XVIII International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP 2023)

University of Vienna

University of Vienna

Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
Conference website

The XVIII International Conference on Topics in Astoparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP2023) is organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Technische Universität Wien, the University of Innsbruck and the Comenius University Bratislava.

The biennial TAUP series covers recent experimental and theoretical developments in astroparticle physics by invited plenary review talks, parallel workshop sessions of invited and contributed presentations, and poster sessions.


  1. The Timetable is final. Please inform the Local organizing committee of any constraints you may have, rescheduling talks is really difficult and may not be possible in some cases.

    • Registration
    • Welcome session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 1
        Speaker: Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 2
        Speaker: Robin Golser (Universität Wien)
      • 3
        Welcome - ÖAW
        Speaker: Ulrike Diebold (ÖAW)
      • 4
        Information from the Organizers
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 5
        Observational cosmology – overview

        Next-generation cosmological experiments will considerably improve our understanding of the Univers, by providing extremely precise measurements of cosmological observables.
        Observational programs like the ground-based Simons Observatory or CMB-Stage 4, together with the JAXA satellite LiteBIRD, will characterize the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in temperature and polarization over a wide range of scales, aiming at detecting the gravitational waves generated during inflation. Galaxy surveys like Euclid (launched on July 1st, 2023), Vera Rubin Observatory and Nancy Roman Telescope will reconstruct the matter distribution in the Universe and shed light on dark matter, dark energy and the nature of gravity. I will review these observational efforts, and discuss their relevance for cosmological measurements of neutrino masses.

        Speaker: Massimiliano Lattanzi
      • 6
        Cosmic inflation and the primordial universe

        I will provide a review of Cosmic Inflation, currently our most compelling explanation for the initial conditions of the universe. Cosmic inflation predicts the existence of small initial fluctuations in the curvature field distributed according to a Gaussian statistics, and responsible for both the large-scale structure of the universe and the observed anisotropies within the cosmic microwave background. My talk will focus on the recent progress to address the generation of primordial non-Gaussianity during cosmic inflation. If detected by forthcoming cosmological surveys, such deviations could offer invaluable insights into the dynamics and interactions of various fields during inflation.

        Speaker: Gonzalo Palma (FCFM, Universidad de Chile)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee break
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Georg Raffelt (Max Planck Institut fuer Physik)
      • 7
        Physics with the large-scale structure of the Universe
        Speaker: Oliver Hahn (University of Vienna)
      • 8
        Dark Energy - new experiments
        Speaker: Marcelle Soares-Santos
      • 9
        Theory of neutrino masses, mixing, and interactions
        Speaker: Andre de Gouvea (Northwestern University)
      • 10
        Detection of supernovae, solar and geo-neutrinos – review

        Detecting low-energy neutrinos from astronomical objects and the Earth is an essential means of accessing information about the interiors of stars and planets.
        Detecting neutrinos in the Si-burning phase of a galactic supernova will allow us to predict the explosion. Disseminating the direction of the arrival of neutrinos from galactic supernova explosions to observatories will be crucial for multi-messenger astronomy. Detection of neutrinos from past supernova explosions (Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background) will provide a picture of the average supernova explosion and the history of black holes and neutron star formations.
        Observations of solar neutrinos remain essential for understanding the Sun itself, including determining the metallicity of the Standard Solar Model. It is also crucial to determine the parameters of θ12 and Δm12 through solar neutrino oscillations, and the "up-turn" of the solar neutrino survival probability can be used to verify the MSW effect and the Non-standard Neutrino Interaction.
        Decays of radioactive elements in the Earth's interior generate geo-neutrinos and heat. By measuring the geo-neutrinos on the Earth's surface, the amount of heat radiated from the Earth's interior can be directly determined, and it is expected that the mantle convection structure and chemical composition of the Earth's interior can be elucidated.
        The status and prospects of the experiments observing those neutrinos are reviewed.

        Speaker: Hiroyuki Sekiya
    • 1:00 PM
      Lunch break
    • Cosmology and Particle Physics: parallel session 1 Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Oliver Hahn
      • 11
        The Simons Observatory Small Aperture Telescopes

        The Simons Observatory (SO) is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey experiment located in the Atacama Desert in Chile at an elevation of 5200 meters, consisting of an array of three 0.42-meter small aperture telescopes (SATs) and one 6-meter large aperture telescope (LAT). SO will make accurate measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization spanning six frequency bands ranging from 27 to 285 GHz, fielding a total of 60,000 detectors covering angular scales between one arcminute to tens of degrees. In this talk we focus on the SATs, which are tailored to search for primordial gravitational waves, with the primary science goal of measuring the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio r at a target level of 𝜎(r) ≈ 0.003. We discuss the design drivers, scientific impact, and current deployment status of the three SATs, which are scheduled to start taking data in the coming year. The SATs aim to map 10% of the sky at a 2 µK-arcmin noise level observing at Mid-Frequencies (93/145 GHz), with additional Ultra-High-Frequency (225/285 GHz) and Low-Frequency (27/39 GHz) targets to yield galactic foreground-subtracted measurements.

        Speaker: Aashrita Mangu (Simons Observatory/UC Berkeley/LBNL, United States)
      • 12
        Searching for WIMP signals with galaxies - gamma rays cross correlations: optimal weights in the angular power spectrum

        Although one of the two namesakes of the LCDM cosmological model, the hypothesis of cold dark matter existence still chiefly relies on its gravitational effects, whilst both direct and indirect detection via non-gravitational signatures have not yet been achieved.
        Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) are a candidate cold relic with a mass of 1-1000 GeV:  they might then annihilate or decay in γ photons and contribute to the unresolved gamma ray background (UGRB) detected by experiments such as Fermi – LAT.  Even if dominated by an isotropic shot noise component, such emission should be more tightly tracing the LSS compared to astrophysical sources also present in the UGRB.
        The angular cross-correlation power spectrum with galaxies might enhance such anisotropy, with an indirect detection thus translating into measuring a residual signal after substraction of the astrophysical contribution.
        Typical signal shapes and amplitudes can be defined in terms of multipoles, redshift, energy and mass range of the probed halos and gauged to sensitivity and resolution of present and future instruments. Within this general framework, we present a weighting scheme of the galaxy tracer which proved effective in enhancing the anisotropic contribution of other shot noise – dominated LSS tracers, such as cosmic rays and gravitational waves, and assess its efficiency in terms of signal to noise ratio and constraining power on the WIMP mass and its annihilation or decay cross sections.

        Speaker: Andrea Maria Rubiola (University of Turin - University of Trento)
      • 13
        CMB and Lyman-alpha constraints on dark matter decays to photons

        Dark matter energy injection in the early universe modifies both the ionization history and the temperature of the intergalactic medium.
        In this work, we improve the CMB bounds on sub-keV dark matter and extend previous bounds from Lyman-$\alpha$ observations to the same mass range, resulting in new and competitive constraints on axion-like particles (ALPs) decaying into two photons.
        The limits depend on the underlying reionization history, here accounted self-consistently by our modified version of the publicly available DarkHistory and CLASS codes. Future measurements such as the ones from the CMB-S4 experiment
        may play a crucial, leading role in the search for this type of light dark matter candidates.

        Speaker: Francesco Capozzi (Università degli Studi dell'Aquila)
      • 14
        Dark matter from hot big bang black holes

        If the temperature of the hot thermal plasma in the Early Universe was within a few orders of magnitude of the quantum gravity scale, then the hoop conjecture predicts the formation of microscopic black holes from particle collisions in the plasma. These black holes may evaporate and produce the dark matter relic abundance observed today for a wide variety of dark matter masses. We study the production of dark matter in standard cosmology and in the scenario of low-scale quantum gravity such as large extra dimensions. In the former case black holes evaporate instantly, while in the latter case dark matter may accrete and become macroscopic, leading to rich phenomena in the late Universe.

        Speaker: Dr Ningqiang Song (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 15
        Effects of exotic solid-like matter in the post-inflationary universe

        Inflationary models with solid described through a triplet of fields with homogeneous and isotropic properties are consistent with observations [1] and at the same time predict unique nonlinear properties of primordial perturbations [2]. A problematic feature is the possibility of superluminal propagation of perturbations, which considerably restricts the parameter space of studied models. Assuming constant pressure to energy ratio w, this superluminality is avoided for w ≤ (19-8√7) ≈ -0.722, and the behavior of scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations considerably differs from the case with perfect fluid [3]. This illustrates possible challenges with comparing the observational data to models similar to solid inflation. In my talk, I plan to elaborate on distinctive features of solid-like matter models related to my latest research.
        [1] S. Endlich et al., JCAP 10 (2013) 011, arXiv:1210.0569 [hep-th].
        [2] P. Mészáros, JCAP 09 (2019) 048, arXiv:1905.03544 [gr-qc].
        [3] P. Mészáros, arXiv:2302.14480 [gr-qc].

        Speaker: Peter Meszaros (Department of Theoretical Physics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 1A BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Felix Wagner (HEPHY Vienna)
      • 16
        Searching for Light Dark Matter with Narrow-gap Semiconductors: the SPLENDOR Experiment

        The SPLENDOR (Search for Particles of Light Dark Matter with Narrow-gap Semiconductors) experiment is a search for light dark matter via the electron-recoil interaction channel, taking advantage of novel single-crystal narrow-bandgap (order 10-100 meV) semiconductors. Synthesized within the collaboration, the properties of these designer materials imply low dark counts when operated as ionization detectors at cryogenic temperatures. Using a readout scheme based on low-noise cryogenic high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), the experiment is on track to achieve O(1) electron-hole pair resolution. This provides an excellent opportunity to probe new light dark matter parameter space: down to sub-MeV masses for fermionic dark matter and sub-eV masses for bosonic dark matter. This talk will review the multidisciplinary R&D behind SPLENDOR, discuss the current status of the experiment, and present projected sensitivities for planned dark matter searches operated both above- and below-ground.

        This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Triad National Security, LLC, for the National Nuclear Security Administration of U.S. Department of Energy (Contract No. 89233218CNA000001). Research presented in this presentation was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Los Alamos National Laboratory under project number 20220135DR.

        Speaker: Samuel Watkins (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA)
      • 17
        Status and prospects of the SuperCDMS Dark Matter experiment

        Leading cosmological surveys and models provide strong indications for cold Dark Matter (DM) being a major constituent of our Universe. However, direct observation of the hypothesized galactic flux of DM particles streaming through the Earth remains an open quest.

        The SuperCDMS collaboration is currently constructing a Generation-2 direct DM search experiment at the SNOLAB underground facility in Sudbury, Canada. It will employ two types of state-of-the-art cryogenic Ge and Si detectors capable of detecting sub-keV energy depositions. The unique mix of target substrates and detector technologies allows for a simultaneous study of intrinsic and external backgrounds as well as exploring the DM mass range below 10 GeV/$c^2$ with world-leading sensitivity.

        In order to extend the sensitivity to lower DM masses, a precise understanding of the detector response down to the semiconductor bandgap energy is required. This effort is driven by a comprehensive prototype testing program and the development of a sophisticated Detector Monte-Carlo to guide the data analysis and model building.

        This talk will present an overview of our detector technology and recent milestones towards science operation with SuperCDMS at SNOLAB.

        Speaker: Dr Stefan Zatschler (University of Toronto)
      • 18
        Background simulations for the SuperCDMS experiment – Efficient GEANT4 simulations using Importance Biasing

        SuperCDMS is a direct detection dark matter (DM) experiment currently being constructed at the SNOLAB underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada. A complementary approach of cryogenically cooled Ge and Si crystals together with different sensor designs enables a broadband DM search for particles with masses $\le$ 10 GeV/$c^2$.

        In order to reach this sensitivity, it is crucial to understand the background composition of the measured energy spectra. For this purpose, GEANT4 based simulations are performed in which all detector, cryostat, shielding and structural components are contaminated according to their known radioactive impurities from screening measurements. The subsequent decays and particle emissions are propagated through the setup and can create energy deposits in the sensitive Ge and Si crystals. Simulations for components located far away from the detectors are very inefficient and even with an extremely high number of primary events on the order of $10^{12}$ the detected energy spectra are lacking in statistics which propagates into large uncertainties in the background composition.

        GEANT4 offers a mechanism called Importance Biasing which can increase the amount of detector hits by orders of magnitude for the same number of primary events. This talk will present the challenges of implementing Importance Biasing in our GEANT4 application and will discuss the achieved efficiency boost of the respective background simulations.

        Speaker: Dr Birgit Zatschler (University of Toronto)
      • 19
        Investigating Compton steps in SuperCDMS Si HVeV detectors

        SuperCDMS is constructing its second-generation experiment at SNOLAB to detect dark matter candidates with masses $\leq$ 10 GeV/$c^2$ using pure Ge and Si detectors operated at cryogenic temperature. These detectors are of two types. The interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon (iZIP) detectors can differentiate between nuclear and electron recoils, providing effective background rejection, while the High Voltage (HV) detectors use high voltage bias to attain excellent energy resolution and low energy threshold. To analyze dark matter search data, detailed energy calibrations of these detectors are necessary. Unlike Ge detectors, in Si detectors, we do not have activation lines that can be used in low energy calibration ($\leq$ $\mathcal O$(keV)). However, Si Compton steps can serve as an alternative for energy calibration in this region. The SuperCDMS Si HVeV detectors, with their energy resolution of $\mathcal O$(eV) and energy thresholds of $\mathcal O$(10 eV), are the perfect instruments to study the Compton steps. This work aims to investigate the K shell and L shell Compton steps at 1.8 keV and 0.1 keV, respectively, for Si HVeV detectors and compare them with calibration derived from optical photons. The understanding of Compton steps for these detectors will aid in calibrating the larger SuperCDMS SNOLAB Si HV detectors. In this conference, we will present the current status of the Compton step calibration analysis for Si HVeV detectors.

        Speaker: Mr Sudipta Das (for SuperCDMS collaboration) (School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni, 752050, India, and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094, India)
      • 20
        Measurement of low-energy Compton and neutron scattering in Si CCDs with single-electron resolution

        DAMIC-M employs skipper charged-coupled devices (CCDs) with detection threshold of just a few ionization charges to search for low-mass dark matter candidates. An important component of the background comes from small-angle Compton scatters of environmental gamma-rays which must thus be characterized down to O(10 eV) energy. We used an Am-241 source to measure gamma-ray scattering on silicon atomic shell electrons in a skipper CCD with single-electron resolution. The measurement found notable differences between data and theoretical expectations in the L-shell energy region (<150 eV). We also present preliminary data on a nuclear recoil ionization efficiency measurement in Si down to few ionization charges, obtained with a skipper CCD exposed to low-energy neutrons (<24 keV) from a SbBe photoneutron source. Lastly, we report on a novel method under exploration to identify nuclear recoils through the associated production of lattice defects in the silicon.

        Speaker: Radomir Smida (University of Chicago)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 1B Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Marco Regis (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
      • 22
        Analytical models of dark matter subhalos for indirect dark matter searches

        This talk is aimed at showing how to consistently incorporate the impact of dark matter subhalos in predictions for indirect dark matter searches, from semi-analytical methods. These have several advantages over blind extrapolations of cosmological simulation results, often used in this context, as they self-consistently account for the dynamical properties of host halos. Examples will be shown for predictions of subhalo detection in the Milky Way (in gamma rays), as well as prospects for Sommerfeld-enhanced signals from dwarf galaxies or clusters. This talk is based on a series of papers (some still to be released), e.g. 2201.09788, 2203.16491, 2203.16440, 2007.10392.

        Speaker: Julien Lavalle (LUPM (CNRS / U. Montpellier))
      • 23
        Constraints on dark matter-neutrino scattering from the Milky-Way satellites and subhalo modeling for dark acoustic oscillations

        The elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and radiation can potentially explain small-scale observations that the cold dark matter faces as a challenge, as damping density fluctuations via dark acoustic oscillations in the early universe erases small-scale structure. We study a semi-analytical subhalo model for interacting dark matter with radiation, based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism and subhalos' tidal evolution prescription. We also test the elastic scattering between DM and neutrinos using observations of Milky-Way satellites from the Dark Energy Survey and PanSTARRS1. This talk is based on arXiv: 2305.01913.

        Speaker: Dr Kensuke Akita (Institute for Basic Science, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe)
      • 24
        Could compact stars in Globular Clusters constrain dark matter?

        It has been argued that Globular Clusters can be originated as dwarf galaxies whose dark matter is then stripped through tidal interactions with the host galaxy. If that is the case, one can argue that, using compacts stars such as white dwarfs, and assuming that a dark matter component survived the stripping, it is possible to place constrains on dark matter interactions such as annihilation and scattering through observables such as the temperature of the stars. One important ingredient, is the dark matter density present in the GC, so far, only semi-analytical methods have been used to provide such value. In this work we revisit those limits using the stellar kinematics of the GC to place constraints on the dark matter density.

        Speaker: Javier Israel Reynoso Cordova (University of Turin)
      • 25
        X-rays constraints on sub-GeV Dark Matter

        In this talk, I will present updated constraints on 'light' dark matter (DM) particles with masses between 1 MeV and 5 GeV. In this range, we can expect DM-produced $e^\pm$ pairs to upscatter ambient photons in the Milky Way via Inverse Compton, and produce a flux of X-rays that can be probed by a range of space observatories. Using diffuse X-ray data from XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL, NuSTAR and Suzaku, we compute the strongest constraints to date on annihilating DM for 200 MeV < $m_{DM}$ < 5 GeV and decaying DM for 100 MeV < $m_{DM}$ < 5 GeV. I will also discuss possible future developments of these results and this technique.

        Speaker: Jordan Koechler (LPTHE - Sorbonne Université (France))
      • 26
        Effective field theories for dark matter pairs in the early universe

        We consider threshold effects of thermal dark matter (DM) pairs (fermions and antifermions) interacting with a thermal bath of dark gauge fields in the early expanding universe. Such threshold effects include the processes of DM pairs annihilating into the dark gauge fields (light d.o.f.) as well as electric transitions between pairs forming a bound state or being unbound but still feeling non-perturbative long range interactions (Sommerfeld effect). We scrutinize the process of bound-state formation (bsf) and the inverse thermal break-up process (bsd), but also (de-)excitations, providing a thermal decay width due to the thermal bath. We compute the corresponding observables by exploiting effective-field-theory (EFT) techniques to separate the various scales (the mass of the particles M, the momenta Mv, the energies Mv^2, as well as thermal scales: the temperature T, the Debye mass m_D), which are intertwined in general. To do so we make use of the so-called non-relativistic EFT (NREFT) as well as potential non-relativistic EFT (pNREFT) at finite T. These processes play an important role for a quantitative treatment of the dynamics of the relevant d.o.f. at the thermal freeze-out regime and the corresponding observables appear in the relevant evolution equations, from which we eventually determine the relic energy density of DM.

        Speaker: Mr Gramos Qerimi (Technical University of Munich (TUM))
      • 27
        Forging anti-helium in a dark matter crucible

        The cosmic-ray experiment AMS-02 has reported the possible detection of $\sim 10$ anti-helium events. Conventional production mechanisms struggle to explain the similar fluxes observed for both isotopes ${}^4\overline{\mathrm{He}}$ and ${}^3\overline{\mathrm{He}}$. In this talk, I discuss how these species could be created through "anti-nucleosynthesis" occurring in fireballs of standard model antiquarks, leptons, and photons expanding with a relativistic bulk velocity. Such fireballs may be initiated by collisions between heavy composite states in the dark sector that carry negative baryon number. Since the fireballs are thermalized, our explanation has the distinction of being agnostic to the particular dark matter model employed. It has the additional advantage of naturally producing nuclei travelling relativistically with $\gamma \sim 10$, as observed.

        Speaker: Anubhav Mathur (Johns Hopkins University)
    • High-energy astrophysics and cosmic rays: parallel session 1 Franz-König lecture hall

      Franz-König lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Xiaoyong Chu (Institute of High Energy Physics (Vienna, Austria))
      • 28
        Understanding the Origin of Cosmic-Ray Electrons

        We present the latest precision measurements of the electron flux based on 57 million electron events collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station during first eleven years of operations. These results on cosmic-ray electrons in the energy range from 0.5 GeV to 2 TeV reveal new features that are crucial for providing insights into their origins. Comparing the behavior of the electron spectrum with the spectrum of positrons measured by AMS, we found that at lower energies below few hundred GeV these two spectra have distinctly different magnitudes and energy dependences. This shows that at lower energies these two species of cosmic ray particles have very different origins. At high energies we observe that the source of high energy positrons, which has either particle or astrophysical origin, also manifests itself in the electron spectrum. This is the first indication of the existence of identical charge symmetric source term both in the positron and in the electron spectra and, as a consequence, the existence of new physics.

        Speaker: Zhili Weng (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (US))
      • 29
        Scrutinizing current uncertainties on cosmic-ray positron predictions

        Cosmic-ray (CR) antiparticles have the potential to reveal signatures of unexpected astrophysical processes and new physics. Recent CR experiments have provided accurate measurements of the positron flux, revealing the so-called positron excess at high energies. However, the uncertainties related to the modelling of the positron flux are still too high, significantly affecting our models of positron emission from pulsars and current dark matter searches.
        In this talk, I’ll show state-of-the-art predictions of CR positrons at Earth, focusing on the treatment of the secondary production of these particles. We show new cross sections derived from the FLUKA code and discuss the uncertainties related to cross sections, as well as to the other main sources of uncertainties affecting our predictions of CR positrons. Finally, we comment on the impact of these uncertainties in the evaluation of the positron emission from nearby pulsars and current WIMP searches with positrons.

        Speaker: Pedro De la Torre Luque (Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University)
      • 30
        Unique Properties of Primary Cosmic Rays: Results from the Alpha Magnetic spectrometer

        We report the latest results of primary cosmic ray proton, helium, carbon, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon, sulfur and iron fluxes based on the data collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the international space station during 11.5 years operation. The proprieties of primary cosmic rays will be discussed and systematic comparison with the latest GALPROP cosmic ray model is presented.

        Speaker: Zhaomin Wang (Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology)
      • 31
        Antiproton Flux and Properties of Elementary Particle Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the ISS

        We present the latest precision AMS measurements of the fluxes of all charged cosmic elementary particles, positrons, electrons, protons, and antiprotons based on the first 11 years of data collected on the International Space Station. These unique results, obtained with the same detector and with unprecedented precision in the uncharted energy range, provide precise experimental information and reveal new properties of cosmic charged elementary particles. In the absolute rigidity range of 60 to 525 GV, the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio is constant, and the antiproton flux and proton flux have identical rigidity dependence. This behavior indicates an excess of high-energy antiprotons compared with secondary antiprotons produced from the collision of cosmic rays. More importantly, from 60 to 525 GV, the antiproton flux and positron flux also show identical rigidity dependence. The positron-to-antiproton flux ratio is independent of energy and its value is determined to be a factor of 2 with percent accuracy. This unexpected observation indicates a common origin of high-energy antiprotons and positrons in the cosmos.

        Speaker: Zhili Weng (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (US))
      • 32
        Latest results from the DAMPE space mission

        The space-based DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) detector has been taking data since its successful launch in December 2015. Its main scientific goals include the indirect search for dark matter signatures in the cosmic electron and gamma-ray spectra, the measurements of galactic cosmic ray fluxes from tens of GeV up to hundreds of TeV and high energy gamma ray astronomy above a few GeV.

        The measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra will be reported, those being fundamental tools to investigate the mechanisms of acceleration at their sources and propagation through the interstellar medium. In particular, results on proton and helium, which revealed new spectral features, will be described.
        Ongoing analyses on light, medium, and heavy mass nuclei will be outlined, together with results on secondary-to-primary flux ratios.

        Finally, the latest results on gamma-ray astronomy and dark matter search will be also summarized.

        Speaker: Ivan De Mitri (Gran Sasso Science Institute (IT))
      • 33
        The HERD experiment: new frontiers in detection of high energy cosmic rays

        The HERD (High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detector) experiment is a future space based experiment for the direct detection of high energy cosmic rays. It will be installed on the Chinese Space Station in 2026. The detector is based on a 3D, homogeneous, isotropic, deep and finely segmented calorimeter, surrounded by multiple sub-detectors for charge, timing and track measurement. Thanks to its innovative geometry the detector will be capable to detect particles from all directions, having a large geometric acceptance. This, together with a good energy resolution, will provide the detector an effective geometric factor about one order of magnitude larger than that of current space experiments for protons and electrons detection. Thanks to this feature, the HERD experiment will measure cosmic rays proton flux up to 1 PeV, performing the first direct measurement of the cosmic ray knee region. In addition, HERD will measure electron+positron flux up to tens of TeV, and will search for possible indirect signals of dark matter and local sources of electrons and positrons. These energy limits, for protons and electrons, will be more than one order of magnitude higher than that of the current space experiments. Moreover, measuring high energy photons HERD will search for sources of high energy cosmic rays and for indirect signals of dark matter.
        In this talk we want to introduce the HERD experiment, with its innovative features, and the potential of its future measurements.

        Speaker: Dr Pietro Betti (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and INFN sezione di Firenze)
    • Neutrino and Cosmology: inter-track parallel session 1 Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: thierry lasserre
      • 34
        Searching for High Energy Neutrino Emission from Seyfert Galaxies with IceCube

        The recent 4.2$\sigma$ evidence of TeV neutrino emission from the
        nearby active galaxy NGC 1068 observed by IceCube suggests that
        AGN could make a sizable contribution to the diffuse high-energy
        astrophysical neutrino flux. The absence of TeV gamma rays from
        NGC 1068 indicates neutrino production in the innermost region of the
        AGN. Disk-corona models predict a correlation between neutrinos and
        keV X-rays in Seyfert galaxies, a subclass of AGN to which NGC 1068
        belongs. In this talk, using 10 years of IceCube muon neutrino events,
        we report the results of searches for neutrino emission from X-ray bright Seyfert galaxies.

