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By building enormous experiments in unusual locations: deep under-ground, under-water or under-ice, on mountains, in large uninhabited areas or in satellites, scientists have determined a clear picture of how the Universe has evolved since the Big Bang. But there are still large unanswered questions. What is the Dark Matter that permeates our Galaxy with 5 times more mass in the dark spaces than in the stars? Why is the Universe dominated by matter with little anti-matter left over after the Big Bang? What are the details of the mysterious Black Holes observed throughout the universe? What are the properties of the enigmatic neutrino particles? By studying particles and waves from outer space scientists are adding to our understanding of the Universe from the smallest particles to the largest scales.