes have been calculated by means of GEANT-4 Monte Carlo simulations, applying special low-energy extensions.
        By means of MEMS technology, tynodes have been realised. The secondary electron yield of several tynode prototypes has been measured. Our best result so far is a transmission secondary electron yield of 5.5, obtained with an MgO membrane made using Atomic Layer Deposition ALD technology. Several possibilities to improve the yield are presented, and the methods of measuring the yield (using a SEM, and a setup including an electron gun and a set of TimePix chips) are set out.

      • 123
        Nanodiamond photocathode for MPGD-based single photon detectors at the future EIC

        The construction of a RICH detector for high momenta hadron identification at the future Electron Ion Collider is challenging: the compact detector setup imposes a short radiator, limiting the number of photons. A windowless RICH operating in the far UV region is a possible choice. CsI is a widely used photo-cathode (PC) for far UV photons, but it is hygroscopic, delicate to handle and its Quantum Efficiency (QE) degrades in high intensity ion fluxes.
        Layers of hydrogenated diamond nano grains have recently been proposed as an alternative PC material and shown to be promising: they are less delicate than CsI and have good sensitivity in the far UV region.
        THGEMs coated with nanodiamond PC have been characterized in a dedicated R&D: the effective QE in different gaseous atmospheres has been compared to the QE in vacuum and the robustness of the PC against ion bombardment has been studied.
        The approach is described in detail and all results of this exploratory phase are presented.

        Speaker: Fulvio Tessarotto (INFN Trieste)
    • Sensors: Solid-state calorimeters: Block 1
      • 124
        Superconducting Tunnel Junction Radiation Detectors for Nuclear Science

        Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) radiation detectors combine the high energy resolution of low-temperature operation with the high speed of athermal non-equilibrium devices. They utilize the small superconducting energy gap (~1 meV) to achieve an energy resolution of a few eV FWHM for energies below 1 keV. Furthermore, the short signal charge life time (~10s of µs) enables rates of several 1000 counts/s per detector pixel, placing them among the fastest quantum detection technologies. We have recently started a program to adapt STJs to search for sterile neutrinos with unprecedented sensitivity. We will discuss the basic physics of STJ radiation detectors, their operation at temperatures of ~0.1 K and recent applications in nuclear science. These include accurate measurements of ultra-low energy nuclear transitions for the development of nuclear clocks, L/K branching ratios in the electron capture decay of Be-7 and beyond Standard Model physics searches.

      • 125
        Superconducting Nanowires for Detectors and Cryogenic Electronics

        Superconducting nanowires are a potential new cryogenic platform for particle detection. These detectors have been used for nearly two decades for single-photon detection, in various experiments having demonstrated photon-detection efficiency of 98%, jitter of < 3 ps, signal count rates of several 100 MHz with dark count rates of < 1 count per day. Recent experiments have demonstrated operational arrays of ~ 1000 elements, and have used these nanowires for dark-matter search. Additionally, superconducting nanowires have shown promise independently as a promising platform for cryogenic electronics, enabling easy integration with complex semiconductor-based amplifiers and readout. As a technology family, they thus have significant potential application to the field of particle detection. In this presentation, I will review the field of superconducting nanowire photodetection and electronics, and discuss potential applications to the field of particle detection.

      • 126
        BULLKID - Bulky and low-threshold kinetic inductance detectors

        BULLKID is an R&D project on a new supereconducting cryogenic particle detector to search for rare low energy processes such as low-mass dark matter and neutrino coherent scattering off nuclei. The detector unit we are building consists in an array of 60 silicon absorbers sensed by phonon-mediated, microwave-multiplexed Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), with energy resolution on nuclear recoils around 100 eV and total mass of 20 g. The single detector unit is engineered to ensure a straightforward scalability to a future kg-scale experiment. In this talk we will describe the proposed technology, based on the CALDER team experience on KIDs as phonon mediated particle detectors, the first measurements and the future plans.

      • 127
        Towards an Amorphous Selenium CMOS Imager for a $0\nu\beta\beta$ Search

        $\rm{}^{82}Se$ is an interesting candidate for a $0\nu\beta\beta$ search due to its high $Q_{\beta\beta}$ (2998 keV) value, which is above many natural radioactive backgrounds, and relatively long $T^{2\nu}_{0.5}$ ($10^{20}$ yrs). We have proposed a tower of low noise pixelated CMOS detectors with a $200 \, \rm \mu m$ layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se) as a $0\nu\beta\beta$ experiment. The high spatial resolution of a pixelated detector improves background rejection from Compton scattering and single $\beta$ decays and highlights the desired topology of two $\beta$s from a single vertex. We will present results on our initial investigation into the resolution of a-Se using a single pixel detector with $\sim100$ keV $\gamma$-rays and the impact of this study on the energy resolution in the $Q_{\beta\beta}$ range of selenium. Additionally, we will discuss our work on depositing a-Se on the existing TopMetal-II${}^-$ chip (72x72 pixels) and moving towards a full pixelated CMOS detector.

      • 128
        Counting electrons with the DAMIC-M dark matter experiment

        The DAMIC (Dark Matter in CCDs) experiment uses scientific grade silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) to detect potential ionization signals from dark matter interactions. These approx. mm thick devices feature impressively low leakage current ($<10^{-21}$ A cm$^2$) and a very low energy threshold, making them ideal low-mass dark matter detectors. The kg-size next generation DAMIC-M detector, funded for operation, will use "Skipper" instrumented CCDs - a novel readout technique that allows for counting of individual charges, with a demonstrated resolution of 0.07 e$^-$ - which ushers in a new era of sensitivity to low-energy interactions. In this talk I will present the physics potential of using Skipper CCDs as particle detectors for dark matter & neutrino interactions, highlight ongoing challenges in deploying these devices, and summarize the broad applicability of Skipper technology for scientific applications.

    • 12:30 PM
    • Experiments: Calorimeters: Block 2
      • 129
        Calorimetry for the Electron Ion Collider

        The Electron Ion Collider (EIC) is a new facility that has been proposed in the US to study the structure of nuclear matter in the gluon dominated regime of QCD using Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) with precision electromagnetic probes. Two versions of this facility have been proposed, one at Brookhaven (eRHIC) and another at JLAB (JLEIC). It would have the capability of colliding polarized beams of electrons in the energy range from 5-18 GeV with heavy ions in the range from 10-100 GeV/A and protons up to 275 GeV/c. The eRD1 Consortium has been investigating a number of calorimeter options for an EIC detector which include high resolution crystals and glasses for measuring the scattered electron and new types of high density sampling calorimeters for full azimuthal and rapidity coverage for full event reconstruction. The latest results of the R&D on these various types of calorimeters will be presented along with an overview of the EIC physics program and its detector systems.

      • 130
        Development of a highly granular scintillator-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter prototype for the CEPC

        A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter has been designed and optimised within the CALICE collaboration for precision measurements at future lepton collider experiments, including the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). Scintillator strips and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are instrumented as sensitive layers and tungsten-copper alloy plates as absorber. Scintillator strips are individually wrapped with ESR foil and directly coupled with SiPMs. A prototype with around 30 sampling layers and over 6000 channels in total is being developed and expected to be constructed and commissioned in early 2020. A beam test with electrons at DESY is planned around autumn 2020 for detailed studies of this prototype to quantitatively evaluate the key performance. This talk will cover the latest status of the prototype development and selected results of commissioning, preparations for the DESY beam test, as well as its expected performance in simulation.

      • 131
        A Highly Granular Calorimeter System for the DUNE Near Detector

        The DUNE experiment requires a highly capable near detector system to achieve its ambitious physics goals. One of the subsystems of the near detector is the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD), which will consist of a high pressure gaseous Argon TPC surrounded by an electromagnetic calorimeter, embedded in a magnetic field. The calorimeter complements the tracking capabilities of the TPC with photon and neutron reconstruction to enable a precise reconstruction of the final states of neutrino interactions in the detector volume. The calorimeter will use highly granular active elements consisting of plastic scintillators and SiPMs, which provide sub-ns timing capabilities. This enables directional reconstruction of electromagnetic showers crucial for pi0 localization, high neutron sensitivity and energy measurement via time of flight and particle identification. The presentation gives an overview over the evolving design of the DUNE MPD calorimeter and will discuss the expected performance.

        Speaker: Frank Simon (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik)
      • 132
        CALICE SiW ECAL - Development and first beam test results of detection elements using Chip-on-Board Technology

        A highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) is the reference design of the ECAL for International Large Detector (ILD) concept, one of the two detector concepts for the detector(s) at the future International Linear Collider. Prototypes for this type of detector are developed within the CALICE Collaboration.

        The contribution will report for the first time on the development of a and beam test results obtained with detection elements (ASU. combination of ASIC, PCB and Si Wafers) that are based on a PCB type, called Chip-on-Board (COB), that features wirebonded ASICs. This latter design allows to keep the height of the PCB as thin as 1.2\,mm compared to a height of aabout 3mm for a variant using BGA packaging. The tight space constraints leave little room for extra components such as decoupling capacitances such that particular emphasis will be put on the performance in terms of noise sensitivity.

      • 133
        The CALICE AHCAL - a highly granular SiPM-on-tile hadron calorimeter prototype

        The Analogue Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) of the CALICE collaboration is a technological prototype for future linear collider detectors, addressing scalability, integration and engineering challenges imposed by the experimental environment. It is based on the SiPM-on-tile technology, where the active layers of the calorimeter are formed by 3x3 cm2 plastic scintillator tiles placed on top of SiPMs mounted on readout boards that also house SPIROC2E front-end ASICs. A large prototype with 22 000 channels has been constructed using techniques suitable for mass production and automatic assembly. The calorimeter took muon, electron and pion data at the CERN SPS, partially in conjunction with a silicon-instrumented structure as prototype for the CMS endcap calorimeter upgrade, which uses a similar design as the AHCAL in its scintillator section. The presentation gives an overview of the construction, commissioning, calibration and first test beam results of the AHCAL technological prototype.

        Speaker: Frank Simon (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik)
    • Experiments: Trackers: Block 2
      • 134
        The novel, truly cylindrical, ultra-thin silicon detector for the ALICE Inner Tracker System

        ALICE is planning to replace its innermost tracking layers during LHC Long Shutdown 3 with a novel detector that will be as close as 18 mm to the interaction point and as thin as <0.05% X0 per layer. To achieve these figures, a wafer-scale Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor in 65 nm technology is being developed. This sensor, fabricated on 300 mm wafers, will reach dimensions of up to 280 by 94 mm. They are subsequently thinned down to values between 20-40 μm, where they become flexible and are bend into truly cylindrical half-barrels.
        The ALICE collaboration has recently published a Letter of Intent, based on which the Large Hadron Collider Committee endorsed the R&D programme towards a Technical Design Report.
        This contribution will review the detector concept, the physics motivations, and lays out the R&D path. Most importantly, results from the tests with bent sensors will be presented for the first time.

      • 135
        Production and installation of first GEM station in CMS

        The High Luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will result in an increase of beam
        energy, a higher collision rate, and a harsher radiation environment. A challenge for CMS is to maintain an efficient and reliable trigger for muons with eta > 1.6. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology can operate well at high particle fluxes and will be employed in the upgrade of the endcap muon system. The installation of the first station, known as GE1/1, began in July 2019. This station is about 5 meters from the interaction point and covers the region 1.6 < eta < 2. The first 72 chambers have been installed together with their services (gas, cooling, low voltage and high voltage) and the installation of the second set of 72 chambers is planned for spring 2020. A description is presented of the detector design, the Quality Assurance and certification path, the status
        of commissioning, and preliminary results.

        Speaker: Hyunyong Kim (Texas A & M University (US))
      • 136
        The DEPFET based pixel detector at Belle II - construction, performance, and prospects

        The inner 2 layers of the Belle II VXD are based on DEPFETs (PXD). This technology allows the construction of the currently most light-weight pixel detector in operation (0.2% X$_0$ in the acceptance area). It is the first time that this technology is deployed at a HEP experiment. PXD is in operation in Belle II since 03/2019 and is taking data with very good performance. The S/N is close to 50 and the combined tracking efficiency well above 98% running a peak luminosity of 1e34 /cm$^2$s of SuperKEKB. The final goal for the peak luminosity of the machine is 8e35 /cm$^2$s and the pixel detector is designed to be operated at the final luminosity up to the accumulated data set of 50 ab$^{-1}$. The paper will describe the lessons learned during construction, commissioning, and operation of the first DEPFET based vertex detector and will conclude with an outlook to improvements of the DEPFET technology in terms of sensor performance, read-out speed, material budget, and thermal management.

        Speaker: Ladislav Andricek (MPG Semiconductor Lab)
      • 137
        Resistive Micromegas TPCs for the T2K experiment upgrade

        The T2K collaboration is preparing a rise of the beam intensity to increase the exposure aimed at establishing leptonic CP violation at 3 $\sigma$ level for a significant fraction of the possible $\delta_{CP}$ values. The near detector ND280 upgrade could reduce the overall statistical and systematic uncertainties at the appropriate level of better than 4%.
        We have developed an innovative concept comprising a totally active Super-Fine-Grained-Detector (SuperFGD), 2 High Angle Time Projection Chamber (HA-TPC) and 6 TOF planes.
        The HA-TPC will be used for 3D track reconstruction, momentum measurement and particle identification and will be equipped with 32 resistive bulk Micromegas (34x42 cm$^2$) covered by a 400 kOhm/square diamond like carbon foil to spread the charge over the pad plane, each pad being approximatively 1 cm$^2$.
        The first resistive Micromegas modules have been tested in a test beam at CERN and at DESY. Results of these test beams will be shown in this talk.