        Speaker: Qinrui Liu (Queen's University)
      • 35
        High energy neutrinos from Seyfert galaxies

        This talk will focus on the latest observations in the study of neutrinos from Seyfert galaxies based on recent results from the IceCube observatory. We will discuss the current understanding of the underlying models that explain the observed neutrino fluxes and explore the implications for the study of high-energy astrophysics. Additionally, we will highlight the prospects for neutrino observations using the P-ONE future experiment and discuss how these measurements could further our understanding of these enigmatic objects.

        Speaker: Prof. Elisa Resconi (Technical University Munich)
      • 36
        Probing Neutrino Decay Using the First Steady-State Source of High-Energy Astrophysical Neutrinos, NGC 1068

        We use the recent discovery of the first steady-state source of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos by IceCube, NGC 1068, to probe the lifetime of neutrinos. By searching for specific features in the energy spectrum of neutrinos, we seek to detect the decay of neutrinos during their journey to Earth. Although the current event rates and uncertainties in the predicted neutrino flux from NGC 1068 limit our ability to identify novel physics signatures in the data and constrain the neutrino lifetime significantly, longer exposures and joint observations from upcoming neutrino telescopes and multi-messenger observations of NGC 1068 will improve our sensitivity to neutrino decay and other novel physics signatures. Furthermore, we demonstrate how we can use the flavour information of neutrinos inferred from the observation of cascade-like events from NGC 1068 in in-water neutrino detectors such as KM3NeT to establish more robust constraints on the neutrino lifetime, independently of the spectral shape of the neutrino flux emitted at the source.

        In summary, the detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos from NGC 1068 provides a unique opportunity to probe the neutrino lifetime and investigate novel physics signatures. Our findings suggest that longer exposures and joint efforts with other telescopes will enable us to gain a deeper understanding of neutrino decay and other physics phenomena in the near future.

        Speaker: Mr Victor Branco Valera Baca (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen)
      • 37
        PTOLEMY: Relic neutrino direct detection

        Though their imprint upon the CMB and large-scale structure of the universe remains to this day, Big Bang relic neutrinos (the CνB) have never been directly observed. This remains an outstanding test of the Standard Model in ΛCDM cosmology and would provide the earliest picture of the universe at only 1 second after the Big Bang. PTOLEMY aims to make the first direct observation of the CνB by resolving the β-decay endpoint of atomic tritium. The concept relies upon amassing a target of atomic tritium, developing RF-based trigger and tracking, an EM transverse drift filter, and a cryogenic micro-calorimeter - each of which present novel R&D challenges. A prototype will soon be based at LNGS. Intermediate measurements will be made of the lowest neutrino mass ahead of CνB physics runs set to begin in the 2030s.

        Speaker: James Mead (University of Amsterdam)
      • 38
        Neutrino decoupling in standard and non-standard scenarios

        We discuss the phenomenology of neutrino decoupling in the early universe, by summarising the details of the calculation in standard and non-standard scenarios. We quickly present the state-of-the-art calculation of the effective number of neutrino species in the early universe (Neff) in the three-neutrino case, which gives Neff=3.044, and show how the result can change when non-standard properties (non-standard interactions, non-unitarity) are considered.

        Speaker: Pablo Martinez-Mirave (IFIC (CSIC-Univ. Valencia))
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 1A Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Ruben Saakyan (University of London (GB))
      • 39
        Precision Neutrino Mixing Angle Measurement with Double Chooz Experiment and Latest Results

        The Double Chooz experiment has been at the forefront of accurately measuring the third neutrino mixing angle $\theta_{13}$. The experiment involves two identical liquid scintillator detectors at 400m and 1km baselines from the two N4 nuclear reactors in Chooz, France. To detect the neutrinos, the experiment uses the "total neutron capture" technique to measure the inverse beta decay (IBD) signature, which includes prompt positron annihilation and a delayed neutron capture signal on all possible isotopes available in the detector. The experiment's double detector setup, carefully considering all neutrino rates, energy spectral shapes, and inclusive backgrounds control model, allows for accurate measurement of $\theta_{13}$ and a precise characterization of the reactor flux. The latest results from the Double Chooz measurement and other physics searches, such as sterile neutrino oscillations, will be presented during this talk.

        Speaker: Mr Philipp Soldin (RWTH AACHEN UNIVERSITY)
      • 40
        The study of neutrinos and antineutrinos from astrophysical sources by Borexino

        The recent observation of CNO solar neutrinos by Borexino (BX) has proven the high potential offered by large underground ultrapure liquid scintillators to disclose weak neutrino and antineutrino fluxes. Supernovae explosions, gamma-ray bursts, solar flares and Gravitational Waves (GW) are among the possible extra-terrestrial sources of neutrinos and antineutrinos. The extreme radiopurity of the BX detector has already allowed to get the best upper limits on all flavor fluences in the few MeV energy range from GRB, to set limits on the diffuse supernova antineutrino background in the unexplored energy region below 8 MeV and to get the strongest upper limits on fast radio bursts associated neutrino fluences in the 0.5−50 MeV energy range.
        Recently, BX has searched for neutrino events in correlation with GW events for three runs from 2015 to 2020 using the BX data-set of the same periods. GW candidates originated by merging binaries of black holes, neutron stars and neutron star and black hole have been analysed separately, looking both for neutrino electron scattering and antineutrinos inverse beta decay interactions. The strongest upper limits on GW-associated neutrino and antineutrino fluences for all flavors ($\nu_{e}$,$\nu_{\mu}$,$\nu_{\tau}$) have been obtained in the (0.5 - 5.0) MeV neutrino energy range.
        The talk is aimed to summarise BX results on the possible signals from astrophysical sources, with a particular focus on the new search for GW-associated neutrinos.

        Speaker: Dr Sandra Zavatarelli (INFN - Sezione di Genova)
      • 41
        Latest result of geoneutrino measurement with KamLAND

        The decays of radioactive isotopes, uranium, thorium and potassium, inside the Earth generate a significant amount of radiogenic heat and contribute to the Earth’s heat budget. The abundance of these elements is a key parameter to reveal the planet’s geophysical activities. Geoneutrinos originated from these isotopes are unique probe to the composition, and thus, the amount of the radiogenic heat in the Earth. KamLAND has observed geoneutrinos from $^{238}$U and $^{232}$Th with 1 kt liquid scintillator for more than 18 years. The low-reactor period since 2011 enabled a spectroscopic measurement of geoneutrinos from $^{238}$U and $^{232}$Th by reducing the most significant background, reactor neutrino. The number of geoneutrino signal is estimated to be $116.6^{+41.0}_{−38.5}$, $57.5^{+24.5}_{−24.1}$ and $173.7^{+29.2}_{−27.7}$ from $^{238}$U, $^{232}$Th and $^{238}$U+$^{232}$Th, respectively. These correspond to geoneutrino flux of $14.7^{+5.2}_{−4.8}$, $23.9^{+10.2}_{−10.0}$ and $32.1^{+5.8}_{−5.3}$ $\times10^{5}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$, respectively. The null-signal hypothesis is disfavored at 8.3$\sigma$ confidence level. This study yields the first constraint on the radiogenic heat contribution from $^{238}$U and $^{232}$Th individually, which is consistent to geochemical predictions based on the compositional analysis of chondrite meteorites.
        published article : https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099566

        Speaker: Dr Nanami Kawada (Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University, Japan)
      • 42
        Potassium Geoneutrino Detection

        Detecting geoneutrinos from potassium-40 decay in the Earth remains a challenge due to its decay endpoint being below the energy threshold of the inverse beta decay reaction on protons (used to detect U and Th geoneutrinos). Several nuclear targets for charged-current neutrino reactions do have lower threshold energies. Our study identified a particularly promising candidate, copper, and proposes Cu-doping a LiquidO opaque scintillator, an approach that is amenable to very high doping levels. Event topology information provided by LiquidO would offer powerful signal tagging and background rejection, both necessary for detecting K-40 geoneutrinos. The experimental concept, its methodology, discovery significance and backgrounds will be presented.

        Speaker: Prof. Mark Chen (Queen's University)
      • 43
        JUNO detector design and status

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is the state-of-the-art liquid-scintillator-based neutrino physics experiment, which is under construction in South China. Thanks to the 20 ktons of ultra-pure liquid scintillator (LS), JUNO will be able to perform innovative and groundbreaking measurements like the determination of neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The experiment has been constructed in a 700m underground laboratory, located about 52 km from both the Taishan and Yangjiang nuclear power plants. The JUNO central detector will be equipped with 17,612 20-inch photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and 25,600 3-inch PMTs. JUNO CD energy resolution is expected to be better than 3% at 1 MeV and to have an absolute energy scale uncertainty better than 1% over the whole reactor antineutrino energy range. In addition, the JUNO experiment also has a satellite detector, the Taishan Antineutrino Observatory, to precisely measure the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum. Beyond NMO, JUNO will measure the three neutrino oscillation parameters with a sub-percent precision. Moreover, the JUNO experiment is also expected to have important physics reach with solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model such as nucleon decay. The detector construction is expected to be completed in 2023. In this talk, I will present the detector design and the installation status of the different JUNO subsystems.

        Speaker: Cong Guo (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science)
      • 44
        First deployment of water-based liquid scintillator in ANNIE

        The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) is a Gadolinium-loaded water Cherenkov detector located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Its primary physics goals are to measure the final state neutron multiplicity of neutrino-nucleus interactions for future long-baseline experiments and cross-sections relevant to atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for diffuse Supernova neutrino and proton decay searches. ANNIE is also a testbed for innovative new detection technologies. In early 2023, we temporarily installed a 365-kg acrylic vessel filled with water-based liquid scintillator (WbLS) in the main detector tank. This contribution will discuss the first WbLS data and basic properties of the WbLS determined in-situ in the experiment. It will highlight the benefits of WbLS as a target medium for future long-baseline experiments like THEIA.

        Speaker: Prof. Michael Wurm (Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (DE))
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 1B Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Mayly Sanchez (Iowa State University)
      • 45
        Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic cross section using atmospheric neutrinos in the SK-Gd experiment

        In July 2020, we loaded 0.011% of gadolinium in Super-Kamiokande (SK) to enhance the detection efficiency of neutron signals and restarted the observation as the “SK-Gd experiment”. Now we are aiming to observe the Supernova Relic Neutrinos (SRNs) for the first time all over the world in the SK-Gd experiment. One of the main backgrounds in the SRNs search is the atmospheric neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic (NCQE) reactions. To discover the SRNs, it is essential to understand the neutrino-oxygen NCQE cross section and estimate the backgrounds more precisely. In this talk, we report the first result of the measurement of the neutrino-oxygen NCQE cross section using atmospheric neutrinos in the SK-Gd experiment and the consideration.

        Speaker: Seiya Sakai (Okayama University, Japan)
      • 46
        Recent Neutrino Cross Section Measurements with the T2K ND280 Detector

        Precise knowledge of how neutrinos interact with matter is essential for measuring neutrino oscillations in long-baseline experiments. At T2K, the near detector complex measures neutrino interactions to constrain cross-section models for oscillation studies and to characterise the beam flux. The near detector complex provides a platform for performing neutrino-nucleon cross section measurements. The design of the ND280 near detector allows for a variety of cross section measurements on different targets to be performed. The additional WAGASCI near detector at a different off-axis angle features an increased Water/Carbon target ratio. Finally, the on-axis INGRID detector can be combined with ND280 and WAGASCI to measure the cross-section at different neutrino energies and to further constrain the nuclear models for different targets.

        Recent cross section measurements from the near detector complex will be presented. The latest measurements of pion production in ND280, including measurements of transverse pion kinematics, and an improved analysis of coherent pion production making use of an anti-neutrino sample for the first time, will be shown. The first measurement of cross section without pions in the final state at the WAGASCI off-axis angle will be presented, as well as the first combined measurement of ND280 and INGRID allowing the first simultaneous measurement of cross-section at different neutrino off-axis angles, energies and different detectors on the same flux.

        Speaker: Nick Latham
      • 47
        The ENUBET experiment for high precision neutrino cross section measurements

        Monitored neutrino beams represent a powerful and cost effective tool to suppress cross section related systematics for the full exploitation of data collected in long baseline oscillation projects like DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande. In the last years the NP06/ENUBET project has demonstrated that the systematic uncertainties on the neutrino flux can be suppressed to 1% in an accelerator based facility where charged leptons produced in kaon and pion decays are monitored in an instrumented decay tunnel. The collaboration is now working to provide the full implementation of such a facility at CERN in order to perform high precision cross section measurements at the GeV scale exploiting the ProtoDUNEs as neutrino detectors. This contribution will present the final design of the ENUBET beamline that allows to collect $\sim$10$^4$ $\nu_e$ and $\sim$6$\times$10$^5$ $\nu_{\mu}$ charged current interactions on a 500 ton LAr detector in about 2 years of data taking. The algorithms setup for high purity identification of charged leptons in the tunnel instrumentation will be described together with the framework for the assessment of the final systematics budget on the neutrino fluxes. We will also present the results of a test beam exposure at CERN-PS of a fully instrumented 1.65 m long section of the ENUBET instrumented decay tunnel. Finally the physics potential of the ENUBET beam with ProtoDUNE-SP and plans for its implementation in the CERN North Area will be discussed.

        Speaker: Antonio Branca
      • 48
        NA65(DsTau): study of tau neutrino production in p-A interactions

        The DsTau experiment at CERN-SPS has been proposed to measure an inclusive differential cross-section of a Ds production with a consecutive decay to tau lepton in p-A interactions. A precise measurement of the tau neutrino cross section would enable a search for new physics effects such as testing the Lepton Universality (LU) of Standard Model in neutrino interactions. The detector is based on nuclear emulsion providing a sub-micron spatial resolution for the detection of short length and small “kink” decays. Therefore, it is very suitable to search for peculiar decay topologies (“double kink”) of Ds→τ→X. In 2022, the second physics run of the experiment was performed successfully. In this talk we discuss the physics potential of the experiment and present the analysis result of the pilot run data and the near-future plans.

        Speaker: Prof. Murat Ali Guler (Physics Department of Middle East Technical University (TR))
      • 49
        SND@LHC experiment at CERN

        SND@LHC is a compact experiment proposed to exploit the high flux of energetic neutrinos of all flavours from the LHC in a hitherto unexplored pseudo-rapidity region of 7.2 < 𝜂 < 8.4, complementary to all the other experiments at the LHC. The experiment is located 480 m downstream of IP1 in the unused TI18 tunnel. The detector is composed of a hybrid system based on an 830 kg target mass of tungsten plates, interleaved with emulsion and electronic trackers, also acting as an electromagnetic calorimeter, and followed by a hadronic calorimeter and a muon identification system. The configuration allows efficiently distinguishing between all three neutrino flavours, opening a unique opportunity to probe physics of heavy flavour production at the LHC in the region that is not accessible to ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This region is of particular interest also for future circular colliders and for predictions of very high-energy atmospheric neutrinos. The physics programme includes studies of charm production, and lepton universality tests in the neutral sector. The detector concept is also well suited to searching for Feebly Interacting Particles via signatures of scattering in the detector target. The first phase aims at operating the detector throughout LHC Run 3 to collect a total of 250 fb−1. The experiment was installed in the TI18 tunnel at CERN and has collected its first data in 2022. A new era of collider neutrino physics has started.

        Speaker: Prof. Murat Ali Guler (Physics Department of Middle East Technical University (TR))
      • 50
        The T2K Near Detector upgrade

        Neutrino oscillation physics has now entered the precision era. In parallel with needing larger detectors to collect more data, future experiments further require a significant reduction of systematic uncertainties. In neutrino oscillation measurements at T2K, the systematic uncertainties related to neutrino interaction cross sections are currently dominant. To reduce this uncertainty, a significantly improved understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions is required to better characterise nuclear effects.

        The upgraded ND280 detector will consist of a totally active Super-Fine-Grained-Detector (Super-FGD) composed of 2 million 1 cm$^3$ scintillator cubes with three 2D readouts, two High Angle TPC (HA-TPC) instrumented with resistive MicroMegas, and six TOF planes. It will probe our knowledge of neutrino interactions due to its full polar angle acceptance and a much lower proton tracking threshold. Furthermore, neutron tagging capabilities, in addition to precision timing information, will allow the upgraded detector to measure neutron kinematics from neutrino interactions. Such improvements permit access to a much larger kinematic phase space and the analysis of transverse kinematic imbalances, to offer nuclear physics constraints for T2K analyses.

        New reconstruction algorithms are being developed to benefit from the improved capabilities of the Super-FGD and of the HA-TPC and will be described in this talk together with the expected performances of the ND280 upgrade.

        Speaker: Stefan Roth (Rheinisch Westfaelische Tech. Hoch. (DE))
    • Underground laboratories: parallel session 1 Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Sean Paling
      • 51
        The status and prospects for China Jinping Underground Lab(CJPL)

        China Jinping underground Lab(CJPL) is the deepest underground laboratory with a rock overburden of 2400m. Now there are two phase in CJPL. CJPL-I is used for demonstration of CDEX, PandaX and low-background facility. A deep Underground and ultra-low Radiation background Facility for frontier physics experiments(DURF) was built in CJPL-II since Feb. 2020. The civil engineering of CJPL-II would be finished in Oct. 2023. Here the current status of the construction would be introduced in details. Noteworthy, the work about water-resistant and radon suppression during the construction and its effect by measurement would be illustrated. The status of development for ultra-low background facilities, such as Large Nitrogen vessel shielding device, large pure water tank shielding device, and assemble combine shielding device and ultra-low-background gamma spectrometers in CJPL-II, would be showed in the present. The prospects of dark matter experiments(CDEX, PandaX), Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments(target include Ge-76, Xe-136, Mo-100 and Se-82 et al), Nuclear Astrophysics experiment(JUNA), neutrino detect experiment(Qingting) and other experiment in CJPL-II is also introduced by this present.

        Speakers: Dr Zhi Zeng (Tsinghua University), Qian Yue (Tsinghua University)
      • 52
        LNGS-FUTURE: upgrading LNGS facility for the science challenges in the upcoming decades

        Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN are one the most important research center for astro-particle physics. Since the late 1980s, the role, results and international impact of LNGS have been constantly growing. Every year over a thousand scientists, from the most renowned universities and research institutions in the world, come to LNGS to participate in experiments.
        The study of the properties of neutrinos, the search for dark matter and the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functioning of stars are the main strands of the articulated LNGS research program.
 Thanks to their size, ease of access and geographical location, LNGS are the ideal place to carry out complex experiments. The success of LNGS is closely linked to the ability to provide integrated services and scientific support of excellence in the fields of mechanics, electronics, the selection of radio-pure materials, analytical chemistry and scientific computing.
        To keep LNGS in step with international competition, constant improvement is required. The LNGS FUTURE project aims at the modernization and strengthening of the laboratory's technical and safety services and at the creation of support for advanced cryogenics, a technique increasingly used by new generation experiments.
The ultimate goal is to host the most sensitive experiments designed to study relevant topics in astro-particle physics, nuclear astrophysics, and cosmology.

        Speaker: Dr Paolo Gorla (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso - INFN)
      • 53
        The research and development program at SNOLAB

        SNOLAB is Canada's deep underground laboratory, which has been fully operational since 2012. SNOLAB is operated 2 kilometers below ground in an active nickel mine, and the partnership with the local mine poses both opportunities and challenges. We will describe the operational capabilities, scientific program, and infrastructure challenges over the past decade and in the future.

        Speaker: Jeter Hall (SNOLAB/Laurentian University)
    • 4:00 PM
      Coffee break
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 2A BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Christopher McCabe
      • 54
        Searching for axion dark matter with IBS-CAPP

        Axions are considered the most favored solution for explaining both the strong-CP problem and the dark matter mystery. Many experimental searches that rely on the axion-photon conversion under strong magnetic fields utilize the haloscope technique that is sensitive in the microwave region. We, the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP) of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), have been exploring axion physics in various frequency ranges. In particular, an experiment with a 12T superconducting solenoid, a high-cooling power dilution refrigerator, and quantum-noise-limited devices enable us to achieve unprecedented experimental sensitivities, probing the DFSZ axion model above 1 GHz. We are also developing state-of-the-art technologies in a variety of areas to enhance performance over a wider frequency range. In this presentation, the current status of axion search experiments and R&D activities at IBS-CAPP will be introduced, and future prospects will be discussed.

        Speaker: Sung Woo YOUN
      • 55
        Searches of Axions/ALPS with (Baby)IAXO

        The International Axion Observatory (IAXO) is a new generation axion helioscope aiming at a sensitivity to the axion-photon coupling of gaγ down to 10-12 GeV-1, i.e. 1-1.5 orders of magnitude beyond CAST, the most sensitive axion helioscope to date. The main elements of IAXO are a large superconducting toroidal magnet with eight bores, x-ray focusing optics and low background detectors. An intermediate helioscope on the way to IAXO, called BabyIAXO, with the aim of testing the new technology for the full scale experiment, is being designed and will be located at DESY. The design of all components and assembly procedures is quite advanced. Due to the socio-political problems worldwide a delay has been accumulated for the fabrication of the magnet. We will discuss the strategy to perform important tests in the final BabyIAXO location at DESY on different instrumentation and mechanics in preparation to BabyIAXO while waiting for the magnet to be in place.
        Once completed, BabyIAXO will be able to test gaγ down to 2×10-11 GeV-1. In addition, already with babyIAXO it will be possible to search for evidence of axion-electron and axion-nucleon coupling in the Sun. Moreover, installing cavities or antennas in the magnet bores will turn BabyIAXO into an axion haloscope, sensitive to dark matter axions in different mass ranges. We will discuss the physics reach of BabyIAXO and present the enhanced sensitivity for axion discovery which will be possible to obtain with the full scale IAXO.

        Speaker: Dr Juanan Garcia (Universidad de Zaragoza (ES))
      • 56
        The search for low-mass axion dark matter with DMRadio

        One of the most well-motivated candidates to be the dark matter is the axion, a particle that is predicted by the solution to another long-standing mystery in physics, the strong CP problem. This talk discusses direct searches for low-mass axion dark matter via its photon interactions. The prototype experiment ABRACADABRA-10 cm developed an innovative lumped-element detection method to search in this mass range and set world-leading limits on axions. It also laid the stage for the DMRadio program, a series of larger detectors that will be capable of finding QCD axions and axion-like particles over a large range of masses below 1 μeV. Here I review the DMRadio experiments, including ongoing progress and plans for the future.

        Speaker: Dr Chiara Salemi (Stanford University and SLAC)
      • 57
        Calibrating the DMRadio Axion Dark Matter Detectors

        The DMRadio program consists of a series of lumped element detectors searching for low mass, sub-μeV axion dark matter. The three DMRadio detectors will each be comprised of a superconducting magnet and pickup structure coupled to a high-Q tunable LC resonator. In this talk, I will outline the calibration plan these experiments will employ to determine their end-to-end sensitivity to axion dark matter. A variety of methods will be used, including a mimetic axion signal injected into the detector, resonator noise measurements, multichannel SQUID chain calibration, and sideband injection. These results will allow us to characterize lumped element detectors and convert raw detector data into limits on axion to two photon coupling.

        Speaker: Jessica Fry (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
      • 58
        Science reach and electromagnetic modeling of DMRadio-m$^3$

        The experiments in the DMRadio program are designed to search for low mass sub-μeV axion dark matter using the coupling of axions to photons. Specifically, DMRadio-m$^3$ is designed to have sensitivity to KSVZ and DFSZ QCD axions in the 40-830 neV (10-200 MHz) range. A dc solenoidal magnetic field sources an axion current inside a coaxial pickup structure whose resonance frequency is tuned using lumped tuning elements. In this talk, we present the sensitivity of DMRadio-m$^3$. The primary science goal of sensitivity to DFSZ axions across 30–200 MHz can be achieved with a 3$\sigma$ live scan time of 3.7 years. This is informed by extensive finite element electromagnetic modeling of the pickup structure of the system, which will also be presented.

        Speaker: Nicholas M. Rapidis (Stanford University)
      • 59
        Status of the Quantum Sensors for the Hidden Sector (QSHS) Experiment

        Quantum Sensors for the Hidden Sector is a UK collaboration developing ultra-low-noise readout and resonant detector technology, aiming initially to search for halo axions in the mass range 25-40 micro-eV. We describe our design, based on a 20cm bore 8T magnet in a dry dilution refrigerator supplied by Oxford Instruments having a target physical temperature of 10mK. We discuss progress towards construction and operation, and collaborative work with the US ADMX collaboration on cavity design and fabrication, data analysis, and novel resonator configurations.

        Speaker: Prof. Ed Daw (The University of Sheffield)
      • 60
        Studying Correlated Errors in Superconducting Qubits Underground in NEXUS

        Recent work indicates that nonequilibrium quasiparticles can contribute to decoherence effects in superconducting qubits. Ionizing radiation, for example, has been shown to create space- and time-correlated errors in qubit arrays. For quantum computing, such correlated errors can create problems for standard error correcting codes. For quantum sensing, these same phenomena represent a source of background error. We present preliminary work with an array of weakly charge-sensitive superconducting qubits, in a low-background test stand 100 meters (225 m.w.e.) underground at Fermilab's MINOS experimental area. Combined with measurements at the Earth's surface, this suite of underground, low-background measurements will help to quantify the effects of quasiparticle burst events in qubit arrays. Furthermore, these studies will inform the design of the new Quantum Science Center (QSC) underground quantum facility at Fermilab, QUIET.

        Speaker: Grace Bratrud (Northwestern University)
      • 61
        Radon emanation suppression by surface coating

        Noble gas detectors are a leading technology in low energy rare-event
        search experiments. The dominant source of background in these experiments is induced by radioactive decays of radon (and its daughter nuclides), which emanates from detector materials and distributes in the detection volume.

        Thorough material selection and surface cleaning are important
        measures against radon emanation. They may be combined with continuous
        active radon removal techniques (by adsorption or distillation) to
        reach a background level of less than 1 µBq/kg as recently demonstrated
        by the XENONnT experiment. But to meet the even more demanding purity
        goals of next-generation experiments, novel radon mitigation
        techniques are required to complement the existing ones.

