The large potential of the novel proton radiography/CT imaging technique can be used to determine proton stopping powers (PSPs) directly with a high precision down to 1%. To achieve that both the fast and compact detection system and the reconstruction algorithm need to be in synergy. This is crucial to determine an optimum proton treatment plan. The optimized software that reconstructs a proton passing through various tissues in the patient is absolutely necessary. It is one of the crucial parts for the accurate determination of the proton energy losses in the patient.
The reconstruction algorithm needs to consider properly the multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) of a proton passing through different tissues, which is the main cause of the image blurring. The innovative part of the project is that the algorithm needs to contain an optimized mathematical model for proton path reconstruction in the patient, which needs to process a minimum of 10^6 protons per cm^2.
Ultimately, the proton radiography/CT imaging of the patient should be performed immediately before the proton treatment delivery. After that, an immediate/online treatment plan adaptation should be done. The computation time of the proton radiography image reconstruction and the treatment plan adaptation should not exceed half a minute. Therefore, the optimum algorithm should deliver an accurate proton radiography image of the patient in this time, which can be clinically acceptable.