      • 138
        ALICE ITS upgrade: the commissioning 
in laboratory

        ALICE is the CERN LHC experiment optimised for the study of the strongly interacting matter produced in heavy-ion collisions and devoted to the characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. To achieve the physics program for LHC Run 3, a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus is ongoing. A key element of the upgrade is the substitution of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) with a completely new silicon based detector whose features will allow the reconstruction of rare physics channels, not accessible with the previous layout. The enabling technology for such performance boost is the adoption of custom-designed CMOS MAPS as detecting element.
        The assembly of the detector has been completed and the commissioning is ongoing in a surface laboratory at CERN. Meanwhile the preparation of the service structures for the integration in the ALICE detector proceeds.
        In this talk, an overview of the adopted technologies as well as the status of the detector commissioning will be given.

    • Readout: Front-end electronics: Block 3
      • 139
        Upgrade of the Muon Drift Tube (MDT) electronics for the ATLAS Phase-II upgrade

        The ATLAS monitored drift tube (MDT) chambers are the main component of the precision tracking system in the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The MDT system is capable of measuring the sagitta of muon tracks to an accuracy of 60 μm, which corresponds to a momentum accuracy of about 10% at pT=1 TeV. To cope with large amount of data and high event rate expected from the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade, ATLAS plans to use the MDT detector at the first-trigger level to improve the muon transverse momentum resolution and reduce the trigger rate. The new MDT trigger and readout system will have an output event rate of 1 MHz and a latency of 6 us at the first-level trigger. A new trigger and readout system has been proposed. Prototypes for two frontend ASICs and a data transmission board have been designed and tested, and detailed simulation of the trigger latency has been performed. We will present the overall design and focus on latest results from different ASIC and board prototypes.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 140
        Electronics Performance of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Micromegas wedges at CERN

        The ATLAS collaboration selected Micromegas (MM) technology and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers for the upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region. The modules of MM and sTGC are being integred at CERN with installation, testing and validation of on-detector electronics & readout chain for a system with more than 2.1 M electronic channels. These include ~4K MM Front-End Boards, custom printed circuit boards with 64-channel VMM ASICs that interface with the Trigger and Data Acquisition system through ~1K data-driver Cards (ADDC & L1DDC, respectively). The readout chain is based on optical link technology (GigaBit Transceiver links) connecting the backend to the front-end electronics via the Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX), is a system to be used for the next generation ATLAS read out driver. Experience and performance results from the first large-scale electronics integration tests on final MM wedges, including system validation with cosmic-rays, will be presented.

        Speaker: MUON COLL. ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 141
        Sub-nanosecond Cherenkov photon detection for LHCb RICH particle identification in high-occupancy conditions

        The increase in luminosity during the LHC upgrade programme causes a rise in particle multiplicity and hit occupancy in the LHCb detector. To mitigate this effect for the Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors, it is proposed to use the photon detector hit time information.
        The FPGA in the upgraded RICH detector readout chain includes a programmable time gate, which will be fine-tuned with the first data in 2021. During particle beam tests, a 6.25 ns gate yielded a four-fold reduction in detector noise compared to the original 25 ns readout. A time-walk correction is discussed.
        Using simulation, the intrinsic time resolution of the RICH detectors is demonstrated to be less than 10 ps. This is important in preparation for a further order-of-magnitude rise in luminosity in 2030. Considering only improvements in timing, a 50 ps resolution can achieve today’s particle ID performance in the high-luminosity LHC. R&D towards a single-photon detector with sub-ns time resolution is outlined.

      • 142
        A 4D fast tracking detector for the high-luminosity LHC

        We present recent results of the R&D for a novel 4D fast tracking system based on rad-hard pixel detectors and front-end electronics capable of reconstructing 4-dimensional particle trajectories in real time. The detector features excellent timing resolution of 30 ps, recently measured on a beam test, and 55 micron pitch for the 3D silicon pixel sensor. A stub-based fast tracking algorithm has been implemented and tested in commercial FPGA using a pipelined architecture and allows reconstruction at 40 MHz event rate. Tracking performance for a 4D pixel detector for a future upgrade of the LHCb experiment will be also discussed.

      • 143
        Analog front-end in 65 nm CMOS with amplitude and timing measurement capability for large-area SiPM readout.

        We present an integrated analog Front-End (FE) designed in a 65 nm CMOS process optimized for the readout of 6 cm2 Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tiles. It implements a super-common gate preamplifier followed by a newly introduced 4th order fully-differential complex conjugate pole shaper. The circuit can be programmed for various series-parallel SiPM arrangements and peaking times. It consumes 3 mA at 1.2 V supply, with 2 mA in the input transistor. Circuit simulations yield amplitude measurement resolution of <0.03 single photo-electrons rms and single-photon-timing-resolution of <30 ns rms for a SiPM capacitance of 3.4 nF/cm2 and an input range of 100 photo-electrons. The FE is designed to be operational in cryogenic environments down to a temperature of 77K and, therefore, is a viable candidate for the photon-detector readout in the nEXO experiment. Fabrication of a 16 channel ASIC comprising this FE block is planned in the second half of 2020.

        Speaker: Mietek Dabrowski (Brookhaven National Laboratory (US))
    • Sensors: Noble liquid detectors: Block 1
      • 144
        Ion Trapping in Liquid Argon

        Noble liquid detectors are now ubiquitous in dark matter and neutrino physics experiments. The ability to purify the liquid of electronegative contaminants to the extent that electrons liberated by ionizing particles can be drifted over several meters with minimal attenuation, while maintaining the initial spatial orientation of the charge distribution, is now considered routine. With such capabilities in hand, we consider in this presentation the possibility of trapping ions in a liquid argon medium in a highly-localized spatial region for extended durations using the technique of radiofrequency quadrupole, or Paul, traps that is commonplace in mass spectroscopy devices and atomic physics experiments. We will present initial simulations and preliminary designs of such a situation, and introduce motivating ideas for why such an exercise may yield new insights into noble liquid detectors.

      • 145
        Removal of Electronegative Impurities from Xenon in the Liquid Phase

        An essential requirement for dark matter detection using liquid xenon (LXe) time-projection chambers is the removal of electronegative molecules, which are outgassed from detector materials and to which drifting electrons attach, reducing the observable ionization signal. Such detectors to date have relied on the continuous removal of these impurities from evaporated xenon using high-temperature getters and gas pumps. Filtration of xenon in the liquid phase can benefit from the higher mass flows delivered by commercial cryogenic pumps, but it is a challenge to find a filter with a sufficiently high reaction rate and adsorption capacity at LXe temperatures while maintaining the radio-purity required for these experiments. The Xeclipse test stand at Columbia University was designed to study the filtration of electronegative impurities from xenon in the liquid phase. This talk will describe Xeclipse and its results, which guided the design of the XENONnT liquid purification system.

      • 146
        ArgonCube: A Novel Design for Modular Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

        ArgonCube is a novel design for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr TPCs), segmenting the total detector volume into a number of electrically and optically isolated TPCs sharing a common cryostat.
        For the charge-readout, a pixelated anode plane is employed, providing unambiguous 3D event reconstruction.
        In order to maximise the active TPC volume a new technology is used for field-shaping, replacing the classical field-cage with a continuous resistive plane.
        Large dielectric light-collection tiles within the TPC allow for an efficient detection of prompt scintillation light.
        ArgonCube has found application in the near-detector of the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, DUNE, and is also proposed for one of the four far-detectors.

      • 147
        Characterization of charge-sensitive tile anode for the nEXO experiment TPC

        nEXO is a proposed tonne-scale experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay. In its current design it will be a single-phase time projection chamber (TPC).
        Particular care is given to the anode, especially a design consisting of a charge-sensitive tile is under study. A modular array of tiles can collect e$^-$ from a wide area. Since the tile provides 2d reconstruction, a TPC without Frisch grid can in principle be built, reducing the radioactive background.
        Hence, the induction signal can be studied, potentially leading to a better energy reconstruction and its shape could also be used to discriminate signal from background.
        A dedicated TPC has been built to test such tile in liquid xenon and to explore the potential benefit of a gridless approach. Results from this setup will be shown, including simultaneous light/charge detection and the study of PSA using the tile. Improvement on these two aspects could enhance energy resolution and background discrimination in nEXO.

      • 148
        The Light-only Liquid Xenon (LoLX) Project

        The LoLX project aims to study the properties of light emission in LXe. Investigating timing characteristics of both the scintillation and Cherenkov light, LoLX will explore the abilities of single-phase LXe detectors for particle physics and medical imaging. The first phase of the LoLX detector consists of 24 Hamamatsu VUV4 Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), giving a total of 96 channels arranged in an octagonal cylinder. Covering 88 of the channels are long-pass filters, which block the Xe scintillation light allowing for independent measurements of the long-wavelength Cherenkov and VUV scintillation light. The first stage of LoLX aims to measure the Cherenkov and scintillation yields from 90Sr beta-decays and 210Po alpha-decays. This data will validate optical transport simulations using GEANT4 and VUV light reflectivity measurements performed at TRIUMF. LoLX is currently commissioning and taking initial data, the current state and outlook for the LoLX project will be presented.

        Speaker: Dr Thomas MCELROY (McGill University)
    • 3:30 PM
    • Experiments: High energy physics: Block 3
      • 149
        The SHiP experiment

        The Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) experiment has been proposed for construction at the Beam Dump Facility at CERN SPS. SHiP is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles such as Heavy Neutral Leptons.
        SHiP is composed of two detector systems located downstream of the target, absorber and muon shield.
        The first is the Scattering and Neutrino detector, based on Tungsten-emulsion bricks and scintillating fiber, dedicated to the study of $\nu_{\tau}$ and light DM interactions. This is followed by a 50m long vacuum decay volume surrounded by a liquid scintillator veto. The final part of the vacuum vessel holds the straw tube spectrometer tracker. Downstream of the vessel are a timing layer, a lead-scintillator calorimeter with additional high resolution micromegas layers and a fast muon detector.
        The combination of shielding, accurate tracking and background tagging systems is expected to make SHiP a zero-background experiment with unprecedented sensitivity.

      • 150
        Detector instruments and technologies for Super Charm-Tau Factory in Novosibirsk

        The Super Charm-Tau Factory is an electron-positron collider experiment in the center of mass energy range from 2 to 6 GeV with peak luminosity 10$^{35}\text{cm}^{-1}\text{s}^{-1}$. The luminosity in 100 times higher than at BES-III experiment will be provide due to implementation of Crab-Waist scheme of collision and submillimeter vertical beta-function. Also the high level of longitudinal electron beam polarization in the interaction point is foreseen in the whole operation energy range. Concept of accelerator complex and preliminary physics program of the experiment is presented. R&D for some detector systems has been started at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and at some other Institutes in the world as well. Description of detector systems, consideration of different options and detector technologies for the experiment are given. Status of R&D for detector subsystems including simulation and prototyping are presented.

        Speaker: Alexander Barniakov (Novosibirsk State University (RU))
      • 151
        Running Experience with the Novel Time of Propagation (TOP) Barrel PID Detector in the Belle II Experiment

        The Time of Propagation (TOP) detector is a novel particle identification system developed for the barrel region of the Belle II detector at the SuperKEKB collider at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The detector is based on reconstructing the emission angle of Cherenkov photons generated in its quartz radiator bars by measuring the propagation time of individual photons to the Micro-Channel Plate PMT sensor plane. The readout electronics for the 8192 channels of the TOP system are built around a switched capacitor array waveform sampling ASIC operating at 2.7 GSa/s. Realtime processing in the front end electronics extracts the individual timing of detected photons to better than 100 ps.

        The physics programme of Belle II is underway since March 2019, with continuously increasing luminosity delivered to the detector. This talk presents the current experiences and results from commissioning, calibration and operation of the Belle II TOP detector in these first Belle II physics runs.

        Speaker: Dr Oskar Hartbrich (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
      • 152
        Test-beam performance of a TORCH prototype module

        The TORCH time-of-flight detector is designed to provide a 15 ps timing resolution for charged particles, resulting in pi/K particle identification up to 10 GeV/c momentum over a 10 m flight path. Cherenkov photons, produced in a quartz plate of 10 mm thickness, are focused onto an array of micro-channel plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs) which measure the photon arrival times and spatial positions. A half-scale (660 x 1250 x 10 mm^3) TORCH demonstrator module has been tested in a 5 GeV/c mixed proton-pion beam at the CERN PS. Customised MCP-PMTs of active area 5 cm^2 and granularity 64 x 64 pixels have been employed, which have been developed in collaboration with an industrial partner. The single-photon timing performance and photon yields have been measured as a function of beam position in the radiator, giving measurements which are consistent with expectations. The expected performance of TORCH for high luminosity running of the LHCb upgraded experiment has been simulated.

        Speaker: Neville Harnew (University of Oxford (GB))
      • 153
        First year of commissioning of mCBM at GSI/FAIR

        The Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment (CBM) at FAIR is designed to measure at unprecedented interaction rates up to 10MHz to study extremely rare probes in nucleus-nucleus collisions with high precision. Hence, CBM will be equipped with fast and radiation hard detector systems, readout by a free-streaming data acquisition system, transporting data with up to 1TB/s to a large scale computer farm, which provides first level event reconstruction and selection. To test and optimize all components and their complex interplay including firmware and software under realistic conditions the CBM full-system test-setup mCBM ("mini-CBM") comprising pre-series components and final prototypes of all CBM detector subsystems and their read-out chains has been set-up at the present SIS18 facility of GSI/FAIR. The commissioning of mCBM has started with runs in March, November and December 2019, performed within the FAIR Phase-0 program. First results of the mCBM beam campaigns will be presented.