        We have explored the applicability of surface coatings as barriers
        against radon emanation. The approach requires a diffusion-tight, thin
        and mechanically stable coating layer, which itself does not contain
        radon sources. In the talk I will discuss different coating methods
        that have been studied and focus on recent results of the most
        promising technique: Electro-deposition of thin copper films. Using a
        custom-made stainless steel $^{222}$Rn source produced at the ISOLDE
        facility at CERN, a $^{222}$Rn suppression of more than a factor 1000 has
        been achieved. Possible applications and future challenges of this
        technique will be discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Hardy Simgen (Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 2B Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Tina Pollmann (Nikhef/University of Amsterdam)
      • 62
        Status of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Experiment

        The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating from the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA, aims to detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) dark matter candidate particles. It comprises a 10-tonne target mass (7-tonne active) viewed by vacuum ultraviolet photomultiplier tubes in both the liquid xenon's central and self-shielding regions, enclosed within an active gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator veto and all submerged in an ultra-pure water tank veto system. This talk will provide an overview of the LZ detector, present results from LZ's first science run (exposure of 60 d × 5.5 t.) and give an update on the current efforts being undertaken by the LZ Collaboration.

        Speaker: Dr Billy Boxer (UC Davis (USA))
      • 63
        The First WIMP results from XENONnT

        The main goal of the XENONnT detector is the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), aiming to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude than XENON1T. The first science run has been completed in 2021 with a total exposure of 1.1 tonne*year. An extremely low electronic recoil background of 15.8 events/(t y keV) has been achieved thanks to the reduction of Kr-85 and Rn-222. More data is being accumulated now. In this talk, I will give an overview of the XENONnT experiment as well as its first WIMP search results.

        Speaker: Zihao Xu (Columbia University in the City of New York)
      • 65
        Search for solar neutrino and light dark matter in the PandaX-4T experiment

        PandaX-4T is the first operational multi-tonne experiment for dark matter direct search in China, which released its first commissioning data in 2021 and gained world-leading sensitivity to WIMP at the time. With further lowered energy thresholds and improved analysis techniques, searches for solar neutrino and light dark matter have been carried out. In this talk, I’ll talk about the recent progress in the search of solar B8 neutrino and light dark matter using PandaX-4T data.

        Speaker: Qing Lin (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 66
        Effective Field Theory Dark Matter Searches with the LZ Detector

        The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter search experiment, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA, has the world's leading sensitivity to searches for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). It is comprised of a 7-tonne target mass and outfitted with photomultiplier tubes in both the central and the self-shielding regions of the liquid xenon, which is enclosed within an active gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator veto and all submerged in an ultra-pure water tank veto system. LZ has completed its first science run, collecting data from an exposure of 60 live-days. This talk will provide an overview of LZ’s search and sensitivity goals to a model-agnostic Effective Field Theory (EFT) framework that describes several possible dark matter interactions with nucleons. In this talk, we highlight the key backgrounds, data analysis techniques, and signal models relevant to this study.

        Speaker: Michael Williams
      • 67
        First observation of single photons in a CRESST detector and new Dark Matter exclusion limits

        The CRESST-III (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) experiments main goal is the direct detection of dark matter particles via their scattering off target nuclei in cryogenic detectors. The detectors are equipped with transition edge sensors (TES), operated at around 15 mK. These sensors reach sensitivities down to very low energy depositions ( ≤ 100 eV), allowing for the search of dark matter particles with sub-GeV masses. This contribution presents the analysis and results of an Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$ detector with a mass of 0.6 g. This detector could be calibrated via the detection of single luminescence photons in the eV-range, which were observed in CRESST for the first time. The low threshold of this detector (≤ 10 eV) allows for the calculation of a dark matter exclusion limit of masses below 100 MeV /c$^{2}$.

        Speaker: Dominik Raphael Fuchs (Max Planck Society (DE))
      • 68
        Density-functional theory description of xenon for light dark matter direct detection

        We present a detailed density functional theory (DFT) study of the electronic structure of atomic and liquid xenon to quantify the event rates in Xe-based detectors for dark matter (DM) – electron scattering. Our main goal is to determine whether explicit modelling of the inter-atomic interactions of the liquid phase changes the predicted rates compared to state-of-the-art models based on isolated Xe atoms.

        We start by identifying DFT parameters that correctly reproduce the experimental valence-electron binding energies for an isolated Xe atom. Next, we use solid crystalline xenon as a benchmark for verifying our calculations of the inter-atomic van der Waals interactions and identify a DFT setup that reproduces the experimental lattice parameter and band structure. We then model liquid xenon by creating a spatial distribution of atoms via a classical Monte-Carlo simulation with a Lennard-Jones potential, which we match with the experimental radial distribution function. We construct computationally tractable DFT input structures by sampling different regions of the distribution. We find that averaging calculations over multiple such structures gives good convergence and reproduces well the experimental refractive index of liquid xenon.

        Finally, we compare the calculated form factors and rates for our DFT atom with previous semi-analytical results obtained using atomic Roothaan-Hartree-Fock wavefunctions, as well as with our DFT results for the liquid state.

        Speaker: Luca Marin (ETH Zürich)
      • 69
        Dark Matter Data Center: A Unified Platform for Data and Information Sharing Within the Dark Matter Community

        The Dark Matter Data Center (DMDC) is an ORIGINS Excellence Cluster initiative, supported by the Max Planck Computation and Data Facility. It aims at bringing together the large amount of recorded data and theories pertaining to Dark Matter (DM) research in a unified platform, making it easily accessible for the community. The DMDC offers a repository where data, methods and code are clearly presented in a unified interface for comparison, reproduction, combination and analysis. It is a forum where Experimental Collaborations can directly publish their data and Phenomenologists the implementation of their models, in accordance to Open Science principles. Alongside the repositories, it also offers easy online visualization of the hosted data. An online simulation of signal predictions for experiments using model data supplied by the users is also in the offing, all in a friendly web-based GUI. The DMDC also hosts guidance tools from the Collaborations illustrating the usage and analysis of their data through Binders that run online and support all popular programming platforms. It hosts a continuously growing compendium of ready-to-use, copy-pastable code examples for inference and simulations. It can also provide support and computational power for comparison of model and experimental observations as well as the combination of these results using modern and robust statistical tools through similar Binders.

        Speaker: Dr Heerak Banerjee (Technical University of Munich)
    • High-energy astrophysics and cosmic rays: parallel session 2 Franz-König lecture hall

      Franz-König lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Ivan De Mitri (Gran Sasso Science Institute (IT))
      • 70
        The GAPS Experiment: An Antarctic Balloon Mission Searching for Dark Matter with Cosmic Antinuclei

        GAPS is a balloon-borne particle-tracker searching for signals of dark matter from low-energy (kinetic energy $\leq 0.25$ GeV/n) cosmic antideuterons. In standard astrophysics, antideuteron production is kinematically suppressed at low energies; consequently, low-energy cosmic antideuterons are a nearly background-free signal of dark matter annihilation or decay. GAPS will make a precision measurement of the antiproton spectrum in a previously-unexplored low-energy range, allowing it to place new constraints on primordial black holes. Finally, GAPS will offer the leading sensitivity to low-energy antihelium-3, a signal of new physics. GAPS will achieve these goals utilizing a novel detection technique based on the formation, deexcitation, and annihilation of exotic atoms. The GAPS instrument has two detecting subsystems: a time-of-flight and a particle tracker. The Time-of-flight is composed of 160 plastic scintilator paddles and their custom read-out electronics. The tracker consists of $\sim$ 1000 lithium-drifted silicon detectors which are read out with custom ASICs. The experiment is being integrated and undergoing calibration and testing, in advance of its first Antarctic long-duration balloon flight in the austral summer of 2024. This presentation will review the science motivation for antideuteron searches for dark matter, describe the GAPS experiment, and report the status of the GAPS instrument along with results from our ground testing.

        Speaker: Gabriel Bridges (Columbia University)
      • 71
        Semi-annual Galactic helium spectra measured by the High Energy Particle Detector 01 (HEPD-01) on board the CSES-01 Satellite

        The High Energy Particle Detector 01 (HEPD-01) is one of the payloads on board of CSES-01, the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite dedicated to monitoring perturbations of electromagnetic fields, plasma and charged particle fluxes induced by natural sources and artificial emitters in the near-Earth space.
        It is designed to measure electrons, protons and light nuclei (up to a few hundreds of MeV) with a high energy resolution and a wide angular acceptance. It has been launched in February 2018 on a Low-Earth Orbit and an altitude of about 507 km.

        In this work, the analysis on galactic helium nuclei spectra with energy >60 MeV in the period August 2018 - January 2020 will be presented. The clear particle separation of different nuclei inside the detector allows to select a pure sample of helium. This analysis technique is shown for the first time, together with the calculated flux on a semi-annual basis of HEPD-01 data and the comparison with the theoretical spectra.

        Below 5 GeV, the ratio proton/helium strongly depends on the solar modulation. As the mass-to-charge ratio for these two species is different, the determination of this quantity is fundamental for the cosmic-ray propagation model in the Galaxy. The HEPD-01 galactic proton and helium spectra are compared and the result will be shown, allowing to explore an energy range where there are no recent direct measurements.

        Speaker: Dr Beatrice Panico (University of Naples Federico II - INFN Sez. Napoli)
      • 72
        AMS measurement of the deuterons flux over a solar cycle

        Deuterons are the most abundant secondary nuclei in cosmic rays and precise measurement of their properties will allow to test and constrain various cosmic ray propagation models.
        The precision measurement of deuteron flux with kinetic energy per nucleon from 0.2 GeV/n to 9 GeV/n based on 15 million deuterons collected by Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer during first 10 years of operation on International Space Station is presented. The deuteron-to-proton and deuteron-to-4helium flux ratios are also shown, together with their time evolution over a almost complete solar cycle.

        Speaker: Paolo Zuccon (Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN (IT))
      • 73
        Unique Properties of Cosmic Li and Be isotopes

        Lithium and Beryllium nuclei in cosmic rays are expected to be secondaries produced by the fragmentation of primary cosmic rays during their propagation in the Galaxy. Therefore, their fluxes contain essential information on cosmic ray propagation and sources. Secondary-to-primary flux ratios provide measurements of the material traversed by cosmic rays in their journey through the Galaxy. The Li and Be isotopic compositions provide crucial complementary information. In particular, the $^{10}$Be/$^9$Be ratio measures the cosmic ray propagation volume in the Galaxy, and the $^6$Li/$^7$Li ratio tests the existence of primordial lithium. Current measurements of the $^6$Li/$^7$Li and $^{10}$Be/$^9$Be ratios are limited to energies below 1 GeV/n and 2 GeV/n, respectively, and are affected by large uncertainties. Individual fluxes of $^6$Li and $^7$Li, and of $^7$Be, $^9$Be and $^{10}$Be, have only been measured below 0.3 GeV/n and 0.4 GeV/n, respectively. In this contribution, we present the measurement of the $^6$Li and $^7$Li fluxes and their ratio, and of the $^7$Be, $^9$Be, $^{10}$Be fluxes and their ratios, in the uncharted energy region ranging from 0.4 GeV/n to 12 GeV/n based on data collected by AMS during its first 10 years of operation on the International Space Station.

        Speaker: Jiahui Wei (Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology (SDIAT) (CN))
      • 74
        Cosmogenic nuclide production by radiation from supernovae

        Introduction: Nearby supernova explosions may cause isotope anomalies via several processes, one of which is cosmic-ray spallation in the earth's atmosphere. We estimate the direct production rates of cosmogenic nuclides, showing the dependence on the supernova distance. This is a not a new idea: in fact we started our studies a few years ago, however due to some inconsistencies it took longer to come with some reliable results.
        Calculations: We have performed a set of calculations to determine the expected $^{10}$Be contribution from a SN explosion. We have assumed a power law for the differential GCR flux (with exponent -2.48) and we have taken only nitrogen, oxygen and argon for the composition of atmosphere.
        For reactions induced by cosmic radiation, production rates were calculated with the GEANT 4 [1] code system. Besides direct production of $^{10}$Be also the secondary neutron fluxes were calculated. Production of neutrons by photons should be calculated with respect of high flux of impacting photons. Having calculated the neutron fluxes, the production rates of $^{10}$Be were calculated following the approach described in [2].
        Conclusions: Calculated production rates were compared with experimental data from ice samples. Conclusions about possibility to find in data nuclides produced by SN explosions were made.

        [1] S. Agostinelli et al., NIM A, vol. 506, no. 3 (2003) 250-303.
        [2] Masarik J and J. Beer,(1999) JGR, A104. 12,099-12,111.

        Speaker: Robert Breier (Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia)
      • 75
        The NUSES space mission

        NUSES is a new space mission project aimed at studying cosmic and gamma rays, high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, the Sun-Earth environment, space weather, and magnetosphere-ionosphere-lithosphere coupling (MILC). Additionally, the NUSES mission will serve as a technological pathfinder for the development and testing of innovative technologies and observational strategies for future missions. The satellite will host two payloads named TERZINA and ZIRÈ. ZIRÈ will perform measurements of electrons, protons, and light nuclei from a few up to hundreds of MeV, while also testing new tools for the detection of cosmic MeV photons and monitoring of MILC signals. The Terzina telescope aims to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) through the Cherenkov light emission from extensive air showers that they create in the Earth's atmosphere. The telescope will also monitor the light emissions from the Earth limb in the near-UV and visible ranges at the nanosecond timescale, thus testing the observational concept of detecting Earth skimming astrophysical high-energy neutrinos. Terzina will be able to study the potential for future physics missions (e.g. POEMMA) devoted to UHECR detection and UHE neutrino astronomy. In this talk, the status of the NUSES project design will be discussed along with the scientific and technological objectives of the mission.

        Speaker: Dr Caterina Trimarelli (UNIGE)
    • Neutrino and Cosmology: inter-track parallel session 2 Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Prof. Elisa Resconi (Technical University Munich)
      • 76
        Moment neutrino flavor transformation: application to the fast-flavor instability in neutron star mergers

        The accretion disk that forms following a neutron star merger ejects a significant amount of matter that contributes to the appearance of the kilonova transient and the chemical evolution of the Universe. Irradiation of this ejecta by electron neutrinos and antineutrinos changes the composition of this outflow, but neutrinos are also known to change flavor on timescales of nanoseconds (so-called "fast-flavor oscillations"), the consequences of which are not well understood. Based on the neutrino radiation field drawn from a three dimensional neutron star merger simulation, we perform local (centimeter-scale) three-dimensional two-flavor simulations of the fast flavor instability using an extension of the truncated moment formalism to neutrino quantum kinetics. We discuss the validity and advantages of this method by comparing the results against two- and three-flavor particle-in-cell simulations, as we get generally good agreement in the instability growth rate and the final flavor abundances.

        Speaker: Mr Julien Froustey (University of California, Berkeley (USA))
      • 77
        Unravelling the Nature of Collapsar Jets with Neutrinos

        Collapsar jets may be copious factories of high energy neutrinos, whose production takes place through photo-hadronic and hadronic interactions. Since neutrinos point back to the source that produced them, they have the potential to unravel puzzling features displayed by astrophysical objects. We post-process the outputs of state-of-the-art general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of collapsar jets and investigate possible sites of particle acceleration and neutrino production in the deepest outflow regions. If the jet is magnetized, subphotospheric neutrinos with energies up to $E_\nu \leq \mathcal{O}(10^5)$ GeV can be produced through collisionless sub-shocks and magnetic reconnection. More than one neutrino event could be observed in Hyper-Kamiokande and IceCube DeepCore for nearby jets. Such a signal is only expected from magnetized outflows. Hence, follow-up searches in the direction of transients harboring relativistic jets with existing and upcoming neutrino telescopes will be crucial to unravel the nature of collapsar jets.

        Speaker: Ersilia Guarini (Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen)
      • 78
        Synergy between neutrinoless double-beta decay and cosmology towards the discovery of Majorana neutrinos

        In this talk we discuss the impact of cosmological measurements on future searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0nbb). The fundamental importance of 0nbb for particle physics -- in particular for neutrino physics -- is well known and many efforts are underway to push the experimental sensitivity to values of the half-life of the process above 10^27 years. Current cosmological results already allow us to place stringent constraints on Majorana's effective mass, i.e. the electron-type mass of ordinary neutrinos; tighter limits and more precise information are expected in the near future. In this context, we quantify the probability of discovering 0nbb for next-generation experiments by updating and extending a broad line of investigation we have conducted over the years*. We minimize assumptions on unknown parameters, such as Majorana phases, and present a new graphical representation of the results, of relevance to the 0nbb community.

        * PRD 90, 033005 (2014) / JCAP 12 (2015) 023 / PRD 100, 073003 (2019) / PRD 103, 033008 (2021) / arXiv:2202.01787 (accepted by RMP)

        Speaker: Stefano Dell'Oro (University of Milano-Bicocca)
      • 79
        Probing right-handed neutrinos dipole operators

        We consider the minimal see-saw extension of the Standard Model with two right-handed singlet fermions with mass at the GeV scale, augmented by an effective dipole operator between the sterile states. We firstly review current bounds on this effective interaction from fixed-target and collider experiments as well as from astrophysical and cosmological observations. We then highlight the prospects for testing the radiative decay of the heaviest neutrino induced by the dipole at facilities targeting long-lived particles such as FASER and SHiP.

        Speaker: Marco Taoso (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino, Italy)
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 2A Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Hiroyuki Sekiya
      • 80
        Solar Neutrinos in Liquid Argon (SoLAr)

        Massive liquid argon TPCs developed for DUNE have significant potential in the physics of MeV neutrinos and offer unprecedented opportunities for the observation of solar neutrinos. The SoLAr collaboration has proposed an innovative readout system to enhance the physics reach of the DUNE Module of Opportunity, perform high-precision measurements of 8B neutrinos, and provide the first observation of solar neutrinos from the Helium-proton fusion (HEP neutrinos). In this talk, we summarize the status of the project and the results obtained in 2022-23. The novel light-charge readout system by SoLAr was tested in a dedicated prototype and we present the first combined light-charge measurements with cosmic rays obtained at the University of Bern. Thanks to the prototyping and simulation results, we update the physics reach of SoLAr with an emphasis on background mitigation. Finally, we present the perspectives for the implementation of SoLAr in DUNE and the validation of this novel technology at the Boulby underground laboratories.

        Speaker: Saba Parsa (University of Bern)
      • 81
        Directionality measurement of CNO neutrinos with Borexino detector

        Borexino was a solar neutrino detector based on 280 tons of ultrapure liquid scintillator, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Over fourteen years of data taking, Borexino completed the spectroscopy of solar neutrinos emitted from the pp chain reactions and measured the flux from the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle. These spectroscopy analysis relied on a multivariate fit to disentangle the neutrino signal from the backgrounds, based on the events energy and radial position. For the CNO signal search, an additional constraint to the annoying 210Bi background rate, independent of the spectral fit, was necessary to gain enough sensitivity. Recently, Borexino has demonstrated the use of the directional Cherenkov information for a sub-MeV solar neutrinos measurement, in a liquid scintillator detector. This "Correlation and Integrated Directionality" (CID) technique correlates the individual photon hits of events to the position of the Sun.
        This talk covers the Borexino search for CNO signal by exploiting the CID technique.
        Exploiting this method only we achieved, for the first time, a CNO flux measurement without imposing any independent constraint to the 210Bi rate. In addition, we have combined an improved two-dimensional multivariate analysis with the information on pep+CNO number of events obtained from the CID analysis, leading to the most precise CNO measurement ever obtained by Borexino.

        Speaker: Dr Davide Basilico (University of Milan / INFN Milano)
      • 82
        Testing CPT invariance with the neutrino solar sector

        CPT invariance is a key pillar in our description of nature. Neutrinos, as elementary particles, provide a unique opportunity to test this fundamental symmetry. In this talk, I will discuss how next-generation solar neutrino and medium-baseline reactor experiments will allow constraining (or proving) CPT violation with unprecedented confidence. Moreover, I will discuss how non-standard neutrino interactions could mimic CPT-violating signatures and the prospects to disentangling both scenarios.

        Speaker: Pablo Martinez-Mirave (IFIC (CSIC-Univ. Valencia))
      • 83
        Non-oscillation Physics at JUNO

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), currently under construction in South China, will be the largest liquid scintillator (LS) experiment. While its primary goals are determining the neutrino mass ordering (NMO) and precision measurements of the oscillation parameters, it is a multi-purpose detector capable of detecting neutrinos from sources like the Sun, supernovae, the Earth, and the atmosphere other than reactors. With excellent detector performance in energy resolution (3% at 1 MeV) and low background level (10$^{-17}$ g/g U238/Th232) in such a large LS detector (20 kton), a rich program of non-oscillation related physics expanding from several tens of keV to tens of GeV can be explored. In this talk, the physics potential with various astrophysical and natural terrestrial neutrino sources, as well as rare event searches such as proton decay, will be presented.

        Speaker: Gaosong Li (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China)
      • 84
        Sources of background and veto strategies for background mitigation in the JUNO experiment

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory, is a multipurpose neutrino experiment located at 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants in south-east China. Its main purpose is determining the neutrino mass ordering using precision spectral measurement of the reactor neutrino signal. The detector is composed of a 20 kiloton spherical liquid scintillator (LS) volume seen by 17612 20" photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and 25600 3" PMTs. The LS volume is enclosed in a water Cerenkov veto filled with 34 kton of ultrapure water seen by 2400 20" PMTs. A muon tracker composed of 3 layers of plastic scintillator strips surmounts the LS volume. The neutrino detection is done through inverse beta decay (IBD) resulting in a two-fold signal given by the positron and the neutron capture on H after ∼200μs. Various processes can mimic IBD, hence contributing to the background in the detector: natural radioactivity, cosmogenic isotopes, fast neutrons and (α,n) reactions are the major backgrounds of the reactor neutrino signal. A set of cuts including fiducial volume, energy, PSD, time-position correlation of the prompt and delayed signal helps to mitigate accidentals and (α,n) backgrounds. To reject the cosmogenics induced by muons with a rate of ∼4Hz, muon veto cuts are necessary: an optimized volume around the muon track or cosmic-induced neutron is vetoed. In this talk, we'll present the backgrounds to the neutrino signal and the veto strategies to mitigate these backgrounds.

        Speaker: Dr Loic-René LABIT (CNRS/IN2P3)
      • 85
        LiquidO – opaque light detection technology

        LiquidO is a class of particle detection technology utilising opaque media for its light detection. The technology exploits the stochastic confinement of light in such media, which allows to identify the types of individual charged and neutral particles through the topology of their energy depositions. This technology extends the traditional scintillation detector by a vertex resolution of roughly one centimetre. At energies above a few MeV, the detector technology shows tracking capabilities and therefore offers a wide range of applications in particle physics.
        In this contribution, we will present this novel technology and show results on the stochastic light confinement using the wax-based scintillator NoWaSH. We will further address current and future projects which are planning to use the opaque technology for fundamental neutrino physics, reactor monitoring or medical physics, such as SuperChooz, AM-OTech, and LPET.

        Speaker: Cloé Girard-Carillo (Johannes Gutenberg University)
      • 86
        Status of the 30-ton WbLS Demonstrator Detector at Brookhaven

        This talk will cover recent R&D on Water-based Liquid Scintillator, including work on slowing down the timing to enhance scintillator/Cherenkov separation, and also preliminary work on isotope loading. In addition, I will present the status of the 30-ton WbLS prototype now under construction at Brookhaven and plans for future R&D.

        Speaker: Bob Svoboda (University of California Davis (US))
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 2B Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Ines Gil Botella (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas Medioambientales y Tecno)
      • 87
        Detecting and studying three-flavor neutrinos with FASER at the LHC

        FASER$\nu$ at the LHC is designed to directly detect collider neutrinos of all three flavors and provide new measurements of their cross-sections at energies higher than those seen from any previous artificial sources. We observed the first neutrino interaction candidates at the LHC in the 2018 pilot run data and then reported the firm observation of neutrino interactions in the 2022 data, opening a new avenue for studying neutrinos from high-energy colliders. In 2022-2025, during LHC Run 3, we expect to collect $\sim$2,000 $\nu_e$, $\sim$6,000 $\nu_{\mu}$, and $\sim$40 $\nu_{\tau}$ charged-current interactions in FASER$\nu$, along with neutral-current interactions. Here we present the latest results from FASER$\nu$.

        Speaker: Yosuke Takubo (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (JP))
      • 88
        The European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam plus Project

        The European Spallation Source neutrino Super Beam (ESSνSB) is a design study for a long-baseline neutrino experiment to measure the CP violation in the leptonic sector at the second neutrino oscillation maximum using a neutrino beam driven by the uniquely powerful ESS linear accelerator. The reduced impact of systematic errors on sensitivity at the second maximum allows for a very precise measurement of the CP violating parameter. The ESSνSB CDR showed that after 10 years of data taking, more than 70% of the possible CP-violating phase, $δ_{CP}$, range will be covered with 5σ C.L. to reject the no-CP-violation hypothesis. The expected value of $δ_{CP}$ precision is smaller than 8° for all $δ_{CP}$ values, making it the most precise proposed experiment in the field by a large margin. The recently started extension project, the ESSνSB+, aims in designing two new facilities, a Low Energy nuSTORM (LEnuSTORM) and a Low Energy Monitored Neutrino Beam (LEMNB) to use them to precisely measure the neutrino-nucleus cross-section (the dominant term of the systematic uncertainty) in the energy range of 0.2 – 0.6 GeV. With the successful end of the previous design-study programme of the experiment, an overall status of the project will be presented together with the ESSvSB+ additions.

