The main experimental astroparticle physics goals are the determination of the chemical composition of abundant cosmic rays, up to the highest possible energy scale, and the measurement of the charge and isotopic composition of superheavy cosmic-ray nuclei. Both of these components are born in the most catastrophic processes of the Galaxy and modern models are based on measured data. The NUCLEON space observatory has been designed to investigate directly the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray nuclei and their chemical composition from 1000 GeV to 1000 TeV. It was launched in 2014 and since March 2015 the space experiment has been collecting data. To investigate superheavy cosmic-ray nuclei, the NUCLEON 2 mission is planned (launching around 2022). As a continuation of the investigation, the High-Energy Ray Observatory (HERO) mission is under consideration, which is aimed at the 1 to 10000 TeV energy range. We will report on the NUCLEON apparatus design and on the main scientific results of the mission. We will also discuss the design of other promising missions. The main emphasis will be placed on the importance and necessity of calibrating the high-energy cosmic-ray apparatus at accelerators.