        Speaker: David Emschermann (GSI Helmholtzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH)
    • Experiments: Neutrino: Block 2
      • 154
        Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay (LEGEND)

        LEGEND is a proposed ton-scale $^{76}$Ge-based neutrinoless double beta ($0\nu\beta\beta$) experimental program with discovery potential at a half-life greater than $10^{28}$ years. The first 200-kg phase (LEGEND-200) is currently under construction and detector installation at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (Laboratori Nazionale del Gran Sasso, LNGS) will start in 2020. With a background index in the signal region of interest around $Q_{\beta \beta} = 2039$ keV of 0.6 cts / FWHM / ton / year and a data-taking period of 5 years, LEGEND-200 is expected to achieve a half-life sensitivity of $10^{27}$ years.

        In this contribution, I will present the current status of LEGEND-200 and discuss ongoing R&D efforts to overcome the experimental challenges presented by LEGEND-1000.

      • 155
        The Liquid Argon Instrumentation of GERDA and LEGEND-200

        The GERDA experiment reached the most stringent limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in $^{76}$Ge. A median sensitivity of $1.1\cdot10^{26}$ years and a lower half-life limit of $0.9\cdot10^{26}$ years (90% C.L.) were achieved with a background index of $5.6^{+3.4}_{-2.4}\cdot10^{-4}$ cts/(keV kg yr). This low background rate was obtained by a combination of pulse shape discrimination and operating bare germanium detectors in a large instrumented liquid argon (LAr) volume. The LAr instrumentation rejects events with coincident energy depositions in the germanium detectors and the surrounding LAr. In 2020 the GERDA infrastructure is handed over to the LEGEND collaboration. The first Phase, LEGEND-200, targets a background index below $2\cdot10^{-4}$ cts/(keV kg yr). Based on the success in GERDA, a LAr instrumentation for LEGEND-200 is currently being produced. This talk presents the results of GERDA's LAr system and describes the design of the LEGEND-200 LAr instrumentation.

        Speaker: Mr Patrick Krause ( Technische Universität München)
      • 156
        Design and Status of the JUNO experiment

        The next-generation experiment JUNO, expected to begin operation in 2021, will advance the capability of reactor neutrino experiments to determine neutrino mass ordering and precisely measure several neutrino mixing parameters. JUNO also has rich physics programs on supernova-neutrinos, solar-neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, proton decays and exotic searches. JUNO has one 20-kton liquid-scintillator (LS) central detector, two redundant muon veto systems, complementary calibration systems, and FADC readout electronics system. The designed energy resolution of 3%/sqrt(E) is expected to be achievable with the high photocathode coverage and highly transparent liquids. Here the design and new technical advances of JUNO will be introduced, with particular focus on the progress of central detector, the production and testing of high-efficiency MCP-PMT, strategy for highly transparent and radio-pure LS, comprehensive energy calibration program, progress of electronics and veto system, etc.

      • 157
        The one-ton scale detector of the CUORE experiment

        The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first bolometric experiment searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) that has been able to reach the one-ton scale. The detector, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, consists of an array of 988 TeO$_2$ crystals operated as cryogenic bolometers at 10 mK. The construction of the experiment was completed in August 2016 with the installation of the detector. CUORE is currently in stable operation and has accumulated data corresponding to a TeO$_2$ exposure approaching 500 kg∙yr, placing the most stringent limit on 0νββ half-life of $^{130}$Te.
        In this talk, we present the design of the CUORE experiment, with a particular focus on the bolometric technique. We also describe the signal-to-noise optimization methods applied in standard operations and during noise reduction campaign. We finally present the detector performance, giving a brief overview of the achieved CUORE physics results.

        Speaker: Dr Laura Marini (University of California, Berkeley)
    • Readout: Front-end electronics: Block 4
      • 158
        Performance of the "IRSX" multi-GSa/s, Switched Capacitor Array Waveform Sampling Frontend ASIC

        The "Ice Ray Sampler X" (IRSX) is a low-power 8-channel waveform sampling frontend ASIC designed for HEP applications, fabricated by TSMC in a 250nm CMOS process. Each input channel samples into a switched capacitor array (SCA) of 32,768 samples depth at an adjustable rate of 2-4GSa/s, for an effective sample buffer depth of 8-16$\mu s$. Stored samples can be digitised with 12bit resolution using the integrated Wilkinson ADC, without incurring any dead time on the sampling. The sample storage array is designed for random access for both sampling and digitisation, allowing for flexible acquisition schemes depending on the application.

        The IRSX ASIC is currently being used in the 8192 channel front end electronics of the Belle II TOP detector. This talk will present performance figures and characterisation measurements of the IRSX ASIC obtained from test bench campaigns and during the operation in the installed TOP system.

        Speaker: Oskar Hartbrich (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
      • 159
        bunch-by-bunch vertical beam size monitor for SuperKEKB

        A novel bunch-by-bunch vertical beam size monitor was developed for the SuperKEKB storage rings (e+ and e-) at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. Each monitor is capable of resolving the pattern of synchrotron radiation from each passing bunch of charge. The nanobeams, which are new for SuperKEKB, produce a 5-15 keV spectrum of X-Rays with a small opening angle. The Si sensor is 75 um thick with 128 strips (50 um pitch), and it is facing the beam edge-on (2.6 mm depth) to improve stopping power at higher energies. To further increase light yield, a coded aperture is used in lieu of a pinhole slot. The readout is based on that of the Time-of-Propagation counter in the Belle2 detector (also at SuperKEKB). One of the current challenges is to do feature extraction to reconstruct the beam size in real-time. Results will be presented from the first campaign of data taking during the Fall 2019 and Spring 2020 SuperKEKB runs, and a comparison will be made to an integrating scintillator+camera readout.

        Speaker: Matt Andrew (University of Hawaii)
      • 160
        Front End Electronics Module Design for the Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope (SCT) Camera

        The SCT telescope has been proposed as a medium-sized telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. One of the major upgrades is to fully equip the telescope camera with improved SiPM sensors and a new Front End Electronics Module (FEEM). The new FEEMs aim to read-out and digitize the SiPM pre-amplified signals down to the single photoelectron (phe). This phe signal is assumed equivalent to a signal with 2 mV peak amplitude and 500 MHz maximum bandwidth. The FEEM should have a linear response up to 2 V for a required dynamic range of 1000 phe. A noise equivalent of 0.5 phe is an acceptable value. Due to the severe mechanical constraints to have a compact electronics and low noise performances, the FEEM consists of two stacked-up submodules, one dedicated to the power supplies and the other to house the FPGA wich reads-out and send digitized data to the main backplane. The new FEEM is capable of digitizing 64 analog channels with a sampling frequency of 1 GSamples/s.

      • 161
        High resolution imaging and time resolution using capacitive division

        The capacitive division image readout (C-DIR) is a mechanically and electronically simple charge centroiding readout for single photon imaging detectors such as microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. Its purely capacitive nature endows it with a) very high signal bandwidth allowing MCP-limited time resolution, and b) low capacitance measurement nodes, allowing improved signal to noise charge measurement and correspondingly finer spatial resolution at higher throughput. We describe an implementation of an MCP detector with C-DIR, optimised to provide combined high spatial and temporal resolution in single photon counting operation. The C-DIR is instrumented with high-speed front-end electronics utilising a fast waveform digitizer with a sample rate in excess of 1Gsample/s. We present results of the spatial and temporal resolution, and throughput of the detector system, and discuss the possible design variations which allow these performance parameters to be traded off against each other.

      • 162
        Development of the front-end electronics for Hyper-Kamiokande

        The Hyper-Kamiokande is a next-generation Water Cherenkov detector, of 68 m diameter and 71 m height, for neutrinos physics and proton decay search. We plan to install the front-end electronics (FEEs) under the water and near the PMTs to collect the PMT’s signals with less deterioration in the large detector, and then connect electronics to downstream DAQ with optical fibers. Key design priorities include high reliability and redundancy since we cannot access the FEEs after the installation. We are developing the digitizers using QTC and TDC implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a timing system giving synchronization among all the FEEs, etc. The system should have sub-ns timing resolution to maintain the timing resolution provided by the PMTs. In this study, we implemented a prototype on FPGAs and confirmed that the digitization performance is promising in the feasibility test. We will report the status of the latest R&D.

    • Sensors: Gaseous Detectors: Block 1
      • 163
        Studies of Gain Elements and Gases for a High Rate TPC

        A report will be presented on the performance of Time Projection Chamber gas amplification elements that have been utilized and gases proposed for next generation central tracking detectors, including an option with continuous readout at high luminosity. The presentation will focus on issues critical for high rate detector operation, such as the positive ion backflow (IBF) and energy resolution of these structures. Different gas mixtures were studied for a 4-GEM TPC readout setup to select options with low transverse diffusion, high electron drift speed and acceptable IBF. We have proposed, simulated, and measured the properties of a combination of a MicroMeGas (MMG) detector with two Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) for high rate TPC applications. HV supply reactions to sparks for the MMG setup with/without a resistive layer for protection were studied with the TPC application in mind.

        Speaker: Dr Richard Majka (Yale University)
      • 164
        NoAmpTPC, a direct read-out of primary ionization electrons for high pressure gaseous TPC

        Time projection chambers read by gaseous detectors are widely used but the gaseous amplification has several drawbacks: constraints on the gas mixture, energy resolution degradation, ion backflow in the drift volume. The present project proposes to detect directly the primary ionization electrons, with several applications: hydrogen TPC as proton active target, search for neutrinoless double-beta decays in Xenon, very low ion backflow TPC,... Primary electrons will be read by very low-noise (around 100 e⁻) IDeF-X read-out chips developed at CEA Saclay, connected to a read-out plane with an optimized electron collection.

        Different geometries were optimized with Garfield++ simulations. A small-scale prototype TPC is under production as well as new IDeF-X front-end cards, and will be tested with radioactive sources and different gas mixtures. The performance in terms of electron collection efficiency, noise level, signal to noise ratios, and energy resolutions will be presented.

        Speaker: Damien Neyret (Université Paris-Saclay (FR))
      • 165
        Novel triple-GEM design for CMS-ME0 detector and preliminary performances

        In the framework of the HL-LHC project, the upgrade of the CMS Muon System foresees the installation of three new muon stations based on the GEM technology, named as GE1/1, GE2/1 and ME0 detectors. The CMS GEM Group has developed a novel construction design of GE1/1 triple-GEM detectors; in particular, a new self-stretching technique has been introduced to mechanically stretch the GEM foils without using spacer grids or glue inside the gas volume. As has been observed, the PCB boards get deformed under the internal gas overpressure, introducing irregularities in the planarity of the detector, which could potentially affect the uniformity of the detector performance. New solutions and design upgrades have been implemented to prevent such effects in future GE2/1 and ME0 upgrade projects. We will focus in particular on the novel design solutions based on the PCB pillars, which the group adopted for realization of the latter projects, and their impact on the performance of the detector.

        Speaker: Davide Fiorina (Universita & INFN Pavia)
      • 166
        An experimental study to understand the physics behind charging-up of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM).

        Charging-up is a common phenomenon observed while working with gaseous ionization detector having dielectric material. It is mainly comprised of two processes namely, the polarization of dielectric due to exposure of high electric field and collection of charges on the dielectric surface. Both of these charging-up processes affect the gain of the detector as they change the local field configuration around the dielectric. In present work, we have studied these effects separately using experimental techniques for a single GEM detector. It has been observed that due to polarization the gain increases following a curve similar to charging-up of a capacitor. However, the radiation charging-up reduces the gain which depends on radiation rate. As the rate increases the rate of collection of charges on GEM dielectric accelerates. Its effects are important for experiments where beam current changes significantly with time and in TPC application which requires gain to be stable over time.

        Speaker: Mr Vishal Kumar (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Homi Bhabha National Institute)
      • 167
        A novel technique for the measurement of the avalanche fluctuation of a GEM stack using a gating foil

        Gas amplification of the electrons created by X-rays or charged particles plays an essential role in their detection with gaseous detectors. However, its gain fluctuates because of avalanche statistics, thereby degrading the energy resolution for monochromatic X-rays or the spatial resolution at long drift distances for large Time Projection Chambers (TPCs). We have developed a novel technique for the measurement of the size of avalanche fluctuation using a gating device (gating foil) for the TPC in the future linear collider experiment. In addition to the gating function, the gating foil is capable of controlling the average fraction of drift electrons to be detected after gas amplification. The energy resolution or signal width for 55Fe or laser irradiation as a function of the transmission rate of the gating foil can be used to determine the relative variance of gas gain. We present the measurement principle, and the results obtained with a stack of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs).

        Speaker: Mr Keita Yumino (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, SOKENDAI, KEK)
    • Plenary: Plenary 3
      • 168
        Vertex detector, motivation and technology

        Motivate vertex detector at collider. Describe technologies.

        Speaker: Susanne Kuehn (CERN)
      • 169
        Fast timing vertex tracking

        Motivate fast timing. Present new technologies (LGADs,...)

        Speaker: Abraham Seiden (University of California,Santa Cruz (US))
    • 10:30 AM
    • Plenary: Plenary 4
    • 12:30 PM
    • Readout: Trigger and DAQ: Block 1
      • 170
        Algorithm design and expected performance of the ATLAS L1 calorimeter trigger for Run 3

        The ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger hardware will be upgraded between the end of Run 2 and the start of Run 3. An overview of the hardware upgrades will be presented. Details of the algorithm design will be presented, along with the projected performance for electrons, jets and missing transverse momentum triggers.