        Speaker: Ms Vidhya Thara Hariharan (University of Hamburg)
      • 89
        Status of the Short-Baseline Near Detector at Fermilab

        The Short-Baseline Near Detector (SBND) will be one of three Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) neutrino detectors positioned along the axis of the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, as part of the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) Program. The detector is anticipated to begin operation later this year. SBND is characterized by superb imaging capabilities and will record over a million neutrino interactions per year. Thanks to its unique combination of measurement resolution and statistics, SBND will carry out a rich program of neutrino interaction measurements and novel searches for physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). It will enable the potential of the overall SBN sterile neutrino program by performing a precise characterization of the unoscillated event rate, and constraining BNB flux and neutrino-argon cross-section systematic uncertainties. In this talk, the physics reach, current status, and future prospects of SBND are discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Lauren Yates (Fermilab)
      • 90
        Latest Neutrino Oscillation Results from T2K

        Neutrinos are Standard Model particles that lead us to many open questions. Very abundant but yet challenging to detect, they are a key towards physics beyond the Standard Model and they play a role in major questions about our Universe. In particular, the Dirac phase of CP symmetry violation ( $\delta_{CP}$) that parameterizes the asymmetry in flavor oscillation probabilities between neutrino and anti-neutrinos is one of the most studied parameters. If $\sin(\delta_{CP})$ is non-zero, this would mean that neutrinos, and the leptonic sector in general, may participate in the unexplained matter/anti-matter asymmetry of the Universe via yet-to-be-discovered leptogenesis mechanisms.
        The neutrino oscillation long baseline program in Japan is currently leading the sensitivity to CP violation in neutrino oscillations. More specifically, the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) experiment measures muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance in a 600 MeV accelerator beam of (anti-) neutrinos with a baseline of 295 km. Its sensitivity is based on a complex set of near detectors, both on- and off-axis, as well as an off-axis water Cherenkov far detector.
        We will present here the analysis principle, with a focus on the far detector fit, and the latest accelerator neutrino oscillation results.

        Speaker: Lucile Mellet (LPNHE, Sorbonne Université (FRANCE))
      • 91
        DUNE long-baseline oscillation physics sensitivity

        The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next generation, long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which will utilize high-intensity $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\bar{\nu}_{\mu}$ with peak neutrino energies of ~2.5 GeV produced at Fermilab, over a 1285 km baseline, to carry out a detailed study of neutrino mixing. The unoscillated neutrino flux will be sampled with a near detector complex at Fermilab, and oscillated at the DUNE far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, which will ultimately consist of four modules each containing a total liquid argon mass of 17 kt.

        Here, the long-baseline neutrino oscillation sensitivity of DUNE is determined, using a full simulation, reconstruction, and event selection of the far detector and a full simulation and parameterized analysis of the near detector. Detailed uncertainties due to the flux prediction, neutrino interaction model, and detector effects are included. DUNE's ultimate precision on CP-violation and the value of the CP-phase are discussed, along with DUNE's ability to resolve the mass ordering, the $\theta_23$ octant, and DUNE's expected precision on other oscillation parameters of interest.

        Speaker: Callum David Wilkinson (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US))
      • 92
        Neutrino oscillation physics at JUNO

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multi-purpose neutrino observatory under construction in China. It will host a 20 kt liquid scintillator detector underground with an overburden of 700 m to study the neutrinos from different neutrino sources. With an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% at 1 MeV, JUNO is designed mainly to detect the anti-neutrinos from the nuclear power plants located $\approx$ 53 km from the detector. One of the main physics goals of the experiment is to determine the neutrino mass ordering (MO) and to precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameters $\Delta m^2_{21}$, $\sin^2\theta_{12}$, and $\Delta m^2_{31}$ using the reactor anti-neutrino flux. It is estimated that using six years of data, JUNO will determine the neutrino MO with a significance of $3\sigma$ and also determine the parameter $\Delta m^2_{31}$ with a precision of $\approx 0.2\%$. Meanwhile, the parameters $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $\sin^2\theta_{12}$ will be determined with a precision of $\approx 0.3\%$ and $\approx 0.5\%$ respectively. The results from JUNO are expected to improve upon the existing knowledge of precision on these three parameters by almost one order of magnitude. Additionally, JUNO can also measure neutrino oscillations using solar and atmospheric neutrinos. This talk will mainly report on the physics of neutrino oscillations with the reactor neutrinos at JUNO, and discuss the analysis strategy used in estimating these parameter sensitivities.

        Speaker: Dr Rebin KARAPARAMBIL RAJAN (IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg, France)
      • 93
        Neutrino oscillations revisited

        A new Quantum Field Theory (QFT) formalism for neutrino oscillations in a vacuum is proposed. The neutrino emission and detection are identified with the charged-current vertices of a single second-order Feynman diagram for the underlying process, enclosing neutrino propagation between these two points. The critical point of this approach is the definition of the space-time setup typical for neutrino oscillation experiments, implying macroscopically large but finite volumes of the source and detector separated by a sufficiently large distance, L. The L-dependent master formula for the charged lepton production rate is derived, which provides the QFT basis for analyzing neutrino oscillations. It is demonstrated that our QFT formula coincides with the conventional one under some assumptions for some particular choice of the underlying process. Further, techniques are developed for constructing amplitudes of neutrino-related processes in terms of the neutrino mass matrix, with no reference to the neutrino mixing matrix. The proposed approach extensively uses Frobenius covariants within the framework of Sylvester’s theorem on matrix functions. It is maintained that fitting experimental data in terms of the neutrino mass matrix can provide better statistical accuracy in determining the neutrino mass matrix compared to methods using the neutrino mixing matrix at intermediate stages.

        Speaker: Prof. Fedor Šimkovic (Comenius University in Bratislava)
    • Underground laboratories: parallel session 2 Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Silvia SCORZA (CNRS/LPSC Grenoble)
      • 94
        The underground ultra-low background laboratory STELLA (SubTErranean Low Level Assay) at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy) – present and future

        The underground ultra-low background laboratory STELLA (SubTerranean Low Level Assay) in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNGS-INFN) is principally dedicated to material screening measurements for fundamental physics experiments installed in the underground laboratories. It is mainly using gamma-ray spectrometry, but also alpha and beta spectrometry on small selected samples. The high level of performance of the ultra-low background detector systems allow for analysing extremely low concentrations of natural and man-made radioactivity in a wide range of materials down to a level of few $\mu$Bq $kg^{–1}$.
        Thanks to the extremely low background levels of the gamma-ray detection systems (ultra low background high purity germanium detectors) also basic physics results on rare radioactive decays are obtained that in some cases could also give rise in the future to new detector technologies for experiments searching for these rare radioactive decays.
        The installations and experimental set-ups using ultra-low background techniques will be described shortly, and examples of significant measurements for both applications, material screening and basic physics, will be presented. Finally, the planned future upgrade of the STELLA laboratory and its possible impact will be discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Matthias Laubenstein (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso)
      • 95
        Low Background Measurement Program at SNOLAB

        Experiments studying rare event searches, such as dark matter interactions and neutrinoless double beta decay, require ultra-low levels of radioactive backgrounds in their own construction materials, shielding and in the surrounding environment. As the next generation of experiments are becoming even more sensitive, material selection has become one of the most crucial components of the design process for these experiments to reduce these backgrounds to be as low as reasonably achievable. The SNOLAB low background counting program has developed several different methods to directly measure these experimental backgrounds. This presentation will review the low background measurement facilities at SNOLAB currently used to measure these backgrounds, describe the data analysis techniques used and present the capabilities of these detectors. Furthermore, plans and options to expand these facilities will be discussed, and a program to measure environmental backgrounds at the SNOLAB underground laboratory will be outlined.

        Speaker: Dr Ian Lawson (SNOLAB)
      • 96
        The Nuova Officina Assergi: future perspectives beyond DarkSide-20k

        The Nuova Officina Assergi (NOA) is a functional Research and Technological Unit operational at LNGS since autumn 2022. Conceived and built within the framework of the DarkSide-20k experiment, it is the most advanced infrastructure flagship of the INFN, for the production and integration of silicon devices operating at cryogenic temperatures. It consists of a ISO6 clean room of 420 m2 designed to work with a reduced radon concentration and is equipped with cutting-edge technology machines: a cryogenic Silicon device probe, a semi-automatic dicing system, a high-speed dual bond head flip-chip bonder and an ultrasonic wedge-wedge and ball-wedge wire bonder. The next two years the facility will host the DarkSide-20k activities for the packaging and assembly of large area cryogenic photosensors,customized by FBK and transferred to LFoundry for the massive production of more than 10000 optical modules. In perspective NOA, could offer a valid alternative to industrial processes, becoming an opportunity for all the collaborations and research centers, interested in the development of emerging technologies of interconnections for the integration of customized SiPMs. Possible field of interest could be backside-illuminated (BSI) devices and Trough Silicon Vias (TSV) or hybridization and module integration of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors. In the following we will report in details the NOA facility as a possibility for assembling electronic devices for dark matter detectors.

        Speaker: Lucia Consiglio (INFN)
      • 97
        OSIRIS – The Online Scintillator Internal Radioactivity Investigation System of JUNO

        The Online Scintillator Internal Radioactivity Investigation System is an 18-ton pre-detector of JUNO, currently under commissioning in south-west China. During the 6-month filling phase of the JUNO main detector, it will be responsible for the monitoring of the radiopurity of the liquid scintillator filled into the JUNO central detector. Fast 214/212Bi/214/212Po coincidences serve as a main measurement channel for OSIRIS’ high sensitivity to 238U/232Th contaminations in the liquid scintillator. In addition, contamination measurements of 85Kr and 14C are also foreseen. OSIRIS is located 700m underground in the JUNO laboratory near the central detector. Its cylindrical central vessel is surrounded by 64 JUNO 20-inch PMTs and embedded into a water Cherenkov muon veto. Calibration of the detector will be done by an automated calibration unit featuring radioactive sources and a fast pulsed LED, as well as by a pico-second laser calibration system responsible for time- and charge calibration. After OSIRIS’ main purpose of monitoring the liquid scintillator has been fulfilled, a consecutive physics phase addressing solar neutrinos and 0νββ decay is foreseen.

        Speaker: Mr Tobias Sterr (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence)
      • 98
        The radioassay program of the PandaX experiment

        PandaX is a set of xenon-based time projection chambers designed for detecting rare events such as dark matter and neutrino interactions. Background control is a crucial aspect of these searches. For material screening, we utilized HPGe, ICP-MS, and NAA techniques, as well as custom-built krypton, radon-emanation, and alpha measurement systems. In this report, we present our radioassay program and the measured background rates at the PandaX-4T detector. We also discuss ongoing efforts to further reduce background in the next-generation PandaX liquid xenon detector.

        Speaker: Prof. Ke Han (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
      • 99
        The DarkSide-20k argon procurement chain

        The DarkSide-20k experiment searches for dark matter by looking for interactions of WIMPs in a 50 tonnes target of liquid argon using double-phase time projection chamber technology. The key component of the experiment is low radioactivity argon depleted in the isotope $^{39}$Ar.
        The supply chain begins with the Urania plant in Colorado, which can produce argon at a purity of 99.99% from a CO$_2$ stream sourced from a deep well that reaches the Earth’s mantle, at a rate of about 250 kg/day. The plant, which includes four distillation columns and a pressure swing absorption stage, has already been fabricated while the site is being prepared for installation. After this initial purification stage, the argon will be transported to Sardinia, Italy, where the Aria plant, based on a 350 m cryogenic distillation column, will further suppress impurities by several orders of magnitude. The Aria plant has already been fully fabricated and is now in the installation phase. A lower version, about
        26 m high, has been tested over the last three years with very positive results confirming the cryogenic distillation technology.
        The importance of this supply chain and of associated techniques extends well beyond DarkSide-20k. Low-radioactivity argon is also of interest for the LEGEND-1000 experiment and for the ultimate dark-matter search experiment using argon ARGO and is attracting the attention of the DUNE collaboration for its Module of Opportunity.

        Speaker: Walter Marcello Bonivento (INFN Cagliari)
      • 100
        An ICP-MS based dust monitoring methodology to evaluate dust background mitigation procedures

        Rigorous radioactive background constraints are necessary for rare-event search experiments to meet their sensitivity goals. Underground facilities provide ideal attenuation of cosmic radiation, shielding materials around the detectors are used to mitigate backgrounds from soil, and extensive radioassay campaigns are performed to source the most radiopure materials. To reduce the impact of particulate deposition on material surfaces, detectors are assembled and operated in cleanroom facilities. Even so, dust particulate fallout on rare-event detector materials remains a concerning source of radioactive backgrounds. Within the low-background community, much effort is being invested to investigate, inform, and mitigate dust backgrounds. In this work, an ICP-MS based methodology for the direct determination of fallout rates of radionuclides and stable isotopes of interest from dust particulate was employed to monitor key experimental areas at the SNOLAB facility. Hosted in an active mine at a depth of 2070m, the SNOLAB underground laboratory strives to maintain experimental areas at class-2000 cleanroom level. This work provides insights on dust background mitigation procedures in place at SNOLAB, and informs backgrounds from dust particulate fallout during underground laboratory activities.

        Speaker: Maria Laura di Vacri (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
      • 101
        Upgrading Radiopurity.org: a Community Material Assay Database

        The radiopurity.org database has proven to be a valuable resource for the low background physics community as a tool to track and share assay results. This talk will describe recent collaborative efforts between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and SNOLAB to modernize the database for the community. Improvements to the search utility and data upload methods will be discussed. Installations to support individual physics collaborations and assay facilities will be described, as well as ongoing plans to develop and support the database.

        Speaker: Dr Stephen Sekula (SNOLAB and Queen's University)
    • Poster session: A
      • 102
        The mass spectroscopy of dark matter in $SU(3)$ hidden color

        We consider the mass spectroscopy of dark matter in the dark hadron model. In this model [1], the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in the $SU(3)$ hidden color gauge sector, there exist Nambu-Goldstone (NG) bosons which are massive, because the hidden sector fermions break explicitly chiral symmetry. Therefore, these bosons are dark matter candidates. We study $SU(3)$ hidden color interaction and $SU(3)$ hidden flavor symmetry which can be broken into $SU(2)$ $\times$ $U(1)$. We present the mass spectroscopy of dark matter by lattice QCD simulations with a truncated overlap fermion formalism based on domain wall fermions. Truncated overlap fermions satisfy lattice chiral symmetry instead of chiral symmetry in continuum field theory.

        [1] Ametani Y, Aoki M, Goto H, and Kubo J 2015 Phys. Rev. D 91 115007.

        Speaker: Yuko Murakami (Hiroshima University, Japan)
      • 103
        Searching for Beyond-Standard-Model Physics with LEGEND-1000

        LEGEND-1000 is a next-generation experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of the Ge-76 isotope. This ton-scale experiment uses enriched high-purity Ge detectors surrounded by a large active liquid Ar shield, deployed deep underground. Because of the low noise and low energy thresholds of these detectors, along with the low background design of LEGEND-1000, this experiment provides an excellent opportunity for searches for new physics beyond neutrinoless double-beta decay. These include searches for dark matter candidates, exotic nuclear decays, tests of fundamental symmetries, emissions of additional particles during two-neutrino double-beta decays, and more. This poster will focus on the strategies and expected sensitivities of the experiment for these searches for physics beyond the standard model.

        This work is supported by the U.S. DOE and the NSF, the LANL, ORNL and LBNL LDRD programs; the European ERC and Horizon programs; the German DFG, BMBF, and MPG; the Italian INFN; the Polish NCN and MNiSW; the Czech MEYS; the Slovak SRDA; the Swiss SNF; the UK STFC; the Russian RFBR; the Canadian NSERC and CFI; the LNGS, SNOLAB, and SURF facilities.

        Speaker: Samuel Watkins (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA)
      • 104
        CR antinuclei predictions and their detectability in the next years

        The creation of anti-nuclei in the Galaxy has been has been discussed as a possible signal of exotic production mechanisms such as primordial black hole evaporation or dark matter decay/annihilation, in addition to the conventional production from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions. Tentative observations of CR antihelium by the AMS-02 collaboration have re-energized the quest to use antinuclei to search for physics beyond the standard model.
        In this talk, we show state-of-art predictions of the antinuclei spectrum from both astrophysical and standard dark matter annihilation models obtained from combined fits to high-precision antiproton data as well as CR nuclei measurements (specially B, Be, Li). Astrophysical sources are capable of producing $\mathcal{O}(1)$ antideuteron event and $\mathcal{O}(0.1)$ antihelium events over 15~years of AMS-02 observations. Standard dark matter models could potentially produce $\mathcal{O}(1)$ antihelium event, while the production of a larger antihelium flux would require more novel dark matter model building. We also discuss that annihilation/decay of a QCD-like dark sector could potentially explain the AMS-02 preliminary observations of antihelium-3 and antihelium-4.

      • 105
        Laser-driven secondary photon emission of FBK NUV-HD Cryo SiPMs

        Secondary photons in SiPMs are responsible for at least three processes: (i) internal cross-talk (ii) external cross-talk and (iii) optically-induced afterpulsing. While the internal crosstalk and afterpulsing involves photon transport within the SiPM, the external cross-talk photons escape from the surface of one SPAD and potentially: (i) reflect back into the SiPM at the surface coating interface and trigger avalanches in neighbouring SPADs, (ii) transmit through the SiPM surface coating. Since some of the future multi-ton dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments are choosing SiPMs as photosensors, the external crosstalk can be a significant background due to each SiPM's tendency to trigger a nearby one. This mechanism may cause detector background and reduce the accuracy of photo-electron resolution for high photo-electron events, leading to a degradation in the position and energy reconstruction.

        To quantify the systematic effects which deteriorate the overall performance of such detectors, a study on SiPM secondary photon emission was conducted. It determined the absolute secondary photon yield equal to the number of photons emitted per charge carrier ($\gamma/e^-$) using spectroscopy. The photon yields were calculated at 163 K and 87 K to mimic the SiPM performance at liquid Xenon and liquid Argon temperatures. In this talk, I will summarise the spectroscopy technique and data analysis used to quantify the secondary photon yield at these temperatures.

        Speaker: Priyanka Kachru (UMass Amherst)
      • 106
        Study of high-purity NaI(Tl) crystals using the PICOLON purification method.

        Dark Matter Detection is an important issue in both cosmology and particle physics. WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are one of the most promising candidates for dark matter and are being studied worldwide. The XENON group has the most sensitive detector in the world.
        On the other hand, the DAMA/LIBRA group reports the annual modulation using NaI(Tl) with lower sensitivity than the XENON group. Hence verification is essential. Moreover, verification of the annual modulation of the DAMA/LIBRA group requires NaI(Tl) crystals with backgrounds comparable to those of the DAMA/LIBRA group.

        PICOLON (Pure Inorganic Crystal Observatory for Low-energy Neut(ra)lino) aims to use ultra-pure NaI(Tl) crystals to search for dark matter and to verify the annual modulation reported by the DAMA/LIBRA group.
        In the 2020 report, crystals (Ingot#85) with backgrounds concentration comparable to DAMA/LIBRA were developed. In this presentation, we report the background and sensitivity of a new PICOLON crystal (Ingot#94) developed using the Ingot#85 purification method.

        Speaker: Mr Kenta Kotera (Tokushima University, Graduate School of Sciences and Technology)
      • 107
        A model for the KATRIN differential Tritium spectrum to search for keV sterile neutrinos

        KATRIN (Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment) aims to measure the neutrino mass by analyzing the endpoint region of a Tritium spectrum using a high-luminosity source and a high-resolution MAC-E filter technique. KATRIN holds the current best limit on the neutrino mass of 0.8 eV, coming from the joint analysis of the first two measurement campaigns.
        After KATRIN’s data taking, a detector upgrade, called TRISTAN, is planned. The choice for this new detector is a matrix of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) made of 9 modules with 166 pixels each.
        KATRIN, equipped with the TRISTAN detector, has the potential to perform a high-statistics differential measurement deep into the Tritium β spectrum and thus enable the search for sterile neutrinos in the keV-range, candidates to be Dark Matter particles. The existence of these particles would lead to a kink in the β spectrum.
        In order to search for this small signature an accurate model of the whole spectrum is needed. In particular, keV electrons can lose part of their energy by interacting with several elements of the beamline, leading to spectral distortions.
        In this poster, I will provide an overview of the status and the challenges of a model for the whole Tritium differential spectrum.

        Speaker: Andrea Nava (University of Milano-Bicocca, INFN section Milano-Bicocca (Italy))
      • 108
        TRISTAN: A novel detector for searching keV-sterile neutrinos at the KATRIN experiment

        Sterile neutrinos are a possible extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. If their mass is in the keV range, they are a suitable dark matter candidate. One way to search for sterile neutrinos in a laboratory-based experiment is via tritium beta decay. A sterile neutrino with a mass up to 18.6 keV would manifest itself in the decay spectrum as a kink-like distortion.
        The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment currently investigates the endpoint region of the tritium beta-decay spectrum to measure the effective electron anti-neutrino mass. The main objective of the TRISTAN project is to extend this energy range to measure the entire beta-decay spectrum. To this end, a novel multi-pixel silicon drift detector and readout system is currently being developed which enables the search for sterile neutrinos in the keV-mass range. This contribution will give an overview on the design and development of the new detector and show first test measurements of a detector module.

        This work is supported by BMBF (05A17PM3, 05A17PX3, 05A17VK2, 05A17WO3), KSETA, the
        Max Planck society, and the Helmholtz Association. Moreover, this project has received funding
        from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union Horizon 2020 research
        and innovation program (grant agreement no. 852845).

        Speaker: Korbinian Urban (Technical University of Munich, TUM School of Natural Sciences, Physics Department, 85747 Garching, Germany)
      • 109
        Development of cryogenic CMOS ASICs for HPGe detectors for dark matter and neutrino detection experiments

        Germanium detectors have been widely used for both dark matter and neutrino-less double beta decay experiments due to its high energy resolution, low threshold and working at medium-low temperature. Hence large scale experiments up to ~ 1t detectors have been proposed, including LEGEND and CDEX. In order to achieve best performance, readout electronics, especially the front-end electronics should be mounted as close to the detector as possible. Custom designed ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) are demanded to satisfy the stringent requirement for low noise, low mass, highly integration and operation at cryogenic temperature. This paper will introduce the progress on the development of ASICs for HPGe detectors, including a low noise and wide dynamic range preamplifier and SCA (switched capacitor array) based waveform sampling chip with on-chip digitizer. A noise level of 108 eV FWHM has been measured with a 0.5 kg HPGe detector. Detailed chip design and test results will be present.

        Speaker: Zhi Deng (Tsinghua University (CN))
      • 110
        Recent progress on BSM and dark matter searches in CUORE

        The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first tonne-scale experiment using cryogenic calorimeters. The detector is located underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy and consists of 988 TeO2 crystals operated in a dilution refrigerator at a base temperature of about 10 mK. Thanks to the large exposure, sharp energy resolution, segmented structure and radio-pure environment, CUORE provided the most sensitive exclusion limit of the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. The same features offer a unique opportunity to search for other beyond Standard Model processes including interactions of dark matter candidates, such as Solar Axions and WIMPs, in the CUORE crystals. We expect that these events will deposit a lower amount of energy than the neutrinoless double beta decay. Thus, we are working forward to demonstrate the potentiality of the CUORE detector technology in the keV region and profit from the very large amount of data collected so far (2 ton yr of exposure) to search for dark matter evidences.

        Speaker: Alberto Ressa (Sapienza University of Rome)
      • 111
        Projections of discovery potentials for future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

        The most promising strategy for demonstrating the Majorana nature of neutrinos is to observe neutrinoless double beta decay (0$\nu\beta\beta$). Measurement of the 0$\nu\beta\beta$ lifetime will provide direct insight into the absolute mass scale of neutrinos and probe the neutrino mass ordering. The next generation of 0$\nu\beta\beta$ experiments targets to probe the inverted mass ordering (IO) and enter the normal ordering (NO) regions. Estimation of the experimental specifications and their cost-effectiveness is becoming increasingly important as these experiments generally require tonne-scale of enriched isotopes and decade-long efforts to realize. We perform a quantitative study of the projected experimental sensitivities in terms of the discovery potentials $-$ prior to the experiments are performed. The sensitivity of counting analysis is derived with complete Poisson statistics and compared with its continuous approximation. Additional measurable signature such as energy can boost the sensitivity and this is incorporated via a maximum likelihood analysis. The roles and effects of uncertainties in background predictions are examined. The results reinforce and quantify the vital role of background suppression in future 0$\nu\beta\beta$ projects with sensitivity goals of approaching and covering NO.

        M. K. Singh, H. T. Wong et al., Phys. Rev. D 101, 013006 (2020).

        Speaker: Dr Manoj Kumar Singh (Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica)
      • 112
        Enhancing Performance for AMoRE-II Detectors Using Lithium Molybdate Crystal Absorber

        The AMoRE collaboration is engaged in experiments aimed at detecting neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo. The experiments utilize large molybdenum-based scintillating crystals with cryogenic sensors. The forthcoming AMoRE-II phase will use large cylindrical Li$_2$MoO$_4$ (LMO) crystals with diffusive surfaces, which helps to reduce the crystal preparation time significantly. Despite the increased mass of these crystals, 6 cm (D) x 6 cm (H) in dimensions, they have performed similarly to the previous 5 cm (D) x 5 cm (H) LMO crystals in various tests. The diffusive surfaces of the LMO crystals have improved the discrimination between alpha and beta/gamma particles through pulse shape discrimination (PSD) analysis, despite the slower signal compared to polished crystals. We also investigated muon events, which showed two bands in the PSD parameter (rise time) of the 6 cm LMO crystal with polished surfaces. Developing detectors with LMO crystals required optimizing crystal and environmental setup conditions and utilizing pulse shape analysis due to the lower scintillation light yield compared to CaMoO$_4$ (CMO) crystals used in previous phases. We will present detailed information on the preparation and results of the AMoRE-II R&D experiment.

        Speaker: Dr Jungho So (Institute for Basic Science)
      • 113
        The radon and radium concentrations in water measurement systems for JUNO's Water Cherenkov Detector

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose low background liquid scintillator detector, was proposed primarily to determine the neutrino mass ordering. For the sake of suppressing the radioactivity from the surrounding rocks and tagging the cosmic muons, the central detector is submerged in a water Cherenkov detector which is filled with 35 kton ultrapure water and equipped with 2400 20-inch MCP-PMTs. Strict requirements are put forward for the intrinsic radioactivity of the ultrapure water, i.e., the radon concentration should be less than 10 mBq/m3. As the progenitor of 222Rn, the concentration of 226Ra should also be precisely measured and kept well below 10 mBq/m3. In this poster, the details of two measuring systems, optimized to achieve a sensitivity of 1mBq/m3 for the radon concentration in water and of 10μBq/m3 for the radium concentration in water, will be described and discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Cong Guo (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science)
      • 114
        First results from the LAPPDs in ANNIE

        The Accelerator Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE) is a 26-ton gadolinium doped water Cherenkov detector with a submerged water-based liquid scintillator filled vessel. It is on-axis of the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, and its main physics goal is to measure the neutrino cross-section which will improve the systematic uncertainties of next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiments. The first such measurement will be the final state neutron multiplicity of neutrino-nucleus interactions in water. ANNIE is also the first large-scale high energy physics experiment to deploy multiple Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD), a novel photon detector technology with a timing resolution of <100$\ $ps and a sub-centimeter spatial resolution which will help to improve the vertex reconstruction. This poster will give an update on the status of the LAPPD deployment as well as first results from neutrino beam induced events recorded by the LAPPDs.

        Speaker: Marc Breisch (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)
      • 115
        Manipulating stored energy in NaI(Tl) and DAMA-LIBRA background modulation

        Excess energy stored in NAI(Tl) crystals can cause spontaneous luminescence, and exposure to red light can release thermally induced luminescence. We can assume that stored energy can spontaneously be transformed into heat. We know that energetic particles can produce energy-storing states, and we can assume that interactions with practice can release stored energy either as luminescence or heat. Environmental factors also can affect the accumulation and release of stored energy. We discussed several scenarios of how these effects can lead to background luminescence modulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-CONF-849050.

        Speaker: sergey pereverzev (LLNL)
      • 116
        Dark photon DM search in 6-8 eV energy range with URIDA Experiment

        The dark photon emerges as an additional gauge boson in a U (1) Standard Model extension and is coupled to the ordinary photon via kinetic mixing. To investigate the energy band from 6-8 eV, where photons are highly absorbent due to molecular oxygen with an absorption length on the order of cm at atmospheric pressure, we developed the Ultraviolet Range Initiated photons from Dark-photons in Ambient (URIDA) Experiment, motivated by other work. In order to minimize attenuation, the detection system was housed in a vacuum chamber. We constructed our detector system using low dark rate photomultipliers that are sensitive at these energies and included an aluminum reflector similar to the FUNK experiment to enhance collection. Results on performance and preliminary sensitivity will be reported

        Speaker: Abaz Kryemadhi (Messiah University)
      • 117
        Optimal operation of cryogenic calorimeter through deep reinforcement learning

        Cryogenic phonon detectors with superconducting thermometers achieve the strongest sensitivity to light dark matter recoils in current direct detection dark matter searches. In such devices, the temperature of the thermometer and the bias current in its readout circuit need careful optimization to achieve optimal operation conditions. This task is not trivial and has to be done manually by an expert, which makes the simultaneous operation of many detectors challenging. We simulated the detector response as an OpenAI Gym reinforcement learning environment and finetuned it to resemble the behavior of three CRESST-III detectors currently operated in run 36 of the experiment. In the simulation, we test the capability of a Soft Actor-Critic agent to perform the optimization task. Furthermore, we report on a measurement interval in February 2023, during which we tested our method live on the identical detectors running in the CRESST underground setup at LNGS. Finally, we discuss large pre-trained models that can perform the optimization task without the necessity for training on individual detectors. Our method can improve the scalability of multi-detector setups.

        Speaker: Felix Wagner (HEPHY Vienna)
      • 118
        Dark Matter interpretation of neutron multiplicity anomalies

        Subterrestrial neutron spectra show weak but consistent anomalies at multiplicities ~100 and above [1-3]. The data of the available measurements are of low statistical significance [4] but indicate an excess of events not correlated with the muon flux. The origin of the anomalies remains ambiguous, but it could be a signature of WIMP annihilation-like interaction with a Pb target. In the presentation, we’ll outline a model consistent with this hypothesis. We use an extended Standard Model approach called the Radiation Gauge Model (RGM). The RGM identifies the scalar neutrino-antineutrino wave function component of WIMP DM responsible for the weak interaction leading to annihilation with ordinary matter. The model assigns neutrino-(target)nucleon CC (charged current) transitions to the observed anomalies. For example, an 8 GeV WIMP particle annihilating Pb nucleus requires 3.25 GeV excitation to destroy or fragment the Pb into neutrons and protons, which further undergo (n, xn) and (p, xn) reactions in the massive Pb target. The outgoing weak interaction leptons (e, mu, tau, and neutrinos) take the remainder of the energy (4.75 GeV). If the existence of the anomalies is confirmed and the model interpretation is positively verified, this will be the first terrestrial Indirect Detection of Dark Matter.

        [1] https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0514
        [2] http://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2156/1/012029
        [3] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2022.167223
        [4] TAUP abstract #166

        Speakers: Dr Thomas Ward (US Department of Energy; Techsource Incorporated), Prof. Wladyslaw Trzaska (Department Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland; Helsinki Institute of Physics (HIP), University of Helsinki)
      • 119
        Geant4 simulations of the influence of contamination and roughness of the detector surface on background spectra in CRESST

        CRESST is an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter, situated at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. It is capable of detecting nuclear recoils down to 10 eV with an impressive sensitivity in the sub-GeV mass region. This is achieved by using cryogenic scintillation crystals as target materials. To separate background from signals a two-channel approach, measuring light and phonos, is utilized. However, the separation capability is poor in the low energy region and it is challenging to distinguish between dark matter interactions and $\beta$, $\gamma$ or $\alpha$-particles.

        The background components are considered via simulations with 'ImpCRESST', a Geant4 based simulation code, which is continuously adapted to the setup of CRESST. At the current state, the CRESST background model only considers bulk contaminations and a flat detector surface.

        This contribution presents possible effects of surface contamination with radiogenic elements, in combination with the influence of the surface roughness of the detector crystal itself. Because of nuclides decaying inside the crystal in the vicinity of the surface, it is possible that only a share of the energy is placed inside the detector.
        As a result, higher energy events can leak into the lower energy range and may affect the simulated background. Since default Geant4 is not capable of simulating a rough surface an extension is developed and the impact of different roughness configurations is studied.

        Speaker: Christoph Gruner
      • 120
        The COSINUS Underground Cryogenic Facility

        Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnatures seen in Next generation Underground Searches (COSINUS) will use cryogenic sodium iodide (NaI) calorimeters to search for dark matter. Recently, the construction of an underground facility at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) for COSINUS has been completed. The features of the COSINUS facility allow for a low background environment for rare event searches. This facility will house a dry dilution refrigerator, which will sit in a drywell inside a water tank. The water tank will be instrumented with photo multiplier tubes and serve as an active muon veto. Above the water tank, a clean room will allow for a clean environment for detector maintenance and installation. A vibrationally decoupled building next to the water tank will provide access to the clean room and hold a control room and maintenance rooms.

        Speaker: Maximilian Nathan Hughes (Max Planck Institut for Physics in Munich, Germany)
      • 121
        Axion searches using the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (EuXFEL)

        The axion was initially posed as a solution to the CP problem of QCD, but axion-like particles (ALPs) also arise in string theory and are a dark matter (DM) candidate. Most laboratory axion searches concentrate on the 0.001-0.1 meV mass range, however there is growing interest in heavier (DFSZ) axions (above 10 meV) which avoid the cosmological domain wall catastrophe[1] and may explain stellar energy losses beyond those accounted for by neutrino emission[2].

        Here we describe new laboratory searches for axions performed at EuXFEL. These are sensitive to an axion/ALP mass range including 1 meV-1 eV, which is unconstrained by astrophysical arguments if axions constitute DM. Similar searches were previously performed on a 3rd generation synchrotron[3]; however limited flux prevented those experiments probing down to DM relevant couplings. This work is the first step in developing a platform with improved sensitivity due to an increase in brightness by $\sim10^{10}$ when using EuXFEL. Initial work has confirmed previous bounds on the axion-photon coupling[3] and considered a previously unexplored axion mass range. In future we expect to probe down to the coupling in the keV mass range for which QCD axions can be DM.

        [1]K.Beyer & S.Sarkar arXiv:2211.14635v5. (2023)
        [2]M.Giannotti+ JCAP 2017.10 (2017)
        [3]T.Yamaji+ Phys.Lett.B 782, 523–527 (2018)

        Funded by the UK EPSRC (EP/X01133X/1 & EP/X010791/1). SS & GG are members of the QSHS consortium funded by the UK STFC (ST/T006277/1).

        Speaker: Dr Jack Halliday (University of Oxford, United Kingdom)
      • 122
        A search for low-mass dark matter with a CaF2 crystal

        We developed a low threshold detector for low mass dark matter search with a CaF2 crystal and an MMC readout. The detector was assembled to make a direct metal-metal contact between an MMC sensor and a phonon-collector film on the crystal. This new absorber-sensor geometry resulted in a signal rise-time of about 100 us and a detection threshold of about a few tens of eV. We present the detector performance and the results of an above-ground measurement for the direct detection of low-mass dark matter

        Speaker: Mr KyungRae Woo (IBS)
      • 123
        Novel multi-channel skipper-CCD packages for the OSCURA experiment

        The next generation of skipper-CCD experiments for rare-event searches will bring new challenges for the detector packaging and read-out. Scaling the active mass and simultaneously reducing the experimental backgrounds in two orders of magnitude will require a novel high-density Silicon-based package, that must be massively produced and stored. In this work, we present the design, first production, and testing of a 16-channel Silicon package, along with the outlook for the next steps towards producing 1500 wafers that will add up to a 10 kg skipper-CCD detector.

        Speaker: Ana Martina Botti (Fermilab)
      • 124
        Optimum Filter Analysis in CRESST-III

        The Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) experiment aims for the direct detection of dark matter (DM). In the current low-mass DM search, a low energy threshold and a high resolution at low energies are crucial for exploring the parameter space. In the most recent CRESST Phase III, alongside hardware changes, the energy threshold could be improved using a different analysis approach based on the optimum filter method, which reduces the noise contribution to the signal, resulting in an optimized signal-to-noise ratio. This allows the experiment to be one of the leading ones in probing sub-GeV DM masses. In this contribution the optimum filter method has been tested for performance and improvement using additional digital filtering and calibration methods.

        Speaker: Lena Meyer (Eberhards Karls University Tubingen (DE))
      • 125
        Description of the low energy excess in CRESST using two-dimensional unbinned likelihood fits

        The Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) is one of the most sensitive experiments when it comes to the direct detection of light dark matter via nuclear recoils.
        At low recoil energies below 100eV, the sensitivity is currently affected by the presence of a sharply increasing event rate below a few hundred eV for which dark matter as an origin has already been ruled out. This low energy excess (LEE) is not only observed in all CRESST detectors but other experiments encounter similar issues, making these observations relevant for the whole field, without a clear idea about its origin so far.
        We will present the progress we made toward a model of the LEE that works for all CRESST detectors while using as few parameters as possible. We use two-dimensional unbinned likelihood fits for fitting time and energy simultaneously.
        The studies cover our most recent data-taking run, including cycles where the cryostat was warmed up and cooled down several times to investigate temporary rises in the low energy event rate that have been observed to occur after such warm-ups.

        Speaker: Sarah Kuckuk (University Tübingen (DE))
      • 126
        Anisotropic Effect of ZnWO4 Scintillator for Direction-Sensitive Dark Matter Search

        Direction-sensitive detector with solid-state target is expected to have higher sensitivity for WIMPs window compared to conventional dark matter search using Tl:NaI and other scintillators. ZnWO4 was reported to have anisotropic of light outputs for each crystal surface excited by alpha rays. In this study, we evaluated such anisotropic effect for several crystals such as PbWO4 with a size of 10 cm $\times$ 10 cm $\times$ 10 cm $\times$. Since these crystals have no cubic structure, crystal orientations did not correspond to the cutting surface. PbWO4 was found to have the different light output and $\alpha$/$\gamma$ ratios for each surface as well as ZnWO4 had. Moreover, such samples were irradiated with single electron and proton, and the result of proton irradiation showed the anisotropic effect. On the other hand, the difference was not observed clearly for electron irradiation.

        Speaker: Shunsuke Kurosawa (Tohoku Univ. & Osaka Univ.)
      • 127
        Searching for Heavy Dark Matter near the Planck Mass with XENON1T

        Multiple viable theoretical models predict heavy dark matter particles with a mass close to the Planck mass, a range relatively unexplored by current experimental measurements. We conducted a blind search for signals from Multiply-Interacting Massive Particles (MIMPs) in XENON1T, whose unique track signature allowed a targeted analysis with only 0.05 expected background events from muons. We observed no signal candidate events in the search data with a total exposure of 219.4 days. In this poster, we will present the search strategy and the new constraints on spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions of dark matter particles with masses close to the Planck scale.

        Speaker: Shengchao Li (Purdue University and Westlake University)
      • 128
        TAXO - Towards an ultra-low background semiconductor detector for IAXO

        IAXO aims to detect solar axions as they are back-converted into X-rays along a strong magnet pointed towards the sun. Excellent spectroscopic performance, high X-ray absorption efficiency at and below 10 keV, and great potential for ultra-low background operations are features of silicon drift detectors that could facilitate this endeavour. TAXO is a two-stage project which aims to demonstrate ultra-low background X-ray detection at shallow depth, exploiting material properties and a novel all-semiconductor active-shield concept. Our poster displays the progress towards an ultra-low background semiconductor detector for IAXO, including first background results. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society, the Excellence Cluster ORIGINS, the SFB1258, and the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

        Speaker: Christoph Wiesinger (Technical University of Munich)
      • 129
        The XENONnT Radon Removal System

        The XENONnT experiment, located underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, uses a total of 8.6t of high-purity liquid xenon to directly search for WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle) dark matter using a dual phase time projection chamber. Most of the low-energy electronic recoil background is caused by intrinsic contamination of the xenon by Rn-222 with a half-life of 3.8d, which is continuously emanating from the detector materials.
        For the reduction of this background, a high-flow online radon removal system was designed and constructed (M. Murra et al, Eur. Phys. J. C 82 (2022) 1104), which uses cryogenic distillation based on the difference in vapor pressure between radon and xenon. The system can be operated in parallel in two modes: At a flow rate of 200 slpm, liquid xenon is extracted from the detector and passed through the system. The cleaning time constant, which only corresponds to one mean lifetime of Rn-222 (5.5d), results in a reduction in radon concentration by a factor of two. An additional extraction of 25 slpm of gaseous xenon provides another reduction factor of about two. With the combined operation of both modes, an extremely low Rn-222 activity concentration of < 1 µBq/kg is achieved, the lowest of any xenon dark matter experiment.
        This contribution shows the basic concept of the XENONnT radon removal system and the performance of the system in the XENONnT experiment.
        The project is funded by BMBF under contract 05A20PM1.

        Speaker: David Koke (Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Münster)
      • 130
        Krypton Removal for the XENON Dark Matter Project

        The XENON collaboration employs dual-phase xenon time-projection chambers to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and other rare processes. In order to achieve high sensitivity to the WIMP-nucleon cross-section, radioactive contaminants must be carefully monitored and suppressed. One impurity particularly difficult to remove is krypton, presenting a significant challenge as signals induced by the β-decay of $^{85}$Kr leak into the ROI for dark matter searches. A cryogenic distillation column was developed for the XENON1T experiment, lowering the $^\text{nat}$Kr/Xe concentration and thus making the $^{85}$Kr background subdominant compared to the contamination from the radon decay chain.

        During preparation for the XENONnT experiment, the xenon inventory was cleaned and a $^\text{nat}$Kr/Xe concentration of $(56\pm 36)\,$ppq was reached with an online distillation mode for the first sience run of XENONnT. This poster will present the cryogenic krypton distillation column and demonstrate its use cases with the current XENONnT experiment.
        The project is funded by BMBF under contract 05A20PM1.

        Speaker: Johanna Jakob (Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Münster)
      • 131
        A low-threshold diamond cryogenic detector for sub-GeV Dark Matter searches

        Recently the sub-GeV dark matter (DM) mass region has started to be probed. To explore this region, detectors with a low energy threshold are required. Recent developments in the production of diamond crystals allow for high-quality large-mass diamonds that can be used as DM detectors. Thanks to their superior cryogenic properties, diamond detectors can reach an energy threshold in the eV range. In this contribution the realization of the first low-threshold cryogenic detector that uses diamond as an absorber for astroparticle physics applications will be reported. Two diamond samples instrumented with a W-TES have been tested, showing transitions at about 25 mK. The performance of the diamond detectors will be presented highlighting the best performing one, reaching an energy threshold of 16.8 eV. Finally, the dark matter results that could be achieved with this measurement will be shown.

        Speaker: Anna Bertolini (Max Planck Society (DE))
      • 132
        Ultra-clean four cylinder magnetically-coupled piston pump for noble gas experiments

        The ultra-clean radon-free four cylinder magnetically-coupled piston pump is a high performance gas displacement pump interesting for the usage in low background experiments dealing with noble gases as target material. Due to its low radon emanation and special cleanliness in terms of out-gassing, in addition to the high and stable performance, the four cylinder pump is currenlty operated as a xenon gas compressor at the novel radon removal system of the dark matter experiment XENONnT.
        The four cylinder pumps connected in parallel feature a phase-shifted synchronization of their movements in order to increase the flow and to provide long-term performance combined with low output pressure and flow fluctuations. A custom-made programming of the synchronization gives the possibility to operate the system with different configurations and to monitor the status of each pump during the operation. In this poster, the function and the operation experience with this magnetically-coupled piston compressor are presented. This research was partially supported by BMBF under the contract 05A20PM1.

        Speaker: Andria Michael (University of Münster)
      • 133
        The physics-driven surface background model for XENONnT

        The world-leading dark matter direct detection experiment XENONnT exploits a TPC-instrumented liquid Xenon active target of about 5.9 t.
        In order to enhance the light collection efficiency, the TPC volume is delimited by diamond-tip shaved PTFE panels.
        Radioactive isotopes contaminating these panels, directly in contact with the Xenon active mass, are responsible for generating the “surface background”.
        In particular, electrons and gammas originating from the decaying 210Pb, implanted in the PTFE when air-exposed due to the radon plate out phenomenon, contribute to the background budget for the WIMP signal search.
        Differently from the other electronic recoil background sources due to the electrons collection on the PTFE panels, these events are characterized by a reduced ratio between ionization and scintillation signals, mimicking WIMP nucleus scattering events.
        Traditionally, in order to reduce this background contribution, a fiducial volume cut is applied limiting the experimental exposure and hence the WIMP signal sensitivity.
        The study presented probes the feasibility of implementing a physics-driven surface background model that could in principle allow the extension of the fiducial volume increasing the experimental exposure for the WIMP search.
        Moreover, by exploiting the Flamedisx modelling and fitting framework the discovery power in case of detected signal is enhanced.

        Speaker: Cecilia Ferrari (GSSI & Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)
      • 134
        Monte Carlo study of the Water Cherenkov Muon Veto for the COSINUS Experiment

        For over twenty-five years, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment observes an annual modulation signal that is consistent with a dark matter explanation. Under the standard halo scenario, this signal is in tension with the null results observed by other searches that utilize different target detectors. The COSINUS experiment will perform a model-independent cross-check of the DAMA/LIBRA result by using the same target material, NaI crystals, operated as scintillating calorimeters. COSINUS is currently under construction at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. In this low background underground facility, the detectors are placed at the centre of a 7$\times$7 m cylindrical water tank, which acts as a passive shield against the ambient and cosmogenic background. However, muon-induced neutrons, created near the detector, can mimic a potential dark matter signal. Therefore, an active muon veto system is required to identify and remove these events. We report on the results of a design study for an active water Cherenkov muon veto. This study optimizes the design for tagging muons while mitigating the overall background trigger rate. To achieve this, comprehensive Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of various factors including: trigger conditions, photomultiplier tube arrangements, foil reflectivity, and the size of the optically invisible region in the water tank.

        Speaker: Dr Matthew Jake Stukel (Gran Sasso Science Institute)
      • 135
        Towards a cryogenic calibration of a dielectric haloscope for direct dark matter detection

        MADMAX, the MAgnetized Disc and Mirror Axion eXperiment, is a novel dielectric haloscope concept to detect the axion in the mass range 40-400 ueV through enhancement of the inverse Primakoff process. The discovery of the axion could solve both the strong CP problem, fundamental in particle physics, and the dark matter problem. Currently, MADMAX uses a prototype system called CB-100 to understand the different challenges of this novel concept at frequencies in the order of 20GHz at room temperature. One of the most urgent tasks is to operate the experiment at cryogenic temperatures, where the sensitivity to the QCD axion would be significantly higher. In this poster, I first justify why this effort could be interesting for other applications inside and outside astroparticle physics. Then, I explain the challenges and progress in accomplishing a cold calibration of CB-100. Finally, I show the projected sensitivity enhancement from this upgrade in the next MADMAX dark matter search campaign.

        Speaker: Juan PA Maldonado (Max Planck Institute for Physics, Germany)
      • 136
        Study on the preparation of low-background flexible electronics substrate based on ion beam modification polymer surface

        The upgrading rare event detection experiments has become increasingly urgent with updating the performance of the electronics. In the next phase of China Dark Matter EXperiment (CDEX), the electronics have been designed barely immersing in 6.5 m shielding thickness of liquid nitrogen with detector crystal, and the flexible electronic substrate (FES) composed electronics are required to be high adhesion, low-temperature resistance and low-background. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is widely recognized with low-background, high dielectric properties. To solve the problem of poor surface adhesion, we propose a new method for analyzing the surface adhesion of polymers, which provide direct insight into the influence of ion implantation on the polymer surface adhesion. The adhesion of self-developed FES after soaked in liquid nitrogen for 20 days is not less than 0.67 N/mm, demonstrating good low-temperature resistance. In addition, the dissipation factor of the self-developed FES is less than 0.003 at 173K, which is better than 17 times that of commercial FES products. Furthermore, the screened low-background PTFE and PTFE composite films can be designed as CDEX partition materials. In conclusion, we studied the structure-activity relationship of ion implantation modification polymer surfaces, which provides a theoretical basis and practical example for the development of high adhesion, low-temperature resistance and low-background FES.

        Speaker: Mr XIANGPENG MENG (Beijing Normal University)
      • 137
        Magnetically-levitated superconductors for dark matter detection

        Magnetically-levitated superconducting particles have potential as ultrasensitive inertial sensors for dark matter detection. They can be highly-isolated from their surroundings, in ultrahigh vacuum at cryogenic temperatures, and confined in dissipationless traps. They can be coupled to superconducting quantum circuits, offering the potential for sensing the particle motion beyond the standard quantum limit.

        We have been developing this platform for performing quantum experiments using macroscopic (micrometer-scale) particles. By scaling-up to centimetre-scale particles, it can make an excellent sensor for impulses from dark matter near the Planck scale, and for ultralight dark matter candidates.

        Speaker: Dr Gerard Higgins (Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), Vienna, Austria)
      • 138
        Muon Veto of the LEGEND Experiment

        The Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless $\beta \beta$ Decay (LEGEND) is an experimental program searching for the neutrinoless $\beta \beta$ decay of $^{76}$Ge. The experiment is designed to reach half-life sensitivity of $10^{28}$ years. To achieve such rare event rate requires a number of measures to reduce background due to more common phenomena. A Water-Cherenkov-Veto system acts for LEGEND-200 to actively reduce background. It uses photomultiplier tubes as light sensors in a water-tank covered with a reflective foil to increase the light yield inside the water volume. In this poster we present the working principle and data analysis of the current muon veto and discuss plans for its future improvements for the next experimental phase LEGEND-1000.

        This work is supported by the U.S. DOE and the NSF, the LANL, ORNL and LBNL LDRD programs; the European ERC and Horizon programs; the German DFG, BMBF, and MPG; the Italian INFN; the Polish NCN and MNiSW; the Czech MEYS; the Slovak SRDA; the Swiss SNF; the UK STFC; the Russian RFBR; the Canadian NSERC and CFI; the LNGS, SNOLAB, and SURF facilities.

        Speaker: Gina Grünauer (Universität Tübingen)
      • 139
        The LEGEND-200 Liquid Argon Instrumentation: From a simple veto to a full-fledged detector

        LEGEND-200 at LNGS is an experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 by operating up to 200 kg of enriched Ge-detectors in liquid argon (LAr). To achieve ultra-low backgrounds, the LAr is instrumented to detect scintillation light emitted upon interactions with ionizing radiation, thus tagging and rejecting backgrounds. The LAr scintillation light is detected with wavelength-shifting fibers coupled to SiPM arrays. We demonstrate the high photoelectron (p.e.) resolution and low noise level of the SiPM signals. We also present the results of special calibration runs performed to determine the p.e. yield and background suppression factors. Maximized geometrical coverage and wavelength conversion efficiency result in a high p.e. yield, which in turn enables effective particle discrimination. We illustrate the suppression performance using K-lines and Ra–226 calibration data. Furthermore, we present the additional LAr DAQ trigger which allows the investigation of time-correlated backgrounds, such as BiPo-214 and muon-induced neutron captures on Ar-40. This, together with the particle discrimination capability, elevates the LAr instrumentation from a simple veto to a full-fledged detector.

        This work is supported by: German MPG, BMBF, DFG; Italian INFN; Polish NCN, MNiSW; Czech MEYS; Slovak SRDA; European ERC, Horizon programs; Swiss SNF; UK STFC; U.S. DOE, NSF, LANL, ORNL, LBNL LDRD programs; Russian RFBR; Canadian NSERC, CFI; LNGS and SURF facilities.

        Speaker: Rosanna Deckert (Technical University of Munich)
      • 140
        Constraining the 77(𝑚)Ge Production with GERDA Data and Implications for LEGEND-1000

        The delayed decay of $^{77(\mathrm{𝑚})}$Ge, produced by neutron capture on $^{76}$Ge, is a potential background for the next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment LEGEND-1000 at the LNGS site. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, several mitigation strategies and suppression techniques have been proposed to identify and suppress this background [1,2,3]. So far, only weak experimental limits have been found on the production rate. We present new results from the GERDA experiment on the search for $^{77(\mathrm{𝑚})}$Ge by exploiting the isomeric state in $^{77}$As. Given the very similar configuration - bare germanium detectors in liquid argon - it serves as a benchmark for our LEGEND-1000 predictions. This research was supported by the BMBF through the Verbundforschung 05A20WO2 and by the DFG through the SFB1258 and the Excellence Cluster ORIGINS.