        Speaker: Ben Carlson (University of Pittsburgh)
      • 171
        FELIX: commissioning the new detector interface for the ATLAS trigger and readout system

        The ATLAS experiment will undergo a series of upgrades during the 2019-2021 LHC shutdown to maintain physics performance in the increasingly harsh collision environment. The Front-End Link eXchange (FELIX) will be introduced into the readout system as part of this upgrade. FELIX will be the interface between the data acquisition; detector control and TTC (Timing, Trigger and Control) systems; and any new or updated trigger and detector front-end electronics. FELIX is a router between custom serial links from front-ends to data collection and processing systems via a commodity switched network. FELIX also forwards the LHC bunch-crossing clock, fixed latency trigger accepts and resets received from the TTC system to the front-ends. FELIX uses FPGA-based PCIe I/O cards hosted by commodity servers running a software routing platform serving data to network peers. This presentation will cover FELIX design and the results of installation and commissioning activities in spring 2020.

        Speaker: Shaochun Tang (Brookhaven National Laboratory (US))
      • 172
        ECAL trigger performance in Run 2 and improvements for Run 3

        This presentation will summarize the ECAL trigger performance achieved during LHC Run 2 (2015-2018). It will describe the methods that are used to provide frequent calibrations of the ECAL trigger primitives during LHC operation. These are needed to account for radiation-induced changes in crystal and photodetector response and to maintain stable trigger rates and efficiencies up to |eta|=3.0. They also minimize the spurious triggering on direct signals in the photodetectors used in the barrel region (|eta|<1.48). Both of these effects have increased relative to LHC Run 1 (2009-2012), due to the higher luminosities experienced in Run 2. Further improvements in the energy and time reconstruction of the CMS ECAL trigger primitives are being explored for LHC Run 3 (2021-23), using additional features implemented in the on-detector readout. The main features of these improved algorithms will be described and preliminary estimates of the expected performance gains will be presented.

        Speaker: Abraham Tishelman Charny (Northeastern University (US))
      • 173
        The Global Level-1 Trigger for CMS at the High-Luminosity LHC

        The new trigger system will be able to receive tracks reconstructed from silicon tracker hits by a level-1 track trigger and will evaluate algorithms that were previously reserved to the high-level trigger, such as vertex finding and particle flow. The final element in the level-1 trigger, the Global Trigger, will receive a large number of physics object collections reconstructed with different flavours of algorithms and will perform the final event selection through parallel evaluation of O(10^3) trigger algorithms. Besides cut-based algorithms, which will include topological conditions such as invariant or transverse mass, the Global Trigger will also be able to evaluate machine-learning based algorithms . We present studies leading to the design of the Global Trigger system, and discuss challenges in the FPGA firmware implementation on Xilinx Virtex Ultrascale Plus FPGAs, such as optimising resource usage by working at higher clock frequencies while keeping latency as low as possibl

    • Sensors: Emerging Technology: Block 1
      • 174
        Low background detectors for low energy X-rays in the scope of IAXO

        In the scope of the search for axions and axion like particles (Alps) with helioscopes, like the International Axion Obeservatory (IAXO) and its precurser BabyIAXO, detectors capable of measuring low energy X-rays down to the 200 eV range are necessary. For this purpose the GridPix detector is an appropriate solution, which has already been used successfully at CAST.
        The GridPix is a MicroMegas like readout consisting of a pixelized readout ASIC (Timepix/Timepix3) with a perfectly aligned gas amplification stage, which is photolithographically built on top of the ASIC. This detector is capable of detecting single electrons allowing the measurement of low energy X-rays. To convert these the X-rays into electrons a small gas volume is built above the readout sealed with an X-ray entrance window. this detector is only composed of radiopure materials to reach the background goals of IAXO.
        The challenges of the design process and the current status of the detector will be presented.

        Speaker: Mr Tobias Schiffer (University of Bonn)
      • 175
        Development of a detector for a gravity measurement on positronium at the AEgIS experiment at CERN

        The primary goal of the AEgIS experiment is to measure the gravitational acceleration on antimatter by means of deflectometry/interferometry. This requires the simultaneous detection of the impact position and time of arrival of the atoms at a detector with high resolution. The detection of a low-velocity positronium (Ps) beam with (88 ± 5) µm spatial resolution was demonstrated [1]. Based on this methodology, a hybrid imaging/timing detector with increased spatial resolution was developed. The detection scheme is based on field-ionization of the Ps atoms, followed by the imaging of the ionization products by a microchannel plate (MCP). The read out of the MCP with a TimePix3 chip provides time resolution on a ns-scale. Sub-pixel resolution is achieved by applying an event centroiding algorithm. The concept of the detector is presented in detail and results of first performance tests are shown.

        [1] C. Amsler et al., Nuclear Instr. and Methods in Physics Research B 457 (2019) 44-48

        Speaker: Mrs Lisa Glöggler (CERN/TU Berlin)
      • 176
        Superconducting Microwave Cavities for the Axion Dark Matter Experiment (ADMX)

        The Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX) searches for Axions, a hypothetical dark matter candidate, through conversion to photons in a high magnetic field that are subsequently detected within a resonant cavity. The rate that this detector is able to scan potential axion masses (or photon frequency) depends linearly on the cavity quality factor. Though Superconducting Radio Frequency cavities (SRF) have been shown to have several orders of magnitude higher quality factor than copper, their quality factors typically degrade in the high magnetic fields required for Axion detection. Type II superconducting thin films have shown the potential for improved quality factors beyond that of bulk superconductors in a high magnetic field. In this work, we present our progress on studying different superconducting cavity materials for future ADMX detectors.

      • 177
        Imaging of single Ba atoms and Ba+ ions in solid xenon for barium tagging in next-generation 136Xe double beta decay experiments

        The identification, or “tagging” of the barium-136 daughter atom that results from double beta decay of xenon-136 provides a promising technique for elimination of all backgrounds except 2-neutrino double beta decay in future generations of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. We have demonstrated that individual Barium atoms can be imaged and counted in two of four matrix sites in solid xenon. We report new progress towards single Ba+ ion imaging in the one favored matrix site and imaging in the remaining Ba sites. The Ba tagging scheme being developed utilizes a cryogenic probe to trap the 136Ba daughter atom in solid xenon and extract it from a liquid xenon time projection chamber, such as the nEXO design concept. The barium atom is then tagged via fluorescence imaging in the solid xenon matrix. An important feature of the method is that any residual Ba atoms on the probe surface do not create an observable signal, only those that are captured in the solid xenon.

        Speaker: Prof. William Fairbank (Colorado State University)
      • 178
        Barium Tagging for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay using Single Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

        The identification of a single barium ion in coincidence with an energy deposit measured with a precision of 1% in xenon is widely recognized as an unambiguous signature of neutrinoless double beta decay. The detection of single ions in tons of xenon, however, is a major experimental challenge. In this talk I will discuss barium tagging methodologies based on single molecule fluorescence imaging adapted to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers. Recent advances in ion sensing chemistry and gas phase microscopy will be presented, followed by a discussion of the subsequent R&D steps planned by the NEXT collaboration to enable an ultra-low background, barium tagging neutrinoless double beta decay technology.

    • Sensors: Gaseous Detectors: Block 2
      • 179
        New R&Ds and applications of THGEM

        Thick GEM (THGEM) is one of the promising micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs), its attractive advantages are high gain, robust and low cost. THGEM is suitable for Digital Hadron Calorimeter(DHCAL), TPC tracker readout, muon、neutron and single photon detection, and so on. In recent years, we developed some new types of THGEMs, such as new FR4 THGEM, ceramic THGEM, Multi-layer THGEM (M-THGEM), Well THGEM (W-THGEM). The performances of these THGEMs were tested and optimized to meet the requirements of applications, including gain, gain stability and uniformity, sparking rate, low out-gassing, low radioactivity. The big-area THGEM and mass production are pushing forward. The THGEMs have been applying to X-ray imaging, thermal neutron detection, electron beam detection and optical readout. The latest results will be presented.

      • 180
        High-performance 1D- and 2D-readout planes with optimized charge sharing properties for Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors

        We report on results which demonstrate that it is possible to achieve significant improvements in the spatial resolution of the planar 1D and 2D MPGDs with a relatively coarse pitch by using optimized zigzag-shaped readout electrodes instead of the conventional straight strips and square pads. The emerging readout plane configurations exhibit virtually no differential non-linearity (DNL) in response, therefore eliminate the need in the for so-called pad response functions. They can deliver spatial resolutions as good as ~50-60 $\mu$m for pitch values of 2-3 mm, and show very little "tails" in the otherwise clean Gaussian residual distributions. Test beam data will be presented for various types of avalanche schemes (GEM, micromegas, $\mu$RWELL) and several straight, and zigzag strip, and pad geometries, in a wide range of pitch values. Practical issues of readout board manufacturing via traditional wet etching as well as by a more advanced laser ablation process will be discussed.

        Speaker: Alexander Kiselev
      • 181
        Measurement of gas properties in a Spherical Proportional Counter

        NEWS-G (New Experiments With Spheres-Gas) is an experiment searching for dark matter using the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC) technique. SPCs are low capacitance detectors which allow the detection of gas ionisation with very low (single electron) thresholds. It consists in a grounded metal sphere with a small sensing anode at the center, creating a radial electric field.
        Using a UV laser, we extract electrons from the sphere surface, which allows a fine calibration of gain, diffusion and drift time of electrons in the SPC. When combining this with the signal from a $^{37}$Ar gaseous radioactive source, we can measure the mean ionisation W for various gas mixture. We will also show results on the effect of space charges from drifting ions on the properties of the detector. For this, we will compare in particular data taken in high background on a surface lab, and data taken in a low background detector in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM, France).

      • 182
        RPC performance with new environmentally friendly gas mixtures in presence of LHC-like radiation background

        Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are widely used at the CERN LHC experiments. They are operated with a gas mixture containing C2H2F4 and SF6, both greenhouse gases (GHG) with a high global warming potential (GWP). The search of new environmentally friendly gas mixtures is necessary to reduce GHG emissions and costs as well as to optimize RPC performance.
        Several new gases with low GWP have been identified as possible replacements for C2H2F4 and SF6, for example in the family of the hydrofluoroolefins and 3M Novec fluids. More than 60 eco-friendly gas mixtures have been investigated on 2 mm single-gap RPCs, by measuring the detector performance in terms of efficiency, streamer probability, induced charge, cluster size and time resolution. RPCs performance and aging properties were also studied at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with some selected eco-friendly gas mixtures.
        A complete overview of the results obtained in laboratory and at GIF++ will be presented.

        Speaker: Beatrice Mandelli (CERN)
      • 183
        A new readout scheme to read RPC

        A new readout scheme allowing the exploitation of Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) spatial precision while using a limited number of electronic channels was designed. The new scheme that exploits the spread of the RPC induced charge on several adjacent inter-connected pads, allows the simultaneous detection of several particles without ambiguity. In this scheme, pads are connected in rows through buried vias in a genuine way so the charged induced by the passage of one particle is shared among pads belonging to different directions. The pads of one row are connected to one electronic channel. The position of the particle is determined by the intersection of the rows associated to the fired pads. PCBs with pads of lozenge shape were produced and equipped with HARDROC ASICs. They were then successfully tested on detectors in a cosmic bench. To equip large detectors, a modular electronic board using this scheme was conceived and successfully tested.

    • Technology Transfer: Block 1
      • 184
        A Large Area GEMPix detector for treatment plan verification in hadron therapy

        We propose a novel detector for quality assurance in hadron therapy, for which an accurate dose calculation and verification with high spatial accuracy are required. For this purpose, a promising tool is the GEMPix detector, which combines a triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and a quad Timepix ASIC used as highly pixelated readout. The GEMPix (active area 28x28 mm$^2$) is capable of providing 2D images of the beam with high spatial resolution, the Bragg curve and the 3D energy deposition. Although promising, a wider sensitive area is required to cover the typical radiation field size and to avoid losses due to beam spread out.
        We present an original solution named LaGEMPix by replacing the ASIC by a matrix of organic photodiodes coated on an oxide thin film transistor backplane produced by Holst Centre/TNO. We combined the two technologies and developed this innovative detector to achieve a wider area (60x80 mm2) imaging detector and to fully exploit its optical readout capability.

        Speaker: Ms Andreia Cristina Maia Oliveira (CERN, FCT and Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics (AEC), Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland)
      • 185
        Development and Testing of Multi-Radiation Systems for the Characterisation of Nuclear Facilities.

        A compact scintillation detector system based on SiPM and GAGG:Ce crystals has been developed to provide a small $\gamma$-spectroscopy system for the deployment in pipe-work with suspected nuclear contamination. The sensor also shows very good performance in the detection of $\beta$-particles.
        An energy resolution of 7% for $E_\gamma=662 keV$ has been achieved with a peak-to-total ratio of 34% at this energy.
        The radiation hardness of the material was studied for the first time by examining the photo-luminescence spectrum for a variety of doses up to 100 kGy, delivered by a calibrated $^{60}Co$-source. A deterioration of 15% has been found.
        The presentation will detail the design, tests and performance of the system and compare this to the requirements of nuclear and environmental science.

        Speaker: Bjoern Seitz (University of Glasgow)
      • 186
        Pixelated silicon detectors for the measurement of small radiation fields in proton therapy

        Advanced imaging and treatment techniques in proton therapy allow conformal high dose irradiation of the target volume with high precision using pencil beam scanning or beam shaping apertures. These irradiation methods increasingly include small radiation fields with large dose gradients at the edges, which require the development of new micro dosimetry systems with precise spatial resolution and small sensitive volume for quality assurance.
        Based on their good spatial resolution and high rate compatibility, pixelated silicon detectors could meet the new requirements.
        To assess their usability for micro dosimetry in proton therapy, as well as to determine the absolute proton flux, ATLAS Pixel detectors with Silicon sensors are used to measure transverse beam profiles of different irradiation modes at WPE in Essen, Germany.