        [1] C. Wiesinger et al., Eur. Phys. J. C (2018) 78: 597
        [2] LEGEND-1000 pCDR, arXiv 2107.11462
        [3] M. Neuberger et al., 2021 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2156 012216

        Speaker: Mr Moritz Neuberger (Physik-Department E15, Technische Universität München, Germany)
      • 141
        Comparison of cross section models for neutrino-induced single pion production

        Neutrinos in the energy range from a few hundred MeV to several GeV are relevant for the study of neutrino oscillation by atmospheric neutrino observation and long baseline experiments. In this intermediate energy region charged-current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE), single pion production, and deep inelastic scattering coexist with comparable contributions. The T2K experiment has been using CCQE events as the primary data sample to measure neutrino oscillations, but single pion production events are used as the signal in the recent analyses. Single pion production is crucial in the NOvA experiment and the future DUNE experiment as they measure the neutrino oscillation at higher energy than T2K with the longer baseline. Similarly, single pion production can be a background in proton decay searches at Super-Kamiokande and future experiments, including Hyper-Kamiokande. Therefore, it is important to understand the cross section and kinematics of single pion production to improve the precision of the neutrino oscillation parameter measurement and proton decay searches. For this purpose, we evaluated a new model for single pion production, called the dynamical coupled-channels model (DCC, T. Sato et al.). We compared it with the Berger-Sehgal model, currently used in the NEUT neutrino interaction generator and past experimental data sets. We also mention the implementation of electro-pion production using the same model. The results and future perspectives will be presented.

        Speaker: Koki Yamauchi (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Japan)
      • 142
        Measurement of the nuclear transition energies of $^\mathrm{83m}$Kr for absolute calibration of the KATRIN energy scale

        The KATRIN experiment aims to measure or exclude the effective
        electron neutrino mass $m_\nu$ down to 0.2 eV/$c^2$ (90 % C.L.) by measuring
        the tritium beta spectrum near its endpoint $E_0$, and performing a fit
        including the parameters $E_0$ and $m_\nu^2$. Since these are highly correlated,
        a systematic shift influencing the obtained neutrino mass would be
        visible in the endpoint and thus tritium $Q$ value. $Q$ has been derived from the mass difference of $^3$He$^+$ and $^3$H with 70 meV precision (cf. PRL. 114, 013003 (2015)).
        This has not been applicable to KATRIN so far due to uncertainty of the measured plasma potential in the tritium source.
        The KATRIN $Q$ value can also be determined by absolute calibration
        with conversion electron lines from co-circulating $^\mathrm{83m}$Kr.
        This is however limited by nuclear gamma transition
        energy uncertainties of $^\mathrm{83m}$Kr to 0.5 eV accuracy. The excited
        nucleus of $^\mathrm{83m}$Kr decays in a two-step cascade of 32.2 keV and 9.4 keV
        highly converted gamma transitions.
        In new measurements performed at KATRIN, a large set of conversion electron
        lines, including a new line, was measured with a gaseous and a condensed
        krypton source. Following the method described in EPJ C 82
        (2022) 700, the $^\mathrm{83m}$Kr gamma transition energies can be determined,
        which can allow for reduction of tritium $Q$ value uncertainty to
        ~0.1 eV. This poster presents the status of the analysis.
        Supported by BMBF under contract number 05A20PMA.

        Speaker: Mr Matthias Böttcher (University of Münster)
      • 143
        Optical simulation of a reactor neutrino CEvNS experiment with dual-phase argon technology

        The coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) process in reactor neutrino experiments has yet to be observed. We are proposing to use a dual-phase argon time projection chamber (TPC) detector with a fiducial volume of several hundred kilograms to measure the reactor neutrino CEvNS. The location of this experiment is chosen to be at the Taishan nuclear power plant in China, where the thermal power is 4.6 GW and the expected neutrino flux at a distance of 35 m from the reactor core is 6×10^{12}cm^{−1}s^{−1} .
        The dominant backgrounds of this experiment are from the cosmic rays. Therefore, to optimize the size of the detector, we simulate the muon-induced responses to evaluate the live-time during the operation of this experiment. Furthermore, we perform simulations of cosmogenic isotopes and the intrinsic background of the detector using an optical model to estimate the pile-up rate of the detector.

        Speaker: Mr yijun xie (Institute of high energy physics,Chinese Academy of Science)
      • 144
        Denoising Signals from a High-Purity Germanium Detector using Generative Adversarial Networks with Convolutional Autoencoders

        High-purity germanium detectors are used in the search for rare events such as neutrinoless double-beta decay, dark matter and other beyond Standard Model physics. Due to the infrequent occurrence of signal events, extraordinary measures are taken to reduce background interactions and extract the most information from data. An efficient signal denoising algorithm can improve energy resolution and background rejection techniques, and help classify signal events. It can also help identify low-energy events where the signal-to-noise ratio is small.

        In this work, we demonstrate the application of generative adversarial networks with deep convolutional autoencoders to remove electronic noise from high-purity germanium p-type point contact detector signals. Built on the success of denoising using a convolutional autoencoder, we investigate generative adversarial networks applied on autoencoders to further improve denoising and enable more realistic model training conditions. This includes training with unpaired simulation and real data, as well as training with only real detector data without the need of simulation. Our approach is not limited to high-purity germanium detectors; it is broadly applicable to other detector technologies in the particle astrophysics community and beyond.

        Speaker: Tianai Ye (Queen's University, Canada)
      • 145
        Purification of 100MoO3 powder for AMoRE-II crystals’ synthesis

        AMoRE is a series of experimental searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo using molybdate-based crystals, such as 40Ca100MoO4 and Li2100MoO4. AMoRE phase-II aims to use 400 bolometric crystals that contain a total of 120 kg of enriched 100Mo with an internal radioactivity background level that is below 510-6 count/kg/keV/year in the region of interest. To reach this level of purity, background levels of radioactive contaminants from thorium and uranium chains in the materials used for the crystal production must be reduced to below Bq/kg. This work will describe the purification method and technology for mass production of low-radioactive, high-purity 100MoO3 powder for the AMoRE-II crystals. We will present results from ICP-MS and HPGe array analyses of the purified powders that confirm the effectiveness of the radioactivity reduction.

        Speaker: Dr Olga Gileva (Center for Underground Physics at the Institute of Basic Science, Daejeon, Korea)
      • 146
        Application of gamma Transition-Edge-Sensor (TES) to 112Sn two-neutrino double electron capture search

        Double electron capture (DEC) is a rare nuclear decay process in which two orbital electrons are captured simultaneously in the same nucleus.
        The measurement of its two-neutrino emitting mode provides a new reference for calculating nuclear matrix elements, while the zero-neutrino emitting mode would demonstrate a violation of lepton number conservation.The two-neutrino DEC mode in 124Xe has been previously observed by the XENON1T experiment. For other nuclei, however, no significant signal was observed. For example, our target isotope of 112Sn, DEC to the excited state in 112Cd was searched using an HPGe detector, but no significant signal was observed. DEC to the ground state in 112Cd has not been conducted so far.

        We propose an approach to search for the DEC mode to the ground state in 112Cd using gamma-ray Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with Sn absorbers.
        The calorimetric (source = detector) configuration allows us to detect two X-ray or Auger electrons resulting from the 112Sn DEC mode with high resolution.
        The state-of-the-art multi-pixel TESs increase the target amount, enhancing sensitivity.
        In this presentation, we will present the demonstration of our search for the 112Sn two neutrino DEC using gamma-ray TES and future prospects.

        Speaker: Dr Koichi Ichimura (Research Center for Neutrino Science, Tohoku University)
      • 147
        Measurement of cosmogenic Li-9 isotope production in SK-Gd

        Cosmic-ray muons that penetrate the Super-Kamiokande detector generate hadron showers in water, producing unstable radioactive isotopes through spallation reactions. These isotopes are major background sources for neutrino observation at MeV scale and for the search for rare events. While Super-Kamiokande has started observation using ultra-pure water in 1996, gadolinium was loaded with 0.011wt% in 2020 aiming for the observation of diffuse supernova neutrino background for the first time. In this study, we measured ${}^9$Li isotope generated by the muon spallation. ${}^9$Li has a lifetime of about 0.26 seconds and emit an electron and a neutron with a branching ratio of 50.8%. These pairs of an electron and a neutron are difficult to distinguish from the inverse beta decay reaction caused by an electron antineutrino, and therefore become major background for DSNB searches.
        In the data analysis, we selected ${}^9$Li event candidates by searching for pairs of low energy events following cosmic-ray muons. Before the gadolinium loading, the Super-Kamiokande experiment had an energy threshold of about 8 MeV for searching for the decay electrons from ${}^9$Li. In this study, the threshold was lowered to 5 MeV for the measurement by the reduction of the accidental background with the gadolinium loading. In this presentation, we will report on the measurement method and analysis status.

        Speaker: Masataka Shinoki (Tokyo University of Science)
      • 148
        Background simulation for AMoRE-II experiment

        The Advanced Mo-based Rare process Experiment (AMoRE) is an underground experiment that aims to detect the neutrino less double beta decay of $^{100}$Mo isotope. Reducing the detector background to as low as possible, ideally, zero level, is one of the key requirements of double beta decay experiments. Radioactive contaminants in the construction materials, such as $^{232}$Th and $^{238}$U daughters, are the most prevalent background sources in the experiments. The environmental fluxes of neutrons, muons, and gamma rays at the experimental site also contribute to the background levels.

        The AMoRE-II aims to achieve a background level of 10$^{-4}$ events/keV/kg/year and is in preparation at the Yemi Underground Laboratory (Yemilab), located in the Handuk mine of Yemi mountain. To estimate the background conditions in the AMoRE-II, we conducted simulations using the GEANT4 Toolkit. These simulations focused on determining the background levels arising from external shield materials, detector modules and details nearby the detectors. We will present a detailed account of our various background simulations and estimate of the background levels within the region of interest.

        Speaker: Jeewon Seo (University of Science and Technology (UST))
      • 149
        Studies on a deep convolutional autoencoder for denoising pulses from a p-type point contact germanium detector

        I present studies on a deep convolutional autoencoder originally designed to remove electronic noise from a p-type point contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. With their intrinsic purity and excellent energy resolutions, HPGe detectors are suitable for a variety of rare event searches such as neutrinoless double-beta decay, dark matter candidates, and other exotic physics. However, noise from the readout electronics can make identifying events of interest more challenging. At lower energies, where the signal-to-noise ratio is small, distinguishing signals from backgrounds can be particularly difficult.

        I focus on the results of a recent publication from our group to demonstrate that a deep convolutional autoencoder can denoise pulses while preserving the underlying pulse shape well. Our research shows that a deep learning-based model is more effective than traditional denoising methods. I also highlight several studies on how the use of this autoencoder can lead to better physics outcomes through improvements in the energy resolution and better background rejection. Finally, I present extensions of this research that our group is working on. Our approach is straightforward to apply to other detector technologies and has great potential to be used in particle physics experiments as well as any other fields dealing with noisy one-dimensional signals.

        Speaker: Mark Anderson (Queen's University, Canada)
      • 150
        Revisiting constraints on long-range neutrino interactions with high-energy astrophysical neutrinos

        Gauged $U(1)'_{L_\alpha-L_\beta}$ ($\alpha,\beta = e,\mu$ or $e, \tau$ or $\mu, \tau$) extension of the Standard Model results in a new $Z'$ boson, which, if ultra-light, mediates long but finite-range flavor-dependent neutrino-matter interactions. In $U(1)'_{L_e-L_\beta}$ ($\beta = \mu, \tau$) models, neutrinos interact with matter (electrons) directly via $Z'$ boson; however, in $U(1)'_{L_\mu-L_\tau}$ model, the interaction between neutrinos and ample matter (neutrons) is achieved through $Z-Z'_{\mu \tau}$ mixing. Such long-range interactions (LRIs) can hinder the neutrino oscillations, manifestations of which may be seen as the change in flavor composition of diffused astrophysical neutrino flux observed at the Earth. Considering major repositories of matter in the Universe, we constrain LRIs using projected measurements of neutrino flavor composition at the current and the future neutrino telescopes, assisted by the existing and projected measurements of mixing parameters by the present and next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments. In all three models, the constraints on the LRI potential by the 2040 IceCube-Gen2 projections is at-least $\sim 1/3$ times better than those by the 2020 IceCube estimates. Our estimates for 2040 by the IceCube-Gen2 experiment dominate over those from other planned experiments --Baikal-GVD, KM3NeT, P-ONE, and TAMBO.

        Speaker: Mr Sudipta Das (Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar)
      • 151
        Searching for neutron Electric Dipole Moment and dark matter candidates at the Paul Scherrer Institute

        The quest for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment (neutron EDM) started more than sixty years ago and is still one of the most important tasks faced by experimental physicists. The reason is that a non-zero value of this observable would violate both the parity symmetry and the time-reversal symmetry. Such a symmetry violation may help us to explain why the Universe is essentially made of matter and not of antimatter. The latest results of the neutron EDM measurement at PSI, where the highest sensitivity among all neutron EDM measurements made to date has been achieved, will be presented along with prospects for further development of the experiment. Furthermore, the measurement method used allows the search for dark matter candidates, i.e. mirror neutrons and very light axions - the results of these measurements will also be briefly presented.

        Speaker: Prof. Jacek Zejma (Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland)
      • 152
        Multimessenger constraints to electrophilic feebly interacting particles from supernovae

        Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of exotic feebly interacting particles (FIPs) that would be abundantly produced by supernova (SN) explosions. Some remarkable examples of FIPs are sterile neutrinos, dark photons and axion-like particles, with the common feature of interacting with electrons and positrons. In this work we constrain the amount of electrons/positrons produced by SN explosions due to the decay of FIPs in the interstellar medium. We use local electron/positron measurements as well as keV-to-MeV gamma-ray data in different regions of the sky to constrain the inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emissions from the injected electron population, and the data from the 511 keV line produced from the annihilation of positrons in the interstellar medium. We show that the strongest constraints come from the 511 KeV emission and improve the current constraints on FIPs thanks to the use of refined astrophysical models.

      • 153
        Current Status of the ALPACA experiment in 2023

        The ALPACA experiment is a new project aimed at observing UHE gamma rays in the southern hemisphere. The observation site is located at 4,740 meters above sea level on Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia. It consists of a surface air shower array of 401 scintillation detectors and a large-area water Cherenkov-type underground muon detector array. A small surface air shower array of the ALPAQUITA, a prototype of ALPACA, has been partially installed and has been in operation since 2022. The construction status and initial data analysis of ALPAQUITA will be presented.

        Speaker: Dr Munehiro OHNISHI (Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN)
      • 154
        First Results on $^{17}$O Enrichment of CaWO$_4$ Crystals for Spin-dependent DM search with CRESST

        The CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) experiment aims to directly detect dark matter (DM) particles via their elastic scattering off target nuclei in scintillating CaWO$_4$ crystals.
        One of the stable oxygen isotopes, $^{17}$O, has a nuclear spin of 5/2. Therefore, CaWO$_4$ crystals can be used for spin-independent and spin-dependent DM searches. Due to its low natural abundance of 0.038$\%$, a $^{17}$O enrichment of the CaWO$_4$ crystals will significantly increase the sensitivity of CRESST to spin-dependent DM interactions.
        The CaWO$_4$ crystals used in CRESST have been grown in-house at the Technische Universität München (TUM) for many years, and have a lower level of radioactive impurities than any commercially available crystals.
        Based on the experience in crystal growth at TUM, a process for the enrichment of CaWO$_4$ with $^{17}$O was developed. Two CaWO$_4$ crystals were enriched and their $^{17}$O content was measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the Universität Leipzig. This contribution presents the concept and first results of the $^{17}$O enrichment and sensitivity predictions for the spin-dependent DM search with enriched CaWO$_4$ crystals in CRESST.

        Speaker: Angelina Kinast (TUM)
      • 155
        IMPRS on Gravitational Wave Astronomy

        I will introduce our structured doctoral program, the International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy. Since its start in 2006 more than 160 PhD students graduated from our school. I will give an overview of our curriculum and how our early career researchers learn from each other with topics ranging from theory to experiments in gravitational wave astronomy. The whereabouts of those who graduated with a doctor’s degree is also shown.

        Speaker: Fumiko Kawazoe
      • 156
        Readout electronics development for the OSCURA experiment

        We present a multiplexed analog readout electronics system for Skipper-CCDs based on an ASIC. It allows for sub-electron noise-level operation while maintaining a minimal number of acquisition channels. In addition, it requires low-disk storage and low-bandwidth data transfer with zero added multiplexing time during the simultaneous operation of thousands of channels. We describe the implementation and results of this system in a new instrument composed of 160 sensors operated with a two-stage analog multiplexed readout scheme. The instrument is a part of the R&D effort of the OSCURA experiment.

        Speaker: Ana Martina Botti (Fermilab)
    • Social Events: Welcome Reception
      • 157
        Welcome Reception Arcade courtyard

        Arcade courtyard

        The welcome reception is scheduled directly at the venue in the arcade courtyard with canapés and drinks.

    • Registration
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: David Sinclair (Carleton University)
      • 158
        Short-baseline oscillations and sterile neutrinos (reactor/accelerators)
        Speaker: Liangjian Wen
      • 159
        Long-baseline and atmospheric neutrino experiments – review
        Speaker: Mayly Sanchez (Florida State University)
      • 160
        Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering
        Speaker: Marco Vignati (Sapienza University and INFN Roma)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee break
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Frank Avignone (UNiversity of South Carolina)
      • 161
        Direct neutrino mass measurements – review
        Speakers: Prof. Susanne Mertens (Technical University Munich), thierry lasserre
      • 162
        Double Beta Decay review (theory & experiment)

        Searches for neutrinoless double beta decay provide the most sensitive probe of whether neutrinos are Majorana particles. Observation of this lepton number violating decay would have significant implications for the understanding the origin of neutrino masses and possibly the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the early universe. I will review the worldwide experimental program aiming to detect this rare process, as well as recent theoretical developments.

        Speaker: David Moore (Yale University)
      • 163
        Evidence of Neutrinos from the Galactic Plane - Flash plenary talk

        Visible in the sky as a swath of stars, dust, and gas, the Galactic plane of the Milky Way has been observed in every wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to infrared, optical, x-rays, and gamma rays. This work presents the first observation of the Galactic plane in high-energy neutrinos. Within our Galaxy, high-energy neutrinos can be produced when cosmic rays interact at their acceleration sites and during propagation through the interstellar medium. Using a new sample of neutrinos with energies ranging from 500 GeV to multi-PeV, tests of a diffuse Galactic neutrino emission find a 4.5$\sigma$ rejection of the background-only hypothesis. This observation was enabled by machine-learning techniques that improved the selection efficiency and angular resolution of cascade-like neutrino events produced from charged-current $\nu_e$ and $\nu_\tau$ interactions and neutral-current interactions of all flavors in IceCube.

        Speaker: Dr Steve Sclafani (University of Maryland)
      • 164
        Evidence for a Gravitational-Wave Background at Nanohertz Frequencies - Flash plenary talk
        Speaker: Kai Schmitz
    • Group photo
    • 12:40 PM
      Lunch break
    • Cosmology and Particle Physics: parallel session 3 Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Michal Malinský (IPNP, Charles University, Prague)
      • 165
        Magnetic monopole search experiment using magnetometer and plastic scintillator

        Whether the magnetic monopole (MM) exists is a long-standing question in particle physics.
        It is postulated to be crucially related to the quantization of the electric charge. Under the framework of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT), a certain amount of MMs are produced during the splitting between strong and electroweak forces, which occurred very shortly after the big bang. Past efforts were focused on searching for such GUT-MMs using super-conducting coils and large low-background detectors, which demand ultra-low temperatures and an underground environment, respectively. In this talk, I will introduce a new experiment that searches for coincidental signals of MMs in a high-precision magnetometer and plastic scintillators.

        Speaker: Qing Lin (University of Science and Technology of China)
      • 166
        Search for Screened Scalar Fields with Tabletop Experiments & LLR

        The origin of dark energy is one of the greatest puzzles in modern physics. Amending general relativity by the so-called cosmological constant $\Lambda$ allows to describe an accelerated expansion. However, such a procedure would lead to a severe fine-tuning problem with many unresolved questions. Consequently, the existence of new hypothetical scalar fields has been postulated, which couple to gravity and can account for dark energy. Those new scalars generically lead to new interactions, so-called fifth forces and are theoretically well-motivated irrespective of their role for dark energy.

        Many high precision table top experiments are in principle able to detect these fields. The theoretical and numerical analysis needed for the detection of several prominent fields is provided, with a main focus on the environment-dependent dilaton that arises in the strong coupling limit of string theory. The very first experimental constraints on the parameters of this model are presented. For this, data from the qBounce collaboration and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is used. Furthermore, the expected exclusion plots for the CAsimir And Non Newtonian force EXperiment (CANNEX) soon to be realised in an improved setup are presented.

        Speaker: Hauke Fischer (Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Austria (PhD student in the group of Dr. Mario Pitschmann and Hartmut Abele))
      • 167
        Dark matter and baryogenesis without baryon number violation

        We present a new dark matter (DM) scenario intimately linked to the baryon asymmetry of the visible sector. We question one of the Sakharov conditions: baryon number violation. We provide a framework where the dark sector carries an opposite but precisely compensating baryon asymmetry to that of the visible sector, therefore conserving baryon number at all times. Within an effective field theory approach, we guide ourselves with the principle of baryon number conservation. We show that such a scenario is compatible with all observational constraints. We predict a thermal, light DM candidate with a maximum mass of 5.03 GeV, but various asymmetry transfers can lead to even lighter asymmetric DM masses. By virtue of baryon number conservation, the DM candidate is absolutely stable. The portal between the dark sector and the visible sector is the so-called "neutron portal" and can be efficiently probed at colliders, with a possible link to early matter domination in the early universe. We also provide an explicit realisation of this scenario in a UV complete model, for which the asymmetry within the dark sector is generated by a leptogenesis-inspired mechanism. Generally, this scenario provides a novel way to link baryogenesis to dark matter, without the need of baryon number violation.

        Speaker: Mar Ciscar (Technische Universität München)
      • 168
        Thermal regularization of the $t$-channel singularities of $2\to 2$ scatterings in the early Universe

        If the mediator in a given $2\to 2$ $t$-channel process is kinematically allowed to be on-mass-shell, the matrix element can become singular. For a massive and stable mediator, this singularity cannot be regularized using the usual methods, like Dyson resummation of self-energy contributions, or infra-red regularization schemes.

        Models of particle dark matter are especially affected by this issue, as they by definition propose new massive stable particles. The singularity makes the relevant Boltzmanne quations impossible to solve.

        In this talk, I will formulate a strict set of conditions for a given process to provide a singular contribution to the relevant Boltzmann equation. I will also describe the regularizatin method including interactions between the mediator and the surrounding medium, developed within the framework of thermal field theory. An application to an actual DM model will be presented.

        Speaker: Michał Iglicki (University of Warsaw)
    • Dark matter and Neutrino: inter-track parallel session 1 Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Marco Vignati (Sapienza University and INFN Roma)
      • 169
        Search for solar $^{8}\text{B}$ neutrinos with XENONnT

        The coherent elastic scattering of solar, diffuse supernova and atmospheric neutrinos on nuclei (CEνNS) represents the ultimate background for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) detection in the GeV mass region. With the first detection of CEνNS only five years ago, these neutrinos represent a signal in themselves. Solar $^{8}\text{B}$ neutrinos are expected to be observed by the current generation of experiments, which would mark the first measurement of CEνNS from a natural source. XENONnT is one of these experiments. It has been taking science data since 2021 and recently published first results on low-energy electronic recoil signals and WIMPs. In this talk, I will present the experiment and outline the analysis effort for the first detection of solar $^{8}\text{B}$ CEνNS. Special emphasis is put on lowering the detection threshold of the detector and on the control of backgrounds near the threshold as prerequisites for a solar CEνNS detection. The current status of the search will be summarized.

        Speaker: Dr Christian Wittweg (Physik-Institut, University of Zurich)
      • 170
        Exploring New Physics up to the MeV energy scale with XENONnT

        The XENON collaboration primarily focuses on detecting the first direct evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe using xenon double-phase time projection chamber detectors. The latest iteration of XENON experiments, XENONnT, is currently accumulating scientific data at the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy with a target mass of 5.9 tonnes of liquid xenon. The exceptional level of radioactivity reduction achieved in XENONnT makes it suitable for a broad range of rare-events searches beyond DM. Among these searches, the exploration of double-weak decays is of great interest. In particular, the Xe124 double electron capture and two-neutrino/neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe136 represent promising channels to investigate in XENONnT. These processes exhibit an expected electronic recoil signal that can reach up to the few MeV energy scale, which falls within a different region of interest than the standard DM search. We have demonstrated the ability of xenon dual-phase TPCs to conduct such research, validating the expansion of the physics reach accessible by this detector technology. This presentation will cover the latest results and current status of high-energy searches with the XENONnT experiment.

        Speaker: Dr Maxime Pierre (Nikhef)
      • 171
        Progress of double-weak decays and solar pp neutrinos in PandaX-4T experiment

        The PandaX-4T experiment, located at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, is currently running a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber with 3.7 tonne of liquid xenon target. Benefitting from the 2400-meter overburden and the careful selection of detector materials, the PandaX-4T experiment has achieved an extremely low background level. Although originally designed as a dark matter detector focused on the O(keV) energy region, the PandaX-4T detector also shows a great performance in the O(MeV) energy region, leading to opportunities of other rare-event searches, for example the neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe-136 nucleus. In this talk, I will present the recent progress of extending the data analysis in the PandaX-4T experiment from O(keV) to O(MeV) energy region, including physics results of search for double-weak decays of different xenon isotopes as well as solar pp neutrino scatterings.