        Speaker: Ms Isabelle Schilling (TU Dortmund)
      • 187
        Fragmentation Measurements In Particle Therapy: Status and plans of the FOOT Experiment

        Due to the advantageous characteristics of charged particles' energy deposition
        in matter, proton or $^{12}$C beams are used to treat deep-seated solid tumors.
        Using these beams, the maximum of the dose is released to the tumor tissues at
        the end of the beam range, in the Bragg peak region. In this process
        nevertheless, fragmentation of both projectile and target nuclei can occur
        in the nuclear interactions of the beam with the patient tissues and needs
        to be carefully taken into account.
        The goal of the FOOT (FragmentatiOn Of Target) experiment is to estimate
        both target and beam fragmentation cross sections in the energy range of
        interest for hadrotherapy, in order to provide new data for medical physicists
        and radio-biologists and to improve the new generation of Treatment Planning Systems (TPS).
        In this talk the project, the status of the different sub-systems construction and the plans
        for the final assembling will be presented.

        Speaker: Dr Benedetto Di Ruzza (TIFPA-INFN & University of Trento)
      • 188
        Monitoring Novel Proton Radiotherapy Treatment Modalities using MAPS

        Proton radiotherapy uses beams of protons to treat cancer. In Proton radiotherapy the dose can be localised to the cancer volume with a reduced dose to healthy tissue caused by the incident beam, and almost no dose downstream. Novel ways of delivering the dose during proton radiotherapy are under development, two such techniques form the basis of this work. The first is FLASH proton therapy, it has been shown that delivering the dose fast enough leads to futher sparing of healthy tissue whilst still maintaining tumour control.The second is spatially fractionated proton radiotherapy, known as grid therapy which also spares healthy tissues. We will present the development of delivery systems for these modalities at the University of Birmingham MC40 cyclotron and results obtained using a commercially available MAPS device to monitor the treatment delivery of these modalities, compare to the standard procedures, and discuss the dosimetry required for these novel beams.

    • 10:30 AM
    • Experiments: Trackers: Block 3
      • 189
        Performances of the cylindrical Micromegas Vertex Tracker at the CLAS12 experiment for the 2017-2019 physics run.

        At Jefferson Lab, the new CLAS12 spectrometer has been collected its first physics data with a 10.6GeV electron beam at a luminosity of $10^{35}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. The Central Vertex Tracker (CVT) is situated within a 5T-solenoidal field surrounding a proton target. It consists of a tracker based on Micromegas and silicon detectors used in combination, in order to optimize spatial resolution and low material budget for the tracking of low momentum recoil protons.

        We will report on the performances of the Micromegas Vertex Tracker (MVT) and its operation during CLAS12 physics run. The MVT consists of 18 cylindrical Micromegas that operated in a 5T magnetic field and 2MHz integrated particle rate. These challenging condition makes of the MVT one of the most ambitious design in the MPGDs world. The detectors and electronics followed by the performances during physics run will be presented followed by an outlook on the possible future of Micromegas at the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC).

      • 190
        The Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS New Small Wheel upgrade

        The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has chosen the resistive Micromegas (MM) technology, along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), for the HL upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW). Installation of the first NSW is foreseen in 2020. The construction of the four types of large size quadruplets, with surface areas between 2 and 3 m2, will be reviewed. The achievement of the requirements for these detectors revealed to be even more challenging than expected, when scaling from the small prototypes to the large dimensions. We will describe the encountered problems, to a large extent common to other micro-pattern gaseous detectors, and the adopted solutions. Final quality assessment and validation results on the achieved mechanical precision, on the High-Voltage stability during operation with and without irradiation will be presented together with the most relevant steps and results of the modules integration into sectors.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 191
        A Compact TPC for the sPHENIX Experiment

        The sPHENIX detector at RHIC is being designed to precisely measure jets, jet correlations, and dilepton pairs with the goal of learning about the energy-dense quark-gluon plasma. With these measurements in mind, sPHENIX will employ a compact TPC covering 20cm < r < 78 cm and |𝜂| < 1.1 as the central tracker.

        Utilizing an optimized Ne-CF4 gas mixture, zigzag readout pads, a 1.4T solenoid, and a modified SAMPA chip for streaming readout, the TPC will provide a satisfactory position resolution for measuring target observables in a high event rate environment.

        Quad-GEMs will be used for gain and reduction of ion-backflow (IBF) below 1%. The study of a passive gating grid to further reduce IBF is currently underway. In addition, the design of a state-of-the-art laser system for calibration and monitoring of space charge distortions is being finalized. The design of the TPC, space charge elimination and compensation technologies, and test beam results will be presented.

        Speaker: Henry Klest (Stony Brook University)
      • 192
        Preliminary results from the cosmic data taking of the BESIII cylindrical GEM detectors

        BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer III) is a multipurpose spectrometer optimized for tau-charm physics. Detector and accelerator are upgrading to allow BESIII to run until 2029.

        Cylindrical Gas Electron Multipliers will replace the inner drift chamber to improve both secondary vertex reconstruction and the radiation tolerance. The CGEM-IT will be composed of three concentric layers of cylindrical triple GEMs read out with TIGER electronics in 110 nm CMOS technology. The front end custom ASIC features fully digital output operated in triggerless mode. It provides analog and time measurements with a TDC time resolution better than 100 ps.

        The CGEM-IT project, TIGER features and performance, and analysis of first cosmic ray data taking will be presented. Focus will be on the strip analysis, measuring basic detector properties, and cluster analysis, including a comparison with results with planar prototypes. First results on efficiency and spatial resolution will be also presented.

      • 193
        Development of in-situ calibration system using LED and light guide for the SuperFGD

        T2K is a long-baseline neutrino experiment based in Japan that aims to observe for the first time the violation of the CP symmetry in the neutrino sector. The upgrade of the magnetized near detector (ND280) is under development. The neutrino active target is a 3D highly segmented plastic scintillator detector (SuperFGD) made of about two million cubes. The light readout is based on sixty thousand SiPMs coupled with wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers. It can track charged particles and precisely measures the produced scintillation light to provide very good particle identification performances. We are developing the LED calibration system for in-situ calibration. Two configurations are investigated to distribute the LED light to the WLS fibers in limited space: one uses notched square clear fibers while the other one uses a notched light guide plate. We will present the R&D status of both configurations.

        Speaker: Takuji Arihara (Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University)
    • Readout: Trigger and DAQ: Block 2
      • 194
        CALICE SiW ECAL - Development and performance of a highly compact digital readout system

        A highly granular silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (SiW-ECAL) is the reference design of the ECAL for International Large Detector (ILD) concept, one of the two detector concepts for the detector(s) at the future International Linear Collider. Prototypes for this type of detector are developed within the CALICE Collaboration. Since 2019 a highly compact digital read out card, called SL-Board, is available. The SL-Board combines data acquisition, power regulation and signal buffering for up to 10000 readout channels on a surface as small as $18\times 4\,{\rm cm^2}$. The card complies with space constraints in ILD. The SL-Board can be readout with an USB interface or through a dedicated module, called CORE Module.
        The system has been used for the first time in a beam test in Summer 2019 at DESY for the readout of 4 layers. In the next beam test in March 2020 we will readout 15 layers with the new system.

      • 195
        The Terabit Readout Architecture for the LHCb VELO Upgrade

        The current Vertex Locator (VELO) detector will be replaced from strips to pixels in the LHCb upgrade in 2020. This work focuses on the architecture of the readout chain and the challenges of the high speed data transmission and processing. The readout is divided in 3 parts: frontend VeloPix ASIC, the control and timing interface ASIC (GBTx), and the the FPGA backend board. The VeloPix is a new radiation hard, high speed ASIC with specific data transfer protocol. The highest occupancy ASIC will see 900 Mhit/s adding up to 4 Tb/s for the whole detector. The detector is placed in a retractable system in vacuum at an extremely high radiation environment. The data transmission at 5.13 Gb/s is performed through low mass and flexible links, which underwent a long simulation and testing campaign. The backend board must collect and time order data from different frontends sending them to the high level trigger at 100 Gb/s, where the full event reconstruction occurs.

        Speakers: Karol Hennessy (University of Liverpool (GB)), Jan Buytaert (CERN)
      • 196
        The CMS Data Acquisition System for the Phase-2 Upgrade

        During LS3, the CMS Detector will undergo a major upgrade for the Phase-2 of the LHC physics program, starting around 2027. The upgraded CMS detector will be read out at a data rate of up to 50 Tb/s with an event rate of 750 kHz, selected by the level-1 hardware trigger, and an average event size of 8 MB. We present the baseline design of the DAQ.

        A DAQ and Timing Hub (DTH) board acts as an interface between the synchronous clock-driven domain of the back-end electronics of the sub-detectors and the asynchronous data-driven domain of the the networking and processing equipment for the event building and selection.
        The design of the DTH in ATCA standard and measurements with the prototype board will be presented. Results will be presented on the data flow from aggregating back-end electronics end-points into sub-events and transfer over simplified TCP/IP from the FPGA in to multiple 100 Gbps Ethernet network ports and PC hosts, and subsequent event building with RDMA over Ethernet.

      • 197
        Serenity: An ATCA data-processing platform for CMS HL-LHC upgrades

        Serenity is a data-processing platform designed for use in the HL-LHC upgrades of the CMS tracker, endcap calorimeter and level-1 trigger, whose electronics systems will consist of several hundred cutting-edge boards connected by tens of thousands of high-speed optical links. The Serenity ATCA blade provides common services, including up to 11.6Tb/s of optical I/O and an on-board CPU. The data-processing FPGAs are hosted on daughter cards, maximising the use of common hardware across different systems. Firmware and software frameworks have been developed for the board management and for infrastructure surrounding the application-specific processing logic (e.g. links to on- and off-detector boards). In this talk, I will summarise the status of the Serenity platform, focussing on: the design of the software and firmware; how we overcame the challenge of developing common frameworks that support a diverse range of systems; and the knowledge gained from recent system tests.

        Speaker: Tom Williams (Science and Technology Facilities Council STFC (GB))
    • Sensors: Light-based detectors: Block 1
      • 198
        Precision Timing with LYSO:Ce Crystals & SiPM Sensors for the CMS MTD Barrel Timing Layer

        The central Barrel Timing Layer (BTL) will be based on LYSO:Ce crystals read out with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The BTL will use elongated crystal bars, with double-sided read out, with a SiPM on each end of the crystal, in order to maximize detector performance within the constraints of space, cost, and channel count. We will present an overview of the MTD BTL design, detailed in the recently released technical design report, and will review the extensive R&D studies carried out to optimize the MTD BTL crystal-based technology and the test beam results in which the goal of 30 ps timing resolution has been achieved. We will also present progress in the development of the dedicated readout electronics for the BTL, as well as a brief overview of the overall mechanics, cooling, and plans for system tests, installation, and integration into CMS.

      • 199
        Light yield and uniformity measurements of different scintillator tiles and first studies of 4th generation Hamamatsu SiPMs

        We present new light yield and uniformity measurements of hexagonal scintillator tiles since they provide a better match to the cells of the SiD electromagnetic calorimeter. They also yield a better signal-to-noise ratio than square tiles. We use three different readout schemes: via a Y11 fiber, a directly coupled SiPM at the center of the tile in a dimple and a SIPM attached to the side of the tile in a dimple. All tiles have an area of 9 cm^2. Our standard wrapping consists of two layers of Teflon tape at each side and two layers of Tyvec paper for the top and bottom faces. However, we show light yield measurements for different wrappings. We use Hamamatsu S13360 and the fourth generation S14160 MPPCs. For the latter we have measured gain, noise and afterpulsing as a function of the bias voltage. Furthermore, we present light yield and uniformity measurements of ATLAS TileCal tiles with SiPM readout. The goal is to read out the fiber bundle with an MPPC array rather than a PMT.

        Speaker: Prof. Gerald Eigen (University of Bergen (NO))
      • 200
        High-quality aerogel Cherenkov radiators recently developed at Chiba

        Japan’s KEK laboratory started developing silica aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator around 1980. The high-energy physics group at Chiba University began aerogel R&D 15 years ago, collaborating with KEK. Improving aerogel transparency enables the design of state-of-the-art ring-imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. This study was first motivated by the radiator R&D for the Belle II Aerogel RICH (ARICH) detector. The technology was later transferred to the HELIX RICH and EMPHATIC ARICH detectors. In parallel, ultrahigh- and ultralow-refractive-index aerogels were developed for filling the gap in available indices for the identifications of low- and high-momentum particles, respectively. These were and will be employed in the ongoing and future hadron experiments in Japan and for the EMPHATIC beam identification counters at Fermilab and the NASA HELIX balloon payload in Antarctica. We report the latest results from the aerogel R&D and ongoing applications to threshold-type and RICH counters.

      • 201
        Study of a windowless RICH detector with C3F8 radiator

        Particle identification(PID) is crucial to particle physics experiments. The Ring Imaging Cherenkov(RICH) detector has been widely used for PID in a large momentum range, and long gaseous radiators are required to identify high-momentum particles. As to reduce the radiator length, a concept of windowless RICH was recently proposed and investigated.
        In this work, a windowless RICH detector with an MPGD-based PD was designed. Its performance was simulated for different gaseous radiators including CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F10. Significant improvement on effective light yield by ~ 5 times was observed for all radiators. However, the fact that the PD has to use the same gas as the radiator poses a great challenge to the windowless RICH. A prototype of the windowless RICH was built to study the windowless concept with C3F8 radiator. The prototype was tested with cosmic rays. This report will describe the design of the windowless RICH prototype and present preliminary results on its performance.

        Speaker: Jianxin Feng (University of Science and Technology of China (CN))
      • 202
        Li6-doped plastic scintillators for reactor antineutrino detectors

        In recent years, significant progress has been made at LLNL in synthesizing a new class of plastic scintillators that support Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) and Li-6 doping. Two distinct chemistries have been developed to solubilize Li-6 compounds in organic solvents, in which they are typically insoluble. Elements as large as 40cm have been produced, with efforts continuing to improve manufacturing procedures for larger components. These developments open new opportunities in fast and thermal neutron detection, as well as for reactor antineutrino detectors. Plastic PSD scintillator materials can enable new detector geometries, potentially reduce system complexity, and are straightforward to handle and transport. In this presentation, we will describe the materials and performance metrics. Material performance will be described in the context of a 64-segment Li6-doped plastic scintillator detector with SiPM readout which would have otherwise been difficult or impossible to realize.

    • Technology Transfer: Block 2
      • 203
        Development of a GridPix X-ray polarimeter

        In our group there are several gaseous detectors in development based on a highly granular pixel ASIC (Timepix/Timepix3) and a MicroMegas gas amplification stage (InGrid). The MicroMegas is aligned with the pixel structure so that one grid hole is directly above one pixel. The combination of the Timepix and the InGrid is called GridPix. Its advantage is its high granularity combined with low noise which gives the possibility of high resolution tracking and single primary electron detection.
        To build an X-ray polarimeter based on a GridPix one uses the correlation of the polarisation plane and the emission angle of photoelectrons. By tracking the photoelectrons with the GridPix one can identify their emission angle and reconstruct the polarisation plane of the incoming photons.
        I will present the working principle of a GridPix X-ray polarimeter as well as measurements from recent testbeams. Furthermore I will give an outlook on our future plans for the development of such a detector.

        Speaker: Mr Markus Gruber (University of Bonn (DE))
      • 204
        Optimisation of Silicon Strip Trackers for Proton Computed Tomography

        Proton radiotherapy offers an improved healthy tissue to tumour ratio compared with conventional x-ray radiotherapy when treating certain forms of cancer. Conversion from x-ray CT to proton stopping powers can lead to uncertainties in the dose delivery of >3%. The development of proton CT to directly measure the stopping powers has proven very promising over the last five years. With the move to pencil beam scanning delivery systems the environment for proton tracking and proton CT is now much more challenging. We will present results on the optimisation of the OPTIma silicon strip proton trackers for proton tracking in such an environment. Particular emphasis will be placed on the strip thickness to minimise coulomb scattering, strip pitch to optimise data rate and position resolution, and the arrangement of the individual planes to negate the ambiguities caused by multiple protons traversing the system in a single readout cycle due to constraints of dose rate during delivery

      • 205
        Novel neutron detectors with high spatial and time resolution and their readout electronics

        Thermal neutrons are used in different fields as archaeology, cancer therapy, material science or fundamental particle physics. To enhance capabilities of neutron facilities, the development of high precision thermal neutron detectors and their readout electronics is indispensable. Due to Helium-3 shortage, new detector concepts are sought.

        The Bonn group transfers well-understood Micro-Patter Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) from particle physics to precisely detect neutrons: Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and the Time Projection Chamber. We will evaluate Micro Channel Plates (MCP) in the future. The readout electronics is common to all projects and we employ the Scalable Readout System, developed by the RD51 collaboration. For the neutron TPC and MCP detectors, the Timepix3 pixel chip is used, while the VMM chip reads out the GEM-based detector anode strips.

        Detector concepts and their application in thermal neutron detection are shown, followed by presenting the readout electronics.

        Speaker: Michael Lupberger (University of Bonn (DE))
      • 206
        The active Pulse Tube noise cancellation technique of the CUORE experiment

        The CUORE experiment operates 742 kg of TeO$_2$ crystals as cryogenic bolometers at ~10 mK. The CUORE cryostat – the today’s largest mK infrastructure in the world – provides the cooling power at 4 K by mean of five Pulse Tube (PT) cryocoolers. The success of the experiment stands on the capability to mitigate the mechanical vibrations, which can significantly spoil the detector energy resolution. In this contribution we present an innovative, simple and effective technique to drive the relative phase of the PT pressure waves, that drastically reduces the detector noise by suppressing the amplitude of PT harmonics power up to a factor 10$^4$. This result validates the technology and will ease the development K and sub-K environments based on cryogen-free systems and demanding low-noise and large-cooling power. Besides calorimetric searches in physics, these also include industry-oriented applications such as tunneling microscopy, quantum computing and semiconductor manufacturing.

        Speaker: Antonio D'Addabbo (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 207
        Single Photon Air Analyser

        Gas and particulate analyzers are a group of devices used to measure and monitor the concentrations and sizes of gas or particulates in a volume. These devices have numerous applications from providing adequate safety to the working personnel in petroleum, chemicals, and power industries, to air quality monitoring and forest fire detection. Despite the ongoing researches in this field, the current systems are either both bulky and expensive or have low accuracies.
        This research work is aimed at developing a high accuracy, low power, and cost-effective particulate analyzer sensor based on the single-photon UV detectors used for particle physics experiments. The sensor works based on the Mie scattering theory and it comprises a 265 nm UV LED light source, an enclosure for guiding the light, and SiPMs located at different angles around the scattering volume. This paper summarizes the promising results for the first prototype of the Single Photon Air Analyzer.

    • 12:30 PM
    • Experiments: High energy physics: Block 1
      • 208
        Small-Strip Thin Gap Chambers for the Muon Spectrometer Upgrade of the ATLAS Experiment

        The largest phase-1 upgrade project for the ATLAS Muon System at LHC is the replacement of the first forward stations with New Small Wheels (NSWs). Along with Micromegas, NSWs will be equipped with 8 layers of small-strip thin gap chambers (sTGC) arranged in multilayers of 2 quadruplets, for a total active surface of more than 2500m2. Each sTGC plane must achieve a spatial resolution better than 100μm to allow trigger track segments to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1mrad. sTGC consist of a grid of gold-plated tungsten wires sandwiched between 2 resistive cathode planes at a small distance from the wire plane. The precision cathode plane has strips with a 3.2mm pitch for precision readout and the cathode plane on the other side has pads for triggering. The sTGC design, performance, construction and integration status will be discussed, along with results from tests of chambers with nearly final electronics with beams, cosmic rays and high-intensity radiation sources.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 209
        Performance of the ATLAS RPC detector and L1 Muon Barrel trigger at $\sqrt{s} = 13$~\TeV

        We will discuss the performance of the Resistive Plate Chambers detector (RPC) and the Level-1 Muon Barrel trigger of the ATLAS experiment during the LHC data taking at 13 TeV. The Level-1 Muon Barrel trigger operates at the 40 MHz LHC collision rate and uses the RPC to select muon candidates in the barrel region. The RPC detector consists of 3600 gas volumes arranged in three concentric double layers, operating in approximately 0.5 Tesla toroidal magnetic field. Performance results would include measurements of RPC detector response and efficiency using muons produced in pp collisions. Measurements of the trigger timing and efficiency, total time resolution and readout system would be also presented. In order to extrapolate detector response to High Luminosity LHC regime, the detector efficiency was also measured at different high voltage and front-end electronics threshold settings, and gas volumes currents were measured as a function of instantaneous luminosity and high voltage.

        Speaker: Muon Coll ATLAS (ATLAS)
      • 210
        The Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Endcap Muon Trigger

        The CMS muon endcap trigger is being upgraded to prepare for data taking at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The upgrades are needed to cope with the increasing data rate in a challenging environment and to improve the sensitivity of the detector to physics beyond the standard model with displaced muons. Through the mid 2020s, the muon endcap system will be instrumented with new Gas Electron Multipliers and improved Resistive Plate Chambers in the forward region. In addition, the existing muon chambers will be equipped with new optical electronics and trigger algorithms. Furthermore, novel Machine Learning algorithms will be deployed on advanced FPGAs to reconstruct prompt and displaced muons at the same time. This talk will discuss the design and performance of the upgraded muon endcap trigger.

        Speaker: Sven Dildick (Rice University (US))
      • 211
        The Upgrade of LHCb VELO

        The Vertex Locator (VELO), surrounding the interaction region of the LHCb experiment, reconstructs the collision points (primary vertices) and decay vertices of long-lived particles (secondary vertices). The upgraded VELO will be composed of 52 modules placed along the beam axis divided into two retractable halves. The modules will each be equipped with 4 silicon hybrid pixel tiles, each read out with by 3 VeloPix ASICs, glued onto a thin silicon plate with embedded micro-channels that allow the circulation of liquid CO$_2$. The silicon sensors must withstand an integrated fluence of up to 8$\times 10^{15}$ 1 MeV n$_{eq}$/cm$^{2}$, a roughly equivalent dose of 400 MRad. The highest occupancy ASICs will have pixel hit rates of 900 Mhit/s and produce an output data rate of over 15 Gbit/s.

        The design of the VELO upgrade will be presented with the results from the latest R\&D and detector construction.

      • 212
        First results and surface commissioning experience with the New Small Wheel ATLAS Upgrade

        For the LHC luminosity upgrade, ATLAS will install 2 muon New Small Wheels (NSW), which will significantly reduce the fake muon trigger rate and maintain muon tracking performance in the end-cap region of the detector. NSWs are made Micromegas (MM) and sTGC, both to be used for precision tracking and triggering, providing a total of 16 layers of redundancy. Detectors of both technologies are being combined into sectors at CERN. This contribution will introduce the steps and tests performed when the detector modules are installed on the NSW structure. These tests include the connection and usage of the final services, noise runs, pulser tests, calibration , trigger path validation and some cosmic track data to validate the entire readout chain. Moreover, the analysis methods and tools shall be outlined, along with the DAQ and Trigger chain. This set of final validation steps is a major milestone for the NSW project and for the ATLAS collaboration.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
    • Experiments: Space and particle astrophysics: Block 1
      • 213
        A new gamma-rays all sky monitor for multimessanger astronomy: the Crystal Eye

        With the observation of the gravitational wave event of August 17th 2017 the multi-messanger astronomy era has definitely begun. With the opening of this new panorama, it is necessary to have new instruments and a perfect coordination of the existing observatories.
        Crystal Eye is a detector aimed at the exploration of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational waves. Such events generated by neutron stars’ mergers are associated with γ-ray bursts (GRB).
        At present, there are few instruments in orbit able to detect photons in the energy range going from tens of keV to few MeV. These instruments belong to two different old observation concepts: the all sky monitors (ASM) and the telescopes.
        The detector we propose is a crossover technology, the Crystal Eye: a wide field of view observatory in the energy range from 10 keV to 10 MeV with a pixelated structure.
        A pathfinder will be launched with Space RIDER in 2022. We here present the full characterization of the first pixel.

        Speaker: Felicia Carla Tiziana Barbato (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
      • 214
        A compact low threshold gamma-ray detector composed of LaBr3 and SiPMs for GECAM

        The Gravitational wave high-energy Electromagnetic Counterparts All-sky Monitor (GECAM) project is the planned China’s space telescopes launched in 2020 for searching gamma-rays from gravitational wave events such as double neutron stars merging. GECAM features instantaneous full-sky monitor with two micro-satellites, which can be achieved with relatively short time and small cost based on China’s space technology. A compact low threshold gamma-ray detector composed of LaBr3 crystals and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) was successfully developed, which energy threshold, size, and power consumption can meet the requirements of GECAM. A prototype, φ76×15 mm LaBr3 crystal coupled with SiPMs array, has been built and tested. The experiment results show, low-energy 5.9 keV X-ray can be clearly seen at the energy spectrum with a detection efficiency 72%, the energy resolution is 6.5% (FWHM) at 662 keV and the read out method is simple with only one parallel channel.

      • 215
        A Camera for the Small Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

        The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will use three telescope sizes to effectively detect cosmic gamma rays in the energy range from several tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV. The Small Sized Telescopes (SSTs) will form the largest section of the array, with up to 70 telescopes covering an area of many square kilometres on the CTA southern site in Paranal, Chile. The SSTs will provide unprecedented sensitivity to gamma rays above 1 TeV and the highest angular resolution of any instrument above the hard X-ray band. CTA has recently finalised the technology that will be used for the SSTs: the telescopes will be a dual-mirror design and will be equipped with a compact, SiPM-based camera with full waveform readout. Here, we describe the requirements for the SST Camera, the technology used and the challenges that will be encountered in producing many maintainable and reliable cameras required for the largest ever gamma-ray observatory.

      • 216
        The Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland

        The Radio Neutrino Observatory in Greenland (RNO-G) is designed to make the first observations of ultra-high energy neutrinos at energies above 100 PeV via the detection of Askaryan radiation, and serve as a technology pathfinder for IceCube-Gen2. The experiment will comprise 35 autonomous stations deployed over a 5 x 6 km grid near to NSF's Summit Station in Greenland, making it the largest ground-based neutrino telescope when complete. The electronics chain of each station is composed of deep and surface 150-600 MHz RF antennas, low-noise amplifiers, custom RF-over-fiber systems, 2.0 GSa/s switched-capacitor array digitizers and an FPGA-based phased array trigger. The trigger will achieve a 2 sigma per-antenna threshold with a background rate of 1 Hz while an entire 24 channel station will operate at 25 W. In addition to the experiment's RF electronics, I will present on the power, DAQ, and communications systems as well as plans for the first season of deployment in Summer 2020.