        Speaker: Xiang Xiao (Sun Yat-sen University (China))
      • 172
        A novel imaging detector for liquid scintillator experiments

        Detectors based on Liquid Argon or Xenon Time Projection Chambers have been successfully employed in several neutrino and DM experiments.
        We propose an alternative method of exploiting the same targets, based on the imaging of their scintillation light, eliminating the dependency on the slow charge collection.
        By capturing "pictures" of the LAr (or LXe) scintillation light emission, we aim to reconstruct both event topologies and energy deposition.
        Several challenges must be overcome in order to successfully demonstrate this novel approach: the performance of photon detectors and conventional optical elements in the relevant spectral range is limited; thousands of photosensor channels in dense matrices must be read out in cryogenic conditions; a sufficiently wide and deep field of vision is needed to maximize the fiducial volume.
        We plan to adopt this technique in GRAIN (Granular Argon for Interaction of Neutrinos): a 1-ton LAr target, part of SAND at the DUNE Near Detector complex.
        The current design of GRAIN, its physics goals, the development of its optical elements and image reconstruction algorithms, and preliminary results from a cryogenic demonstrator will be presented.

        Speaker: Dr Nicolo Tosi (INFN Bologna, Bologna (IT))
      • 173
        XLZD beyond WIMPs: Neutrino-less double beta-decay and More!

        A future liquid xenon TPC of the scale of many tens of tonnes, capable of detecting the atmospheric 'neutrino fog', will have sensitivity to multiple physics signals besides WIMP dark matter. Here we will discuss the opportunities for neutrino physics, including neutrino-less double beta-decay with $^{136}$Xe and double electron capture measurements of $^{124}$Xe, as well as astrophysical neutrino sources. Other exotic physics searches for solar axions, fractionally charged particles, multiply-interacting massive particles, and others, can also be conducted with a xenon observatory. The implications for the detector design and operations of these broader physics channels will be discussed.

        Speaker: Kimberly Palladino (University of Oxford)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 3A BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Valentyna Mokina (HEPHY)
      • 174
        MAGNETO-χ: Sub-GeV Dark Matter Detection using Diamond and Magnetic Sensors

        MAGNETO-χ is developing sub-GeV dark matter detectors using diamond crystals and magnetic athermal phonon sensors. Thanks to enhanced nuclear recoil energies by diamond’s low mass carbon nuclei, and low energy threshold of cryogenic magnetic phonon sensors, the MAGNETO-χ detectors could offer high experimental sensitivity to sub-GeV dark matter scatterings. In addition, relatively fast timing resolution of the magnetic phonon sensor (~100 ns) despite their large sensing area, it offers strong phonon pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capability to separate out unwanted noise or non-nuclear recoil signals in the sub-keV region. This phonon PSD capability could be also useful for understanding the low energy excess problem that low threshold detector community is experiencing with. We present recent development progress of the MAGNETO-χ detectors including development of the magnetic phonon sensor, characterization of various diamond crystals for athermal phonon propagation, and the low energy response down to 60 eV in a context of the low energy EXCESS issue.

        This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (22-FS-011) and DOE Office of Science HEP Advanced Detector R&D program.

        Speaker: Geon-Bo Kim
      • 176
        Recent progress in the search for light WIMP-like particles in southern Argentina at the DMSQUARE experiment

        The recent development of highly sensitive solid-state detectors has made it possible to search for light WIMP-like particles with only a few eV of deposited energy. Skipper CCDs allow us to resolve single-electron events, bringing the energy threshold down to 1.2 eV. In addition, some dark matter models predict a diurnal modulation in the DM particle flux. For certain parameters, this modulation is enhanced in the southern hemisphere due to the fact that the DM wind comes from 40 degrees north. The DMSQUARE experiment aims to probe this region of the parameter space using a Skipper CCD detector in Bariloche, southern Argentina. This experiment, using a 100 mg prototype detector, has already improved the previous limits for such models, obtained with a surface detector, by taking advantage of the modulation search. Recently, DMSQUARE has acquired data with a 2 g prototype detector, which is being moved to a shallow underground site (Sierra Grande mine, 1000 mwe). Data from the new detector will be presented.

        Speaker: Nicolás Avalos (Instituto Balseiro (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica), CONICET)
      • 177
        remoTES: A novel cryogenic detector for rare-event searches

        In recent years, high sensitivity, low-threshold detectors employing transition edge sensor (TES) read out technology have garnered significant interest in the field of rare-event physics. Numerous experiments have incorporated these detectors for direct dark matter searches, Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) studies and beyond. As these experiments scale up and operate larger arrays, a key challenge is to enhance the reproducibility among detectors while promoting modularity in terms of both the choice of absorber and sensor.
        COSINUS (Cryogenic Observatory for SIgnals seen in Next-generation Underground Searches) has experimentally demonstrated that a novel cryogenic detector scheme, known as remoTES, can address these challenges. This innovative design can streamline the mass fabrication of reliable and reproducible detectors for the next generation of low-mass, rare-event physics searches. This contribution will present results from the latest prototypes, highlighting ongoing optimization efforts across various absorbers and configurations.

        Speaker: Mukund Raghunath Bharadwaj
      • 178
        Background modeling and simulation of calibration source for the dark matter search experiment CRESST

        Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) is a direct detection dark matter (DM) search experiment located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The experiment employs cryogenic and scintillating crystals to search for nuclear recoils from DM particles, and has achieved repeatedly threshold below 100 eV in a wide range of target materials including CaWO$_4$, LiAlO$_2$, Al$_2$O$_3$, and Si. However, at these energies, the ability to discriminate between potential DM signals and electromagnetic background is poor. Moreover, a significant challenge faced by all low-mass dark matter searches, including CRESST, is the existence of unknown event populations at very low energies known as the low energy excesses (LEEs). Therefore, having a reliable background model is of utmost importance.

        To understand various background components in the measured spectra by CRESST, a detailed GEANT4-based model was developed and is continuously adapted to CRESST's current inventory of detector modules. I will present CRESST's background model and the related GEANT4-based simulation code "ImpCRESST''. The background model aims to include a wider range of radiopurity measurements for the materials used in the experiment in its future iteration.

        In summary, this contribution provides a short overview of the experiment, a detailed status of the background model simulations, and the progress made towards measuring radiopurity in the screening campaign.

        Speaker: Dr Samir Banik (Technische Universität Wien, Atominstitut)
      • 179
        Extension of the Geant4 based Electromagnetic Background Model of CRESST-II and CRESST-III

        The Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) is a highly sensitive Dark Matter experiment situated at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy, with the capability to detect nuclear recoils down to 10 eV, making it one of the top experiments for probing the sub-GeV mass-parameter space.

        However, distinguishing between Dark Matter recoils and beta-particles/gamma-rays at such low energies is hardly possible. Therefore, it is essential to understand the composition of radioactive background in the experimental reference data. This information can be utilised in an analysis to search for Dark Matter signals and enhance future detector modules, e.g. by improving the radiopurity of used materials.

        Recently, the electromagnetic background model for CRESST-II has been significantly improved, and an extension to newer CRESST-III detector modules was made. The improvements include various simulated radiogenic and cosmogenic sources of radioactivity, the incorporation of more material screening results, a comprehensive description of the new detector modules, and a likelihood fit of the simulated spectral templates to the measured data.

        This contribution will present enhanced background models of the detector module TUM40, as well as first background models of the Lise and the Detector A module.

        Speaker: Jens Burkhart (HEPHY)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 3B Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Phillip Urquijo (University of Melbourne (AU))
      • 180
        Searches for Dark Matter with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

        The presence of a non-baryonic Dark Matter (DM) component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If Dark Matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model (SM) it could be produced at the LHC. The ATLAS Collaboration has developed a broad search program for DM candidates in final states with large missing transverse momentum produced in association with other SM particles (light and heavy quarks, photons, Z and H bosons, as well as additional heavy scalar particles) and searches where the Higgs boson provides a portal to Dark Matter, leading to invisible Higgs decays. The results of recent searches on 13 TeV pp data from the LHC, their interplay and interpretation will be presented.

        Speaker: Martin Habedank (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DE))
      • 181
        Search for Dark Matter with mono-X Signatures in CMS

        Searches in CMS for dark matter in final states with invisible particles recoiling against visible states are presented. Various topologies and kinematic variables are explored, including jet substructure as a means of tagging heavy bosons. In this talk, we focus on the recent results obtained using the full Run-II dataset collected at the LHC.

        Speaker: Mr Shriniketan Acharya (University of Hyderabad,India)
      • 182
        Physics Beyond the Standard Model with the NA62 experiment at CERN

        The NA62 experiment at CERN took data in 2016–2018 with the main goal of measuring the $K^+ \rightarrow \pi^+ \nu \bar\nu$ decay. The NA62 dataset is also exploited to search for light feebly interacting particles produced in kaon decays. Searches for $K^+\rightarrow e^+ N$, $K^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ N$ and $K^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu X$ decays, where N and X are massive invisible particles, are performed by NA62. The N particle is assumed to be a heavy neutral lepton, and the results are expressed as upper limits of $O(10^{-8})$ of the neutrino mixing parameter $|U_{\mu 4}|^2$. The X particle is considered a scalar or vector hidden sector mediator decaying to an invisible final state. Upper limits of the decay branching fraction for X masses in the range 10–370 MeV/c$^2$ are reported. An improved upper limit of $1.0 \times 10^{-6}$ is established at 90$\%$ CL on the $K^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu \nu \nu$ branching fraction.

        The NA62 experiment can be run as a "beam-dump experiment" by removing the Kaon production target and moving the upstream collimators into a "closed" position. More than $10^{17}$ protons on target have been collected in this way during a week-long data-taking campaign by the NA62 experiment. We report on the search for visible decays of exotic mediators from data taken in "beam-dump" mode, with a particular emphasis on Dark Photon and Axion-like particle Models.

        Speaker: Ilaria Rosa (Universita Federico II e INFN Sezione di Napoli (IT))
      • 183
        Hidden sector searches in CMS

        New physics may have gone unseen so far at the LHC due to it being hidden in a dark sector. This may result in a rich phenomenology which we can access through portal interactions. In this talk, we present recent results from dark-sector searches in CMS using the full Run-2 data-set of the LHC. The analyses are based on proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 138 fb−1 taken at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC.

        Speaker: Claudia Wulz (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 185
        Recent results from the Belle II experiment

        The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider has been collecting the world’s highest-intensity collisions at the $\Upsilon$(4S) since 2019. A data set comparable in size to that of predecessor experiments, and collected with the new detector, enables unique or world-leading results. Examples include indirect searches for non-standard-model physics in the weak interactions of quarks, determinations of fundamental standard-model parameters, and direct searches for low-mass dark matter. This talk presents a selection of recent results and briefly discusses future perspectives.

        Speaker: Eugenio Paoloni (INFN Sezione di Pisa, Universita' e Scuola Normale Superiore, P)
    • High-energy astrophysics and cosmic rays: parallel session 3 Franz-König lecture hall

      Franz-König lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Marco Ajello
      • 186
        The impact of model realism on interpretations of the Galactic Center Excess

        The Galactic Center Excess (GCE) in GeV gamma rays has been debated for over a decade, with the possibility that it might be due to dark matter annihilation or undetected point sources such as millisecond pulsars. We investigate how the gamma-ray emission model used in Galactic center analyses affects the interpretation of the GCE's nature in terms of these two competing hypotheses using a set of gamma-ray emission models with increasing complexity. When different models lead to different conclusions, a general gap between the model space and reality may influence our findings. In this talk, we report the results of our study, showing that convolutional DeepEnsemble Networks can robustly detect the background components and the GCE in all gamma-ray emission model iterations. In addition, the predicted emission associated with the background components is consistent with the outcome of a traditional likelihood analysis. However, the reconstructed composition of the GCE is model-dependent. It is likely biased by the presence of a reality gap. We assess the severity of such a gap for each model instance using the One-Class Deep Support Vector Data Description method, and we show that it persists across all iterations. Our study casts doubt on the validity of previous conclusions regarding the GCE and dark matter and underscores the urgent need to account for the reality gap and consider previously overlooked ''out of domain''-uncertainties in future interpretations.

        Speaker: Christopher ECKNER (LAPP, CNRS)
      • 187
        Investigating the gamma-ray burst from decaying MeV-scale axion-like particles produced in supernova explosions

        We investigate the characteristics of the gamma-ray signal following the decay of MeV-scale Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) coupled to photons which are produced in a Supernova (SN) explosion. This analysis is the first to include the production of heavier ALPs through the photon coalescence process, enlarging the mass range of ALPs that could be observed in this way and giving a stronger bound from the observation of SN 1987A. Furthermore, we present a new analytical method for calculating the predicted gamma-ray signal from ALP decays. With this method we can rigorously prove the validity of an approximation that has been used in some of the previous literature, which we show here to be valid only if all gamma rays arrive under extremely small observation angles (i.e. very close to the line of sight to the SN). However, it also shows where the approximation is not valid, and offers an efficient alternative to calculate the ALP-induced gamma-ray flux in a general setting when the observation angles are not guaranteed to be small. We also estimate the sensitivity of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to this gamma-ray signal from a future nearby SN and the possibility of reconstructing ALP properties in the case of a detection is discussed.

        Speaker: Pierluca Carenza
      • 188
        Recent HAWC Science Results

        The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory has been observing the Northern TeV gamma-ray sky since 2014. With a duty cycle of nearly 24 hours per day and a field-of-view of ~2 sr, it is an excellent instrument for performing unbiased surveys. Here, we present science results from the first eight years of operations. This includes the first catalog of astrophysical sources emitting above 100 TeV, the discovery of a new class of Galactic sources (TeV halos), the detection of several TeV gamma-ray binaries, and searches for dark matter. HAWC observes several dark matter-rich regions, such as dwarf galaxies, each day, allowing us to search for gamma rays from dark matter interactions in those targets. We will also discuss the status of HAWC’s multi-messenger and multi-wavelength programs, which include searches for GRBs, follow-ups to gravitational wave detections, and joint analyses with other TeV instruments.

        Speaker: Kelly Malone (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 189
        A Preliminary Look at the 4HWC Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Source Catalog

        The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is highly suitable for large-scale survey work. The high duty time (95+%), large FoV (2 sr), and sensitivity from 300 GeV to above 100 TeV make it ideal for creating a catalog of very high energy (VHE) sources. Over the lifetime of the HAWC observatory, 4 catalogs have been produced 3 of which were constructed using the full HAWC energy range while another used a restricted (>56 TeV) range. This talk will focus on the status of the planned 4HWC (full energy range) catalog including the newly developed Multi-Source Fit algorithm inspired by the Fermi Extended Source search method. Using over 1000 additional days of data, improved event reconstruction algorithms using HAWC's fifth pass through data, and the improved search algorithm we expect a major improvement in the sensitivity and accuracy. The previous (3HWC) catalog found 65 sources above 5 sigma and I anticipate the 4HWC search will result in over 100 significant sources. In addition, the new search is more suited to fitting extended sources and disentangling complex regions. The 3HWC catalog found that 56 of 65 sources were associated with pulsars so it will be of interest to observe how this may change. In addition to a discussion surrounding the creation of the 4HWC catalog, I will present a preliminary look at the results of the new catalog search method in several regions of interest in HAWC maps such as the Crab Nebula, Cygnus Cocoon, and near the Geminga pulsar.

        Speaker: Sam Groetsch
      • 190
        The MAGIC of VHE gamma-ray astronomy: 20 years, 200 peer-reviewed publications and beyond

        The instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy has advanced tremendously during the last two decades. The study of the most violent environments in the Universe has opened a new window to understand the frontier of physics, exploring processes that are beyond the capabilities of Earth-based laboratories to replicate. One of the instruments at the forefront of gamma-ray astronomy is the MAGIC stereoscopic system, which consists of two 17-m diameter mirror dish telescopes located at 2200m a.s.l. on the Canary Island of La Palma, in Spain. The year 2023 marks the 20th anniversary of MAGIC, reaching the milestone of 200 publications in peer-reviewed journals over a wide range of research areas, covering astrophysics with Galactic and extragalactic objects, dark matter searches, and cosmology. MAGIC has established itself as a world-wide leading instrument for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to beyond 100 TeV. MAGIC is an active participant in multiple multiwavelength and multimessenger observational campaigns, contributing to our understanding of the universe. In the conference, I will provide a status report of MAGIC, including the discussion of a few outstanding results during the last two decades and the prospects for the near future.

        Speaker: David Paneque Camarero
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 3A Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: David Moore (Yale University)
      • 191
        Final results of the CUPID-Mo 0$\nu\beta\beta$ experiment

        CUPID-Mo was a demonstrator for CUPID, a next generation neutrinoless double beta decay experiment. It consisted of an array of 20 enriched Lithium Molybdate cryogenic calorimeters equipped with 20 Germanium light detectors for particle identification. As well as providing an important demonstration of the detector technology, CUPID-Mo has achieved a series of world leading physics results. The discrimination of $\alpha$ from $\beta$/$\gamma$ particles enabled CUPID-Mo to reach the lowest ever background index for a bolometric 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay experiment. This resulted in a world leading limit on 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay in $^{100}$Mo. We will also present the results of a topological analysis of double beta decays to $^{100}$Ru excited states, with a measurement of the 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay to 1st 0$^+$ excited states and new world leading limits on other processes. The very high signal to background ratio of 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay to the ground state enables a range of further physics studies. We will present the most precise measurement of the 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay to the ground state in any isotope, and studies of new physics beyond the Standard Model which could distort the spectral shape of the 2$\nu\beta\beta$ spectrum: 0$\nu\beta\beta$ with Majoron emission, 2$\nu\beta\beta$ decay with emission of Bosonic neutrinos and Lorentz invariance violation.

        Speaker: Léonard Imbert (IJCLab, CNRS/IN2P3 and Université Paris Saclay)
      • 192
        Latest results from the CUORE experiment

        The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first bolometric experiment searching for 0νββ decay that has successfully reached the one-tonne mass scale. The detector, located at the LNGS in Italy, consists of an array of 988 TeO$_2$ crystals arranged in a compact cylindrical structure of 19 towers. CUORE began its first physics data run in 2017 at a base temperature of about 10 mK and has been collecting data continuously since 2019, reaching a TeO$_2$ exposure of 2 tonne-year in spring 2023. This is the largest amount of data ever acquired with a solid state cryogenic detector, which allows for further improvement in the CUORE sensitivity to 0νββ decay in $^{130}$Te. In this talk, we will present the new CUORE data release, based on the full available statistics and on new, significant enhancements of the data processing chain and high-level analysis.

        Speaker: Dr Krystal Alfonso (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA)
      • 193
        Neutrinoless double-beta decay search with SNO+

        SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator based experiment, with the main physics goal of searching for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{130}$Te. Additional physics topics include the measurement of solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and the Earth, supernova neutrinos and the search for other rare events.
        Since April 2022, the experiment is taking data with liquid scintillator and a 2.2 g/L PPO concentration, allowing the study of all radioactive backgrounds prior to the tellurium loading. In a first phase, 3900 kg of natural tellurium (0.5% loading) will be added to the scintillator for a predicted sensitivity of about 2$\times 10^{26}$ years (90% C.L.) with 3 years of livetime. Higher tellurium loading will follow for predicted sensitivities above $10^{27}$ years (3% loading).
        In this talk I will focus on the current status of the experiment, its major radioactive backgrounds, and the prospects for the neutrinoless double-beta decay search.

        Speaker: Dr Valentina Lozza (LIP - Laboratorio de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (PT))
      • 194
        A New 82Se detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Searches

        N$\nu$DEx (No neutrino Double-beta-decay Experiment) is a new Se-based TPC detector that will be placed in China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. NvDEx-100, the experiment phase with 100 kg of SeF6 gas, is currently being built and planned to be completed with installation at CJPL around the year 2025. I will present the current status of the experiments and the perspectives for future developments.
        SeF$_6$ has very high electronegativity; for this reason, the electrons will recombine very quickly and the particles traveling toward the readout plane will be negative ions. A new kind of sensor, Topmetal-S, has been developed: it will allow us to read out the drifted charge and reconstruct the energy of the event with great precision even without physical amplification like electron avalanche.
        The main advantages offered by N$\nu$DEx are two: firstly, the large rock overburden would decrease significantly the cosmogenic muon background. Second, the high Q-value of $^{82}\textrm{Se}$ (~3 MeV) will place the Region Of Interest above the energy range of the large majority of the environmental gamma's, allowing us to achieve an incredibly low-background environment, which ensures excellent perspectives for scalability.

        Speaker: Prof. Emilio Ciuffoli (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 195
        Demonstration of Tl-208 background reduction using topological information of Cherenkov light and observation of Zr-96 two neutrino double beta decay

        ZICOS is a future experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay using $^{96}$Zr nuclei. In order to achieve sensitivity over $10^{27}$ years, ZICOS will use tons of $^{96}$Zr, and need to remove $^{208}$Tl backgrounds as observed by KamLAND-Zen one order of magnitude. For this purpose, we have developed new technique to distinguish the signal and background using topology of Cherenkov light. We have already measured this topology using HUNI-ZICOS detector, and the results clearly indicated the topology as effective even 1MeV electron. We have also developed the pulse shape discrimination for the extraction of PMT which receives Cherenkov lights in the liquid scintillator. In order to confirm above technique, we demonstrated beta-gamma events such as $^{208}$Tl beta decay scheme using $^{60}$Co source with UNI-ZICOS detector.

        Here we will report some results obtained by recent measurement using UNI-ZICOS, and will also explain a plan to observe the two neutrino double beta decay for $^{96}$Zr nuclei using new detector 2nu-ZICOS.

        Speaker: Prof. Yoshiyuki Fukuda (Miyagi University of Education)
      • 196
        Liquid argon light collection and veto modeling in GERDA Phase II

        The ability to detect liquid argon (LAr) scintillation light from within a densely-packed high-purity germanium detector array allowed the GERDA experiment to reach an exceptionally low background rate in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{76}$Ge. Proper modeling of light propagation throughout the experimental setup, from any origin in the LAr volume to its eventual detection by the light read-out system, provides insight into the rejection capability and is a necessary ingredient to obtain robust background predictions. In this contribution, I will present a model of the GERDA LAr veto, as obtained by Monte Carlo simulations and constrained by calibration data, and highlight its application for background decomposition. The model is crucial to boost the sensitivity of beyond-the-standard-model double-beta decay signal searches, whose results have been recently published by GERDA. The LEGEND collaboration is further developing this modeling technique, applied to its LAr instrumentation system, to enable sensitive new-physics analyses with the LEGEND-200 detector and inform the LEGEND-1000 design.

        Speaker: Dr Luigi Pertoldi (TU München (Germany), INFN Padova)
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 3B Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Liangjian Wen
      • 197
        Sterile neutrino searches at the MicroBooNE experiment

        he MicroBooNE experiment employs an 85-ton active volume liquid argon time projection chamber to detect neutrinos from both the on-axis Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) and off-axis Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam. The objective of this investigation is to identify short baseline neutrino oscillations in a 3+1 sterile neutrino model and compare our results to previous anomalies found in experiments such as LSND, Neutrino-4, and gallium anomalies.
        To achieve our goal, we utilize high-performance charged current electron neutrino and muon neutrino selections, as well as a powerful electron/photon discrimination. In this presentation, we will detail our results on this sterile neutrino search from MicroBooNE using the BNB beam. Additionally, we will examine the impact of a degeneracy resulting from the cancellation of electron neutrino appearance and disappearance, and demonstrate that combining data from the BNB and NuMI beams, which have substantially different electron to muon neutrino ratios, can break this degeneracy.

        Speaker: Jessie Micallef (Tufts University (and MIT))
      • 198
        ICARUS at the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino Program: Status and Perspectives

        The ICARUS collaboration has employed the 760-ton T600 detector in a successful three-year physics run at the underground LNGS laboratory, performing a sensitive search for LSND-like anomalous $\nu_e$ appearance in the CNGS beam, contributing to the constraints on the allowed neutrino oscillation parameters to a narrow region around 1 eV$^2$. After a significant overhaul at CERN, the T600 detector has been installed at Fermilab. Following the cryogenic commissioning, in 2020 ICARUS started its operation collecting the first neutrino events from the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) and the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam off-axis, which were used to test the ICARUS event selection, reconstruction and analysis algorithms. ICARUS completed its commissioning phase in June 2022, moving then to data taking for neutrino oscillation physics, aiming at first to either confirm or refute the claim by Neutrino-4 short-baseline reactor experiment. ICARUS will also perform measurements of neutrino cross sections with the NuMI beam and several Beyond Standard Model searches. After the first year of operations, ICARUS will jointly search for evidence of sterile neutrinos with the Short-Baseline Near Detector (SBND), within the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program. In this presentation, preliminary technical results from the data with the BNB and NuMI beams are presented both in terms of performance of all ICARUS subsystems and its capability to select and reconstruct neutrino events.

        Speaker: Diana Patricia Mendez Mendez (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
      • 199
        The 2x2 Demonstrator - A demonstrator for the DUNE ND-LAr Near Detector based on the ArgonCube Design

        The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe neutrino and antineutrino oscillation patterns to precisely measure neutrino mixing parameters. DUNE near detectors will measure and constrain the neutrino flux and constrain the response for a near-far detector oscillation measurement. The 2x2 Demonstrator is a demonstrator for the DUNE ND-LAr near detector based on the ArgonCube design. The 2x2 Demonstrator will characterize neutrino-Argon interactions in the few-GeV regime. Composed of a 2x2 grid of four optically segmented LArTPC modules sandwiched between upstream and downstream repurposed MINERvA tracking planes, each TPC module has a footprint of 0.7 m by 0.7 m and is 1.4 m tall. The 2.6 metric ton LAr active mass is instrumented by 337k charge-sensitive pixels at 4 mm pitch and thin-profile scintillation traps for 25% optical coverage. The detector will acquire neutrino data in Fall 2023 in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. Roughly 70k charged-current and 30k neutral-current active volume fiducialized neutrino vertex interactions are expected per week in NuMI medium energy RHC operation. In addition to copious GeV-scale neutrino interactions, physics data at the MeV-scale is possible, leveraging the near 100% uptime free-streaming, few hundred keV charge readout pixel trigger thresholds. A system design overview and commissioning status will be reported in the presentation.

        Speaker: Brooke Russell (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 200
        Cryogenic Charge Readout Electronics for the ProtoDUNE-II Program and DUNE

        The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) far detectors require readout of several hundred thousand charge-sensing channels immersed in the largest liquid argon time projection chambers ever built, calling for cryogenic front-end electronics in order to be able to adequately instrument the full detector. These electronics must satisfy power constraints of < 50 mW per channel to minimize the thermal load on the cryogenic system, be designed with lifetimes of 20+ years to remain functional throughout the expected lifetime of DUNE, and be able to reliably communicate with warm interface electronics on the other side of cold cables that are up to 30 meters long. The upcoming ProtoDUNE-II program at the CERN neutrino platform will consist of 2 liquid argon time projection chambers, which will serve as demonstrators of the technologies that will be used in the first 2 DUNE far detectors, including the final design of the cryogenic charge readout electronics. This design consists of a chain of 3 different ASICs designed for operation in liquid argon: LArASIC for analog charge amplification, ColdADC for digitization into 14-bit signals, and COLDATA for multiplexing, serialization, and digital control. This talk will discuss the design of these electronics, preliminary performance results from the ProtoDUNE-II assembly experience, and plans for the ProtoDUNE-II runs.

        Speakers: Roger Guo Huang (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US)), Roger Huang (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US))
      • 201
        SBND Hardware Trigger System

        The SBND experiment is a liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC), which serves as the near detector to the Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program at Fermilab. With only 110 m between the detector volume and the beam target, SBND will record over a million of neutrino interactions per year, more than any LAr experiment to date. Furthermore, the detector is located on the surface and exposed to cosmic rays. As a result, a sophisticated and reliable trigger system is needed to ensure high efficiency of neutrino data while maintaining data rates which are manageable in downstream analysis. This talk will detail how the SBND trigger system achieves both of these goals.

        Speaker: Tereza Kroupova (University of Pennsylvania)
      • 202
        Kaon Quenching Studies to Improve JUNO’s Sensitivity to Proton Decay

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction in Southern China. Beyond its main purpose of determining the neutrino mass ordering, JUNO will contribute to the search for the SUSY-favored proton decay into a kaon and an antineutrino. To reach the estimated sensitivity for p $\rightarrow$ K$^+$+ $\bar{\nu}$ of $9.6 \times 10^{33}$ years at 90 % C.L. after 10 years of data taking, event selection relies strongly on the signal structure of the daughter kaon and differentiation from atmospheric neutrino backgrounds.
        This poster presents the influence of the kaon’s light emission behavior on the proton decay event selection efficiency as well as first test of an experiment characterizing the particle’s energy dependent light output.

        Speaker: Ulrike Fahrendholz (Technical University of Munich)
    • Underground laboratories: parallel session 3 Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Jodi Cooley
      • 203
        Yemilab, the new deep underground laboratory in Korea

        The Yemilab, a new deep underground laboratory, has been constructed to be located under the Yemi mountain at the Jeongseon in Korea. The overburden is 1,000 m from the top of the Yemi mountain which may provide 5 times better muon mitigation than Y2L, and the laboratory area is approximately 3,000 m^2 which is 10 times larger than Y2L. We can access the laboratory using a cage that has 4 m/s vertical speed through the 600 m shaft and electric vehicles as transportation through the 800 m tunnel. The electricity, mobile networks, and facility for safety have been prepared for operation since the end of 2022.
        Two major physics programs, AMoRE-II to search for a neutrinoless double beta decay of 100Mo and COSINE to search for a WIMP as a strong candidate of dark matter, are preparing to start the initial operation at the end of 2023. To provide a low radioactive background environment for those experiments, the radioactivity of the rock, radon level, muon rates, and neutron flux are measuring and monitored since the initial operation.
        We report on the construction of the Yemilab, the current status of the facility for the scientific programs, and discuss future applications.

        Speaker: Dr Jungho So (Institute for Basic Science)
      • 204
        Opportunities at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

        The Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) has been operating for more than 15 years as an international facility dedicated to advancing compelling multidisciplinary underground scientific research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. SURF laboratory facilities include a Surface Campus as well as campuses at the 4850-foot level (1500 m, 4300 m.w.e.) that host a range of significant physics experiments, including the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. The CASPAR nuclear astrophysics accelerator completed the first phase of operation and is planning for the second phase beginning in 2024. SURF is also home to the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) that will host the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). SURF offers world-class service, including an ultra-low background environment, low-background assay capabilities, and electroformed copper is produced at the facility. SURF is preparing to increase underground laboratory space. Plans are advancing for construction of new, large caverns (nominally 100m L x 20m W x 24m H) on the 4850L (1500 m, 4200 mwe) on the timeframe of next-generation experiments (~2030). SURF plans to leverage existing advisory and community committees as well as engage the underground science community to inform plans for future laboratory space.

        Speaker: Jaret Heise (Sanford Underground Research Facility)
      • 205
        Status and prospects of the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM)

        The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane is the deepest tunnel-access underground laboratory in Europe. The experimental site is protected by a 4800 mwe overburden that reduce the muon flux to 5 muons/m2/day, and is thus ideal for a wide range of applications requiring ultra-low radioactivity levels. We will present the evolution of this facility and of its science program in the domain of Dark Matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and multi-disciplinary sciences.

        Speaker: Prof. Jules GASCON (Université Lyon 1)
    • 3:30 PM
      Coffee break
    • Cosmology and Particle Physics: parallel session 4 Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 1 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Julien Lavalle (LUPM (CNRS / Univ. Montpellier))
      • 206
        Bounds on 3+1 active-sterile neutrino oscillations in very low reheating scenarios

        In the 3+1 neutrino scheme with an additional state, we consider the thermalisation of neutrinos in the early Universe in the so-called very low reheating scenarios. This process could be incomplete due to the lack of interactions, leading to a reduced contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density of radiation. We calculate this contribution, usually measured in terms of the parameter $N_{\rm eff}$, taking into account the full $4\times 4$ neutrino mixing matrix. We find the corresponding bounds from cosmological data on the $3+1$ neutrino scenario (neutrino squared mass differences and mixings) as a function of the reheating temperature $T_{\rm RH}$.

        Speaker: Sergio Pastor (IFIC, CSIC-Univ Valencia, Spain)
      • 207
        On leptogenesis in the minimal flipped SU(5) model

        We discuss thermal leptogenesis in the framework of the flipped SU(5) unification model, where the Majorana masses of neutrinos are generated through Witten's two-loop mechanism.
        Our analysis shows that this model is compatible with the current experimental constraints on both the neutrino sector and observed baryon asymmetry. Moreover, it indicates an upper (and lower) limit on the absolute light neutrino mass scale and constrains the possible proton decay branching ratios.

        Speaker: Dr Martin Zdrahal (Charles University in Prague)
      • 208
        Lepton flavor violation and DM constraints in a radiative seesaw model

        We study the phenomenological properties of the three-loop radiative seesaw model proposed by Krauss, Nasri, and Trodden. In this model, the tininess of the neutrino masses and there is a dark matter candidate. We show constraints on the parameter space of this model by mainly considering the DM relic density, the lepton flavour violation constraints, and neutrino oscillation data.
        We also discuss the possibility of baryogenesis via leptogenesis.
        This presentation is mainly based on Phys. Rev. D 105, 095018 (2022) and 2211.10059.

        Speaker: Dr Tetsuo Shindou (Kogakuin University)
      • 209
        Electromagnetic interaction and freeze-out abundance of sexaquarks

        The sexaquark, a hypothesized six-quark bound state, has garnered interest as a potential dark matter candidate. At the same time, there are many arguments in the literature that place severe limitations on this possibility. Assuming it exists and is stable, I will advance a compelling case for the limited viability of the sexaquark as a dark matter candidate by presenting the first calculation of its scattering electromagnetic cross section with Standard Model particles and by investigating its freeze-out abundance. The leading-order term in the electromagnetic cross section is due to the sexaquark's polarizability, which we obtained using lattice QCD. I will show that this implies a direct detection cross section that would be visible for a stable sexaquark constituting even a tiny fraction of the dark matter. I will also explore the expected sexaquark abundance derived from the freeze-out of its interactions in the early universe, and explore the detectability of such a thermally produced sexaquark component.

        Speaker: Marianne Moore (MIT)
      • 210
        QCD in the Early Universe

        The wealth of theoretical and phenomenological information about Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at short and long distances collected so far in major collider measurements has profound implications in cosmology. We provide a brief discussion on the significant implications of the strongly coupled dynamics of quarks and gluons and the effects due to their collective motion on the physics of the early universe and in astrophysics. In particular, we speculate on the relationship between the existence of quasi-classical saturated QCD matter and the production of primordial black holes.

        Contribution is based in part on the review article A. Addazi et al.: Cosmology from Strong Interactions, Universe 8 (2022) 9, 451, e-Print: 2204.02950 [hep-ph]

        Speaker: Dr Michal Sumbera (Nuclear Physics Institute, Acad. of Sciences of the Czech Rep. (CZ))
    • Dark matter and Neutrino: inter-track parallel session 2 Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 7 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Christoph Wiesinger (Technical University of Munich)
      • 211
        Studying the Sterile Baryonic Neutrino Using Direct Detection and Spallation Source Experiments

        In this seminar, I will explore the potential for uncovering new neutrino physics through the use of dark matter direct detection experiments and its complementarity with spallation source experiments. In particular, I will analyse the Sterile Baryonic Neutrino Model, an extension of the SM in which we add a sterile massive neutrino. I will show how the sterile neutrino can be generated through the inelastic scattering of an active neutrino with the target material of the experiments in both direct detection and spallation source experiments, giving rise to a characteristic spectrum. This might allow for a reconstruction of the neutrino mass (in the event of a positive detection), which is limited by the experiment energy threshold and resolution. Direct detection experiments, being sensitive to the solar tau neutrino flux, add extra complementary information that allows to improve the determination of the sterile neutrino couplings and its mass.

        Speaker: Dr Martín de los Rios (IFT-UAM)
      • 212
        From double to single beta decays – the search for the isomeric decay of 180mTa in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

        In 2021, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment ended its search for neutrinoless double beta decay $^{76}$Ge. Shown to be one of the world-leading ultra-low-background facilities we modified the experiment to search for one of the rarest isotope decays. The isotope $^{180m}$Ta is the only known isotope in nature that occurs in an isomeric state instead of the ground state. The isomeric decay is spin-suppressed, and its decay has never been observed. Beyond understanding the mechanisms that play a role in its decay, the rare state can be exploited to search for dark matter (DM) through a stimulated decay. In this project, we installed clean Ta samples between the Ge detectors, and exploit the ultra-low background underground environment, the high resolution of the MAJORANA detectors, and the well-established analysis routines to search for the nuclear decay and the possible induced emission by DM. In this talk I will present the results from the first year of data taking, and its implications to the dark sector.

        This material is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

        Speaker: Dr Ralph Massarczyk (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
      • 213
        Update on the ECHo experiment

        In the ECHo experiment large arrays of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters enclosing $^{163}$Ho are used for the high resolution measurement of the electron capture spectrum. The goal of the experiment is to achieve the sensitivity to detect an extremely small spectral shape distortion in the end point region due to an effective electron neutrino mass smaller than 1 eV/c$^2$.
        The first ECHo-1k phase was designed to test the properties and reproducibility of detectors enclosing $^{163}$Ho. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we acquired about 10$^8$ $^{163}$Ho events allowing to reach a sensitivity below 20 eV/c$^2$. For this and, in particular, to achieve sub-eV sensitivity in future stages of ECHo, systematic uncertainties have to be identified and reduced. We discuss the progress in the understanding the $^{163}$Ho electron capture spectrum, including the newly determined $Q$-value, and in the description of background. We present methods we have developed for the analysis of data acquired in ECHo-1k and the results we have obtained so far.
        At the same time, preparation of large detector arrays and multiplexed readout for the ECHo-100k phase is progressing. Important milestones related to $^{163}$Ho implantation in MMC arrays on wafer scale and multiplexing have been reached. We present the status of ECHo-100k and discuss our perspectives for achieving a sensitivity at the 1 eV/c$^2$ level for the effective electron neutrino mass in the coming phase.

        Speaker: Dr Loredana Gastaldo (Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University)
      • 214
        Geant4 simulations of sub-keV electron energy loss in CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ by ELOISE

        CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ are well-known target materials for cryogenic detectors deployed in experiments searching for rare events like coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) with NUCLEUS or hypothetical dark matter-nucleus scattering with CRESST. With detection thresholds in the sub-keV range, these experiments need verified and reliable simulations of background components at such energies, which are challenging for general purpose simulation codes like Geant4.

        The ELOISE project aims to assess the reliability of Geant4 simulations of electromagnetic (EM) processes in CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ at sub-keV energies and, if needed, to improve it. Currently, we are studying the agreement of dedicated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) of CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ samples, which were provided by TU Munich, with Geant4 simulations. We simulate the energy loss with each relevant EM physics implementation provided by Geant4 and assess its compatibility with the EELS measurements.

        In this contribution, I will motivate the challenge of sub-keV simulations and outline the scope of ELOISE. Afterwards I will introduce the EELS reference data set and discuss the observed spectral features. Subsequently, I will report the simulations of ionisation energy loss in CaWO$_4$ and Al$_2$O$_3$ based on Geant4’s unmodified EM physics implementation. Finally, I will give a preliminary assessment of the compatibility between Geant4 simulation and measured reference data.

        Speaker: Dr Holger Kluck (Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences)
      • 215
        The Scintillating Bubble Chamber (SBC)

        The main objective of the Scintillating Bubble Chamber (SBC) collaboration is to detect 1-10GeV dark matter by combining the electron recoil suppression of conventional bubble chambers with the scintillation properties of liquid noble elements. The use of noble elements provides two benefits. First, the potential to reduce the energy threshold to 100eV by efficiently converting most of the energy deposited by electron recoils to light to suppress bubble creation. Second, the ability to collect event-by-event energy information from the scintillation. To test this technology, SBC is building its first prototype at Fermilab. This prototype includes the scintillation system using liquid argon doped on the order of 100 ppm of Xe as the scintillator, and the light collection devices are 32 Hamamatsu VUV4 silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). This talk serves as an exposition of the progress being made on SBC and testing of the scintillation system done at Queen's University.

        Speaker: Hector Hawley Herrera (Queen's University)
      • 216
        Searching light dark matter boosted by supernova neutrinos in Super-K, Hyper-K and DUNE

        We investigate a novel way of probing light dark matter boosted by supernova neutrinos incorporating the time-of-flight (TOF) information. The DM mass mχ < O(10 MeV) can be boosted to relativistic speed and surpasses the detector energy threshold, eg. Super-K/Hyper-K/DUNE. The additional TOF manifests the direct mχ measurement and is irrelevant to the DM-ν cross section σχν. The application of TOF to background suppression provides much improved sensitivities. In this talk, we will also show the resulting constraint from SN1987a and projected sensitivity from the next GC SN on DM-ν and DM-e cross sections with a broad range of mχ. The results are improved by 1-3 order of magnitudes comparing to the existing bounds. Prospects of exploiting TOF information in other astrophysical systems to probe exotic physics with other DM candidates are discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Yen-Hsun Lin (Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 4A BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Scott Hertel (MIT)
      • 217
        Planning the future DARWIN/XLZD observatory - WIMP sensitivity goals and detector R&D

        The DARWIN collaboration is currently designing a detector for high-mass WIMP dark matter with sensitivity to the neutrino fog. The project has the support, in the framework of the new XLZD consortium, of the XENONnT and the LZ collaborations, who are operating the currently most sensitive detectors of this type. With a planned target mass of 40 tonnes of liquid xenon (LXe), the DARWIN detector will probe the remaining accessible parameter space for high-mass WIMPs, and will also be sensitive to solar and supernova neutrinos. A target mass goal of 60 tonnes LXe, which will be the new design baseline if DARWIN becomes realised within XLZD, would further increase the sensitivity. This presentation focuses on the WIMP sensitivity, and on the R&D projects ongoing to make this detector a reality.

        Speaker: Dr Tina Pollmann (Nikhef/University of Amsterdam)
      • 218
        Status and prospects of DarkSide-20k: a direct dark matter search experiment using liquid argon

        DarkSide run since mid-2015 a 50-kg-active-mass dual-phase argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC), filled with low radioactivity argon from an underground source and produced world-class results for both the low mass ($M_{WIMP}< 20 GeV/c^2$) and high mass ($M_{WIMP} > 100 GeV/c^2$) direct detection search for dark matter.
        The next stage of the DarkSide program will be a new generation experiment involving a global collaboration from all the current argon based experiments. DarkSide-20k is designed as a 20-tonne fiducial mass dual-phase Liquid Argon TPC with SiPM based cryogenic photosensors and is expected to be free of any instrumental background for exposure of 200 tonne x year. Like its predecessor, DarkSide-20k will be housed at the INFN Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), and it is expected to attain a WIMP-nucleon cross-section exclusion sensitivity of $7.4\times 10^{-48}\, cm^2$ for a WIMP mass of $1 TeV/c^2$ in a 200 t yr exposure. DarkSide-20k will be installed inside a membrane cryostat containing more than 700 t of liquid Argon and use a Gd-PMMA based neutron veto detector. This talk will give the latest updates on the DarkSide-20k project.

        Speaker: Prof. Yi Wang (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
      • 219
        The DARKSIDE-20k veto readout system: PDUs construction and characterization

        Darkside-20k is a global direct dark matter search experiment situated underground at LNGS (Italy), designed to reach a total exposure of 200 tonne-years free from instrumental backgrounds. The core of the detector is a dual phase Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with 50 tonnes of low-radioactivity liquid argon.

        The entire TPC wall is surrounded by a gadolinium-loaded polymethylmethacrylate, which acts as a neutron veto, immersed in a second low-radioactivity liquid argon bath enclosed in a stainless steel vessel. The neutron veto is equipped with large area Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array detectors, placed on the TPC wall. SiPMs are arranged in a compact design meant to minimize the material used for Printed Circuit Board (PCB), cables and connectors: Veto PhotoDetection Units (vPDUs).

        A vPDU comprises 16 Tiles, each containing 24 SIPMs, together with front end electronics, and a motherboard, which distributes voltage and control signals, sums tiles channels, and drives the electrical signal transmission. The neutron veto will be equipped with 120 vPDUs.

        The talk will focus on the production of the first vPDUs, describing the assembly chain in the UK institutes, in order to underline the rigorous QA/QC procedures, up to the final characterization of the first completed prototypes. Tests have been extensively performed in liquid nitrogen baths either for the single Tiles and for the assembled vPDUs redacting a "quality passport" for each component.

        Speaker: Daria Santone (Royal Holloway, University of London)
      • 220
        Search for annual modulation of the event rate generated by dark matter in the DarkSide-50 ionization signal

        DarkSide-50 is a direct detection experiment hunting for dark matter utilizing a dual-phase argon time projection chamber at LNGS in Italy.

        On the basis of the ionization spectrum alone, it has established the most restrictive exclusion limit for low-mass dark matter candidates.

        Due to its peculiar behavior, it is possible to search for dark matter in a model-independent manner by exploiting the expected variation of the relative velocity between dark matter and Earth.

        We describe the first search for such an event rate modulation with argon using the DarkSide-50 ionization signal in this presentation, in particular a Lomb–Scargle analysis was used to look for a 1 year period peaking at June 2nd.

        As a result of years of stable operation of the detector and a thorough knowledge of the detector's response, we were able to obtain the lowest energy threshold ever attained in this kind of experiments, on the order of sub-keV.

        Speaker: Mr Theo Hugues (AstroCeNT (NCAC) / APC)
      • 221
        DarkSide-LowMass: Sensitivity Projections for a New Detector Designed for Light Dark Matter Searches

        Dark matter candidates with masses below 10 GeV/c² hold promise, and a new detector, DarkSide-LowMass, is proposed based on the DarkSide-50 detector and the progress towards the DarkSide-20k. DarkSide-LowMass is optimized for low-threshold electron-counting measurements, and sensitivity to light dark matter is explored for various potential energy thresholds and background rates. Our studies show that DarkSide-LowMass can achieve sensitivity to light dark matter down to the level of the solar neutrino fog for GeV-scale masses and significant sensitivity down to 10 MeV/c², taking into account the Migdal effect or interactions with electrons. Requirements for optimizing the detector's sensitivity are explored, as well as potential gains from modeling and mitigating spurious electron backgrounds that may dominate the signal at the lowest energies.

        Speaker: Dr Masayuki Wada (AstroCent: Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, PAN, Poland)
      • 222
        Measurement of the underground argon radiopurity for Dark Matter direct searches

        A major global effort is currently underway to obtain underground argon for DarkSide-20k (DS-20k), the first large-scale detector of the Global Argon Dark Matter Collaboration (GADMC). Assessing the purity of the underground argon in terms of Ar-39 is crucial for the physics program of this experiment. To achieve this goal, the GADMC is building the DArTinArDM experiment at the LSC laboratory in Spain.
        The radiopure DArT chamber (~1 liter), containing underground argon, will be placed in the center of the ~1 ton atmospheric argon ArDM detector, serving as an active veto for gamma radiation from the detector materials and surrounding rock. DArTinArDM is designed to measure the Ar-39 depletion factor in the underground argon with a sensitivity better than 1 mBq/kg, ensuring the radiopurity level of the different underground argon batches necessary for DS-20k.
        The DArT chamber is currently operating underground at Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) in a test cryostat, with the purpose of setting protocols for hardware and software operations, optimizing the operating conditions of the setup and developing analysis tools.
        In parallel, the ArDM detector is being refurbished with a new passive shield and a new light detection system to improve its performances in minimizing and rejecting background events.
        In this talk, I will provide an overview of the status and prospects of the DArTinArDM project.

        Speaker: Ludovico Luzzi (CIEMAT)
      • 223
        Characterization of low-energy argon recoils with the ReD experiment

        The Recoil Directionality project (ReD) within the Global Argon Dark Matter Collaboration aims to characterize the response of a liquid argon (LAr) dual-phase Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to neutron-induced nuclear recoils and to measure the charge yield for low-energy recoils. The charge yield is a critical parameter for the experiments searching for dark matter in the form of low-mass WIMPs and measurements in Ar below 10 keV are scarce in the literature. This project will cover the gap down to 2 keV.

        The TPC is irradiated by neutrons produced by an intense $^{252}$Cf fission source in order to produce Ar recoils in the energy range of interest. The energy of the nuclear recoils produced within the TPC by (n,n') scattering is determined by detecting the outgoing neutrons by a dedicated neutron spectrometer made of 18 plastic scintillators. The kinetic energy of neutrons interacting in the TPC is evaluated event-by-event by measuring the time of flight between a BaF$_2$ detector located close to the $^{252}$Cf source, which tags the primary fission event by detecting the accompanying radiation, and the neutron spectrometer. Data with the $^{252}$Cf source are being taken during the Winter of 2023 at the INFN Sezione di Catania. The experiment will be complemented by calibrations with low-energy internal sources of $^{83m}$Kr and $^{37}$Ar diffused inside the TPC.

        In this contribution, we describe the experimental setup and the preliminary results from data analysis.

        Speaker: Luciano Pandola (INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy)
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 4B Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 3 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Sebastian Baum (Stanford University)
      • 224
        Spin-1 Thermal Targets for Dark Matter Searches at Fixed Target Experiments

        Sub-GeV dark matter (DM) has been gaining significant interest in recent years, since it can account for the thermal relic abundance while evading nuclear recoil direct detection constraints. Such light DM must carry a larger energy to be probed, either directly or through missing energy/momentum, making beam dump and fixed target experiments ideal for this mass range. Here, we extend the previous literature, which mainly focuses on the predicted experimental signals of scalar and fermionic DM, by considering simplified DM models in which the Standard Model is extended by one vector DM candidate along with one spin-1 mediator. In this analysis, we identify the parameters consistent with the observed relic abundance, calculate the relevant constraints from existing experiments and measurements, and predict the sensitivity of future experiments such as the upcoming LDMX. We find that spin-1 DM is testable by future experiments, and for certain spin-1 models, will be the first DM models probed by LDMX.

        Speaker: Taylor Gray (Chalmers University of Technology)
      • 225
        The Light Dark Matter eXperiment (LDMX)

        The constituents of dark matter are still unknown, and the viable possibilities span a very large mass range. Specific scenarios for the origin of dark matter sharpen the focus on a narrower range of masses: the natural scenario where dark matter originates from thermal contact with familiar matter in the early Universe requires the DM mass to lie within about an MeV to 100 TeV. Considerable experimental attention has been given to exploring Weakly Interacting Massive Particles in the upper end of this range (few GeV – ~TeV), while the region ~MeV to ~GeV is largely unexplored. It is therefore a priority to explore. If there is an interaction between light DM and ordinary matter, as there must be in the case of a thermal origin, then there necessarily is a production mechanism in accelerator-based experiments. The most sensitive way, (if the interaction is not electron-phobic) to search for this production is to use a primary electron beam to produce DM in fixed-target collisions. The Light Dark Matter eXperiment (LDMX) is a planned electron-beam fixed-target missing-momentum experiment that has unique sensitivity to light DM in the sub-GeV range. This contribution will give an overview of the theoretical motivation, the main experimental challenges and how they are addressed, as well as projected sensitivities in comparison to other experiments.

        Speaker: Lene Kristian Bryngemark (Stanford University (US))
      • 226
        Muon $(g−2)$ and Thermal WIMP DM in $U(1)_{L_\mu - L_\tau}$ Models

        $U(1)_{L_\mu - L_\tau} \equiv U(1)_X$ model is anomaly free within the Standard Model (SM) fermion content, and can accommodate the muon (g−2) data for $M_{Z′}∼O(10−100)$ MeV and $g_X ∼(4−8)×10^{−4}$. WIMP type thermal dark matter (DM) can be also