      • 217
        Pathfinders for the Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment

        The Pacific Ocean Neutrino Experiment (P-ONE) is a new initiative between Canadian and German groups that aims to construct a large volume neutrino telescope in the Northeast Pacific Ocean and, in this way, complement the sky coverage of the existing or under construction neutrino telescopes. As part of the NEPTUNE observatory, established by ONC, two pathfinders were initiated and connected to the Cascadia Basin node, which will host P-ONE. The first pathfinder STRAW (STRings for Absorption length in Water), deployed in June 2018, has measured the optical properties of the deep Pacific Ocean. Besides that, it is also monitoring the in-situ background rates due to K40 decay and bioluminescence. STRAW-b, the second pathfinder, aims to further characterize the deployment site with its six specialized modules, consisting of two LiDARs, three spectrometers and a muon tracker. The talk covers technical details and preliminary results of both pathfinders and concludes with an P-ONE outlook.

        Speaker: Christian Spannfellner (Technical University of Munich (TUM))
    • Readout: Trigger and DAQ: Block 3
      • 218
        Implementation of A High Throughput IO System for Detector Control System of JUNO

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is the second phase of the reactor neutrino experiment upgrade from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. The detector of the experiment was designed as 20k ton LS with an inner diameter of 34.5 meters casting material acrylic ball shape. Due to the gigantic shape of the detector there are approximate 400k channels of monitoring points of devices and sensors.The framework migration and upgrade are needed for DCS of the experiment. In addition to the use of control systems EPICS-based data acquisition and detector controls software have been developed. The paper will introduce the new framework of DCS based on Linux. The implementation of the high throughput IOCs of the high-voltage, stream device drivers and the embedded temperature firmware will be presented.The modular design allows multiple configurations of the data preprocessing plug-in to be set according to the requirements of the neutrino detector and instrument.

      • 219
        Experience and performance of persistent memory for the DUNE data acquisition system

        The DUNE detector is a long baseline neutrino experiment due to take data in 2025. The data acquisition system of the DUNE experiment will consist of a complex and distributed architecture designed to handle O(5) TB/s of incoming data from the readout system at a rate of 2 MHz.

        One of the physics goals of the DUNE experiment is to detect neutrino signals from Supernova Burst events. These appear as distributed low energy signals. In order to achieve this goal, the DAQ system needs to store the data in 10s transient buffers. Once the trigger decision has been taken, the data has to be continuously persisted for 100s at a rate of 10 GB/s for each detector unit.

        In this contribution, we present studies on the DAQ system for the supernovae burst events. After an initial characterization of the performance of both Intel Optane SSDs and Persistent Memory devices, we present the results of an initial prototype capable of handling a data rate of approximately 10 GB/s for 100s.

      • 220
        Commissioning of the Waveform-Sampling Scintillator Readout for the Belle II KLM Detector

        Commissioning of readout electronics for the Belle II K-Long and Muon (KLM) detector is discussed. Belle II is located at the interaction point of the SuperKEKB particle collider in Tsukuba, Japan. The KLM subdetector, formerly made solely from resistive-plate counters, has been partially upgraded with polyvinyltoluene scintillating bars, each covered in a TiO$_2$ reflective coating, embedded with a wavelength-shifting fiber, and instrumented with a Hamamatsu silicon photo multiplier (SiPM). The SiPM signals are read out by a giga-sample per second waveform-sampling ASIC with 16 $\mu$s of analog storage, the TARGETX. Each ASIC reads out 15 channels, and groups of 10 ASICs are controlled by a Spartan-6 FPGA. Challenges faced while commissioning the scintillator readout electronics are highlighted, including calibration of all $\sim$20k channels, TARGETX calibration, operation at a mean trigger rate of 30 kHz, and development of firmware with full-waveform readout and feature extraction.

        Speaker: Christopher Ketter (University of Hawaii)
      • 221
        Development of level-1 trigger system in Belle ll experiment

        Belle ll experiment at SuperKEKB, high luminosity electron-positron collider, searches for new physics by consucting a detailed measurements of B meson and tau particles. In order to trigger physics events with high efficiency under high background environment, we developed level-1 trigger system based on central drift camber and electromagnetic calorimeter. We describe an overview of our level-1 trigger system and its performance during 2019-2020 physics run.

      • 222
        NSW sTGC Front-end electronics integration and commissioning

        The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has chosen resistive Micromegas technology and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) for the high luminosity upgrade of the first muon station, New Small Wheel (NSW), in the high-rapidity region. Both technologies provide trigger and precision tracking. A total number of 768 pad Front-end Boards (pFEB), 768 strip Front-end Boards (sFEB) and 512 Level-1 Data Driver Cards equipped with custom-designed radiation tolerance ASICs will be installed on 64 sectors for sTGC. Over 400k channels will be checked on both readout and trigger path with the final front-end link exchange (FELIX) system. Many inter-chip phases,channel-by-channel uniformity and ADC linearity will be scanned to examine the performance of FEBs. The connectivity from FEBs to the back-end trigger electronics will also be checked to ensure the data transmission. The detailed procedure, criteria and results for NSW sTGC Front-end electronics integration and commissioning will be further discussed.

        Speaker: Muon Coll. ATLAS (ATLAS)
    • Sensors: Solid-state position sensors: Block 3
      • 223
        Latest Results on the Radiation Tolerance of Diamond Pixel and Pad Detectors

        As nuclear and particle physics facilities move to higher intensities, the detectors used there must be more radiation tolerant. Diamond is in use at many facilities due to its inherent radiation tolerance and ease of use. We will present radiation tolerance measurements of the highest quality poly-crystalline Chemical Vapor Deposition (pCVD) diamond material for irradiations from a range of proton energies, pions and neutrons up to a fluence of 2 x 10^16 particles/cm^2. We have measured the damage constants as a function of energy and particle species and compare with theoretical models. We also present measurements of the rate dependence of pulse height for non-irradiated and irradiated pCVD diamond pad and pixel detectors, including detectors tested over a range of particle fluxes up to 20 MHz/cm$^2$ with both pad and pixel readout electronics. Our results indicate the pulse height of unirradiated and neutron irradiated pCVD diamond detectors is not dependent on the particle flux.

        Speaker: William Trischuk (University of Toronto (CA))
      • 224
        Tracking charged particles with 30ps timing resolution using the TIMESPOT 3D Silicon Pixels

        The increase in instantaneous luminosity at the HL-LHC experiments will have a severe impact on event reconstruction. Original tracking capabilities could however be restored by measuring tracks with picosecond precision. The TIMESPOT Collaboration is developing innovative 3D pixel with the aim to build a demo mini-tracker using 55µm x 55µm silicon pixels with a time resolution below 50ps. A first sensors' batch was produced in 2019 by FBK in Trento, Italy. Different structures, based on different electrodes geometries, where tested during summer 2019. A high-density trench-type pixel layout was found to be particularly promising from the point of view of timing performances. In this presentation preliminary results on sensors’ time resolutions measured both in the laboratory with an infrared pulsed laser and with charged hadrons at the PSI πM1 beamline in October 2019 will be presented. In both tests sensor’s time resolutions around 30ps (sigma) were routinely measured.

      • 225
        Enhanced lateral drift sensors: Process development and expected performance

        Future experiments in particle physics foresee few-micrometer single-point position resolution in their silicon vertex detectors, motivated by e.g. b- and light-quark-tagging capabilities. Instead of scaling down pitch sizes, our sensor concept seeks to improve the position resolution by using a dedicated charge sharing mechanism. In enhanced lateral drift (ELAD) sensors, this mechanism changes the drift path deep in the sensor bulk and enables optimal resolution at a given pitch size.

        Test samples are analysed with spreading resistance profiling (SRP) and SIMS and are compared to TCAD simulations. Results of the SRP and SIMS measurements as well as the feasibility of "bulk engineering" through the combination of epitaxial growth and ion beam implantation is discussed. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of ELAD sensors in comparison to conventional planar hybrids based on test beam simulation studies carried out with Allpix Squared.

        Speaker: Hendrik Jansen (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DE))
      • 226
        Improvements of DePFET sensor technology

        The DePFET is an active pixel sensor first introduced in 1987 (Kemmer&Lutz NIMA 1987) and is utilized in and suggested for experiments in astrophysics, planetary exploration as well as particle physics. The DePFET is essentially a pMOSFET built on a high resistive, fully depleted bulk. A deep-n implant beneath the MOS-gate forms a positive potential. Electrons are collected in this “internal gate” and modulate the transistors conductivity. Geometry and operational parameters influence the gq i.e. the DePFETs “charge gain”. Recently we developed a new technology that offers a significant increase of signal to noise ratio. With respect to simulation results, these super gq DePFETs will have a charge gain about 3-4 time larger than standard DePFET devices without increasing the DePFETs effective noise. A test production is currently ongoing. Herein we will present the new Technology and discuss the expected improvements.

        Speaker: Jelena Ninkovic (Max Planck Society Semiconductor Laboratory)
      • 227
        A reconfigurable DMAPS for tracking and Digital Electromagnetic Calorimetry

        The concept of digital calorimetry relies on measuring the number of particles in a shower rather than the energy they deposit. Ultra highly granular calorimeters are required to ensure that there is one particle per cell per readout cycle to avoid saturation effects. A small sensor prototype has been designed and fabricated in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging process, using high resistivity 18 μm epitaxial layer. The prototype has a pixel matrix of 64x64 pixels with a pitch of 55x55 μm, and reads out using fast logic at 40 MHz. It can be reconfigured to function as either a binary short strip sensor, for particle tracking including as a pre-shower, or as a pad sensor, counting the number of pixels above threshold for digital calorimetry. We will present the sensor overview, MC simulations in the content of FCC-hh which guided the design, results from testing of the chip, particularly the reconfigurable logic, and results obtained when the device is illuminated with a 1064 nm laser

    • 3:30 PM
    • Experiments: High energy physics: Block 2
      • 228
        A highly granular, digital electromagnetic calorimeter prototype

        In light of the upgrade program of the ALICE detector a forward calorimeter (FoCal) is being considered that must be able to discriminate decay photons from direct photons at high energy, requiring extremely high granularity. We are constructing a unique prototype of a digital e.m. calorimeter based on CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) that should fulfil this requirement.
        The prototype, called mTower, uses the ALPIDE chip (developed for the ALICE ITS Upgrade). It will consist of 24 layers, each of 2 ALPIDE chips and 3 mm of W absorber. It allows to test the performance of the ALPIDE in a calorimeter application and will provide input into the final FoCal design parameters. In November 2019 a stack of 12 layers was tested in an electron beam at DESY and in February 2020 the full 24 layer mTower will be taking data at DESY.
        This contribution presents results from the mTower test beam campaign, and reports on the performance of the ALPIDE chip in a calorimeter application.

        Speaker: Naomi Van Der Kolk (Nikhef National institute for subatomic physics (NL))
      • 229
        R&D status of a highly granular scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter for the CEPC

        Based on the particle-flow paradigm, a highly granular sampling calorimeter with scintillator tiles as active material and stainless steel as absorber is proposed to address major challenges from precision measurements of jets at the future lepton colliders, such as the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC). A wide range of R&D efforts are being carried on with the major aim to build a fully scalable prototype. This talk will present the latest progress on the studies of the detector unit, and front-end electronics, exploration of mass-production techniques, as well as optimizations of the detector design based on the evolving CEPC Particle-Flow Algorithm. Highlights include characterizations of silicon photomulpiliers (SiPMs) from different vendors, especially a cost-effective high dynamic-range SiPM option from China, and testing of a new SiPM-readout ASIC developed within the CALICE collaboration that can potentially work continuously as required by a circular collider.

      • 230
        The upgrade of the LHCb RICH detector

        The two LHCb RICH detectors operated at the luminosity of $\sim 4 \times 10^{32}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, providing an excellent PID until the end of Run2 in 2018. From the beginning of Run3 in 2021 the Level 0 hardware trigger of the experiment will be removed to allow a data readout at the full rate of 40 MHz and the luminosity will be increased to $\sim 2 \times 10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. In order to adapt the RICH system to the new readout rate the current HPD detectors with embedded electronics limited to readout event rate of 1 MHz will be replaced by MaPMTs with external readout electronics. Moreover, in order to to maintain the average occupancy of the old RICH detector in the upgraded configuration, a reoptimization of the optics is required. In this talk the state of the art of the upgraded opto-electronics chain and the performance expected for Run3 will be presented together with the automated procedures to test the quality of the RICH photon detectors and support electronics

      • 231
        Performance of the Belle II ARICH detector after one year of operation

        The Belle II experiment aims to find physics beyond the standard model using a record size sample of B-Bbar pairs corresponding to the integrated luminosity of 50 1/ab produced in electron – positron collisions at the SuperKEKB accelerator facility in Japan. The Aerogel Ring Imaging CHerenkov counter (ARICH) is the particle identification device installed in the forward end-cap of the Belle II detector. From spring 2019 the fully equipped detector has been stably running, and has mad an important contribution to the interpretation of recorded data. The sample of di–muons events were used for the detector alignment and the measurements of the single photon angular resolution. We measured 14 mrad average angular resolution per photon and 12 photons per Bhabha electron in the 6-8 GeV/c momentum range. To determine the efficiency of the kaon identification and the pion miss-identification probability a sample of charged D* decays with a slow pion in the final state has been used.

      • 232
        Flavour Physics at the High Luminosity LHC: LHCb Upgrade II

        The LHCb Collaboration is planning an Upgrade II, a flavour physics experiment for the high luminosity era. This will be installed in LS4 (2030) and targets an instantaneous luminosity of $1.5 \times10^{34} $ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, and an integrated luminosity of at least 300 fb$^{-1}$. Physics goals include probing new physics scenarios in lepton flavour universality, obtaining unprecedented precision on CKM tests, and expanding the LHCb programme. The detector design options include the introduction of timing information with tens of pico-sec resolution across multiple sub-detectors. Opportunities for novel detector development are available across 4D vertexing, MAPS and scintillating fibre tracking, 5D electromagnetic calorimetry, hadron particle identification, DAQ and triggering. Following the issue of a physics case and accelerator note in 2018, the collaboration was approved by the LHCC to proceed to the preparation of a TDR and R&D programmes are underway across all sub-detectors.

    • Experiments: rare process: Block 1
      • 233
        A High Efficiency Cosmic Ray Veto Detector for the Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab

        The Mu2e experiment is designed to search for the charged-lepton-flavor-violating process, $\mu^-$ to a $e^-$, with unprecedented sensitivity. The single 105-MeV electron that results from this process can be mimicked by electrons produced by cosmic-ray muons traversing the detector. An active veto detector surrounding the apparatus is used to detect incoming cosmic-ray muons. To reduce the backgrounds to the required level it must have an efficiency of about 99.99\% as well as excellent hermeticity. The detector consists of four layers of scintillator counters, each with two embedded wavelength-shifting fibers, whose light is detected by silicon photomultipliers. The design and expected performance of the cosmic ray veto detector will be described.

      • 234
        The Mu2e experiment: a search for charged lepton flavor violation in muon to electron conversion

        The Mu2e experiment will measure the charged-lepton flavor violating (CLFV) neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of a nucleus. Mu2e will improve the previous measurement by four orders of magnitude, reaching a 90% C.L. sensitivity to CLFV conversion rates of $8\times10^{-17}$ or larger. The experiment will reach mass scales of nearly $10^4$ TeV, far beyond the direct reach of colliders. It will be sensitive to a wide range of new physics, complementing and extending other CLFV searches. Mu2e is under design and construction at the Muon Campus of Fermilab, and we expect to start taking physics data in 2023. I will present the physics motivation for Mu2e, the detector design, and the current experimental status.

      • 235
        The RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN

        RICH is the Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector of the NA62 experiment designed to measure the branching fraction of the ultra rare $K^{+}\rightarrow \pi^{+} \nu \overline{\nu}$ decay. The NA62 experiment took data in 2016-2018. An additional run is foreseen in 2021-2025 to complete the measurement. The RICH detector plays a fundamental role in the $K^{+}\rightarrow \pi^{+} \nu \overline{\nu}$ selection rejecting background coming from muons. It features challenging design specifications, in particular a time resolution of 70 ps and a muon misidentification of less than $10^{-2}$ in the momentum range 15-35 GeV/c. We describe the detector design and report on the achieved performance. In a long term prospect (>2026) NA62 is considering the possibility to increase the nominal beam intensity by a factor 4. The time resolution needed to match the incoming $K^+$ and the outgoing $\pi^+$ in $K^{+}\rightarrow \pi^{+} \nu \overline{\nu}$ selection must scale accordingly.

      • 236
        ALPHA-g: a measurement of antimatter gravity at CERN

        We will give you an overview of the ALPHA-g experiment at CERN to measure the gravitational force on antimatter, with the emphasis on the detector systems comprising the tracker based on radial-drift TPC, and the cosmic veto based on SiPM readout.

      • 237
        Ultracold neutron spin analysis - Counting uncharged particles and binning them according to their spin direction

        The TRIUMF Ultra-Cold Advanced Neutron (TUCAN) collaboration is currently developing a new ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source to supply the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) search experiment. Finding a nonzero nEDM, or improving its current upper limit, will shed light on the baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) - given that any measurable nEDM violates CP-symmetry which is also a crucial ingredient of BAU. The TUCAN goal is to reach a sensitivity of 1 × 10−27 e·cm.
        To successfully perform this measurement, UCN have to be counted according to their spin direction. Counting neutral particles like neutrons involves conversion processes, and analyzing their spin state relies on manipulation via oscillating magnetic fields and magnetized metal foils. This contribution will elaborate the technical details of neutron spin state analysis and their counting process.

    • Sensors: Photo-detectors: Block 1
      • 238
        The MCP based PMTs for Neutrino Detector

        The large scaler neutrino detectors (JUNO, HyperK), need the large area PMTs for the large photocathode coverage and less electronic channels. Researchers at IHEP have conceived a new concept of large area PMTs, of which the small MCP units replace the bulky Dynode chain. After several years R&D, the 20 inch MCP-PMT was successfully produced. This type of PMT has large sensitive area, high QE, and large P/V for good single photoelectron detection. The JUNO ordered 15000 pic 20-inch MCP-PMT in Dec.2015. From 2017 to 2019, all the 20-inch PMTs will be produced and tested one by one for JUNO. This presentation will talk about the R&D, the mass production and batch test result of the 12K pieces of MCP-PMT prototypes for JUNO. Further more, another Flower-liked MCP-PMT was designed with the TTS less than 5ns, and this new type of 20 inch MCP-PMT has already evaluated by the PMT group in HyperK, and also be used in the LHAASO project in China.

        Speaker: Sen Qian (Institute of High Energy Physics,CAS)
      • 239
        Status of PMT Instrumentation for the JUNO experiment

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multi-purpose neutrino experiment. The main physics goal of JUNO is determination of neutrino mass hierarchy by utilizing reactor neutrinos. There will be appropriate 20000 20” PMTs equipped for JUNO, including 15000 MCP-PMT from NNVT and 5000 dynode-PMT from Hamamatsu. To achieve the designed 3%@1MeV energy resolution, the PMTs need to have high detection efficiency, high optical coverage, and low failure rate during JUNO running. In addition, 25000 3” PMTs will be applied to JUNO to help reach the required energy resolution and enhance the physics program of JUNO. Instrumentation of these PMTs, including characterization, HV divider, waterproof potting, implosion protection and installation, has been extensively studied. By now, the final design of the instrumentation has been determined, and batch production has started. In this talk, the overall status of the JUNO PMT instrumentation will be given.

        Speaker: Dr Qin Zhonghua (IHEP, CAS, China)
      • 240
        A square, Mutl-anode MCP-PMT using 6 micrometer pore MCPs for single photon counting

        New developments have allowed, for the first time, use of $6\,\mathrm{\mu m}$ pore MCPs in $53\times 53\,\mathrm{mm^2}$ active area MCP-PMTs, enabling improved magnetic field immunity and timing performance for single photon detection applications. The performance of Photek MAPMT253 MA-MCP-PMTs using ALD coated versions of these new MCPs will be assessed and compared with the standard $15\,\mathrm{\mu m}$ pore MCPs operating with single photon counting gain ($>10^6$). Additionally, first results of an MA-MCP-PMT readout by the TOFPET2 ASIC will be presented. The TOFPET2 ASIC offers improved charge measurement linearity in time-over-threshold mode, allowing simpler amplitude walk calibration for timing performance and the possibility of utilising the charge measurement for improving the spatial resolution of multi-anode detectors beyond the pitch of the detector. Results of both time walk correction and sub-pixel resolution capabilities will be discussed

        Speaker: Thomas Conneely (Photek LTD)
      • 241
        Evaluation of Radiation Effects on VUV-MPPC caused by VUV light

        This study aimed to evaluate the effect of radiation damage on a VUV-MPPC caused by VUV light.
        We observed PDE degradation of VUV-MPPCs installed in liquid xenon γ detector for the MEG experiment under μ beam. One possible cause can be a surface damage at Si-SiO2 interface. The electric field near the interface can be reduced by accumulated holes from the ionization of incident particles.
        The VUV-MPPC was irradiated using a xenon lamp at room temperature. Relative PDE for VUV light was monitored using a xenon lamp with bandpass filters to select VUV light. The PDE for VUV light decreased during the irradiation and saturated at about 30% at the dose level of about 10^16 photons/mm^2 with wavelength of 180 nm.
        Annealing is supposed to be effective to recover PDE because the accumulate holes can be removed at high temperature. In order to see the effect, we performed annealing of the irradiated VUV-MPPC. As a result, the recovery of PDE was observed.

        Speaker: Rina Onda (University of Tokyo)
      • 242
        Studies of GaN avalanche diodes as a primary cell for a solid-state photomultiplier

        Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are now widely used in high-energy physics. They are popular because of their small size, their capability to detect single-photons, their insensitivity to magnetic fields, and their low radioactivity. It is, however, challenging to achieve high photon detection efficiencies in the UV and VUV. A feature that is very much desired in liquid Argon and Xenon detectors. Achieving good UV sensitivity is an inherent problem with any silicon-based photon detector. Compound III-V semiconductors like GaN or AlGaN, on the other hand, exhibit good UV sensitivity. Also, their spectral response can be tuned to meet the needs of a specific application. Is it thus feasible to build a GaN or AlGaN photon detector that uses the SiPM concept?

        To find out, we develop GaN and AlGaN photodiodes and test the electrical and optical characteristics of single cells operated in Geigermode. In this talk, I present our AlGaN structures and their characteristics.

    • Technology Transfer: Block 3
      • 243
        Innovative and flexible radiation monitoring systems for high-energy experiments

        In present and future collider high-energy experiments, the increase of radiation level represents a crucial issue to be carefully monitored for understanding of the beam-induced background, replacement of detector parts and the overall experiment lifetime. In this work we present two different and very flexible radiation monitors. The fist one is based on single crystal CVD diamond sensors, which allows an accurate measurement of instantaneous and integrated dose. This system is able to detect sudden large increase of doses and to implement beam abort features as experienced within Belle II experiment. A second method is based on an innovative optoelectronic instrumentation that is able to read in real-time the changes of optical properties of the radiochromic film due to the darkening induced by ionizing radiation. The simultaneous use of two dosimetric systems has been tested in electron and gamma radiation environment showing its complementary features, accuracy, radiation hardness

      • 244
        NanoRadMet: Development of Multi-Purpose, Low Mass, Beam Profile Monitors by Nanometric Metal Films Deposition

        In the IRRAD Facility at CERN, radiation hardness tests are performed using a high intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam. Over one year, the total accumulated particle fluence exceeds 1e18 p/cm2, which represents a challenge for the beam monitoring instrumentation. During the 2014-2018 run, PCBs patterned with a matrix of sensing pixels were used as Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) Beam Profile Monitors (BPMs). To improve their radiation tolerance, a EU-funded R&D project (ATTRACT NanoRadMet) is ongoing, to manufacture new BPMs by sputtering and evaporation of metal films at the nanometer scale. The reduction in metal thickness minimizes the beam interaction and opens the possibility to monitor also low-energy charged beams such as the ones used in medical applications. We report here about the fabrication of different BPM prototypes, made of Aluminium deposited on Silicon and Polyimide substrates, and their characterization with a 200 MeV electron beam at the CERN CLEAR facility.

      • 245
        Muon tomography using Micromegas detectors at CEA Saclay

        Muon tomography consists in using cosmic muons to probe structures in a neither invasive nor destructive way. Following the first muography of a water tower using a muon telescope based on Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors and developed at CEA Saclay in 2015, the gaseous detectors and electronics have been developed to be more robust to high variations of temperature, allowing to operate in Egypt for the ScanPyramids mission since 2016. More recently, simulations showed that muon telescopes based on Micromegas detectors could also be used to detect cavities for geology studies or dismantling of nuclear facility leading to several partnerships with industrials.
        However, telescopes are directional and have a limited compacity. To expand the spectrum of applications, CEA is developing a compact TPC that would allow a full track reconstruction quasi-isotropical.
        In this talk the development of muon tomography instruments using Micromegas detectors in CEA Saclay (France) are presented.

        Speaker: Ms Marion Lehuraux (CEA Saclay)
      • 246
        Gaseous Tracking Detectors at the Sakurajima Muography Observatory

        Muography is a novel imaging technology to reveal density structure of hill-sized objects. The cosmic muons predictably lose their energy and penetrate hundreds of meters into the ground, thus their differential local flux
        correlates with the crossed density-length.

        The Sakurajima Muography Observatory in Kagoshima, Japan, is the largest muography experiment targeting an active volcano.
        A set of multilayered gaseous detectors are used to reconstruct the muon tracks, thus by measuring the flux, imaging of the inner part of the vulcano becomes possible.

        The presentation will focus on the technical challenges of such a particle
        tracking system, the designed multi-wire proportional chambers,
        and the recent results from the measurements.

        Speaker: Dr Gergo Hamar (Wigner RCP, Budapest)
      • 247
        The Curious Cryogenic Fish (CCF): Development of a diagnostic robot for large cryostats

        The Curious Cryogenic Fish (CCF) is a robotic device that may in future operate in large cryostats used for particle physics experiments, such as DUNE. The goal is to perform visual inspections, diagnostic measurements and simple manipulative tasks, integrating the functionalities of a diagnostic station with the flexibility of an unmanned vehicle-manipulator.
        Such a device would allow to inspect the complete inner volume of the cryostat, contrary to the fixed cameras systems used today.
        The main focus of the paper is on the many technical challenges to be faced: energy management for unwired motion in cryogenic environments, a propulsion system that minimizes perturbation to the medium and avoids any contamination, localization and motion control relying on wireless data transmission between the inner part of the cryostat and the outside, etc. The combination of these points into a single robotic device has never been done before. First design concepts will be illustrated.

        Speaker: Alfonso Madera (Universita del Sannio (IT))
    • 6:30 PM
      Banquet (venue to be confirmed)
    • Plenary: Plenary 6
    • 10:30 AM
    • Plenary: Plenary Closing
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch box
    • 12:50 PM
      Bus to TRIUMF / Vancouver
    • 3:00 PM
      TRIUMF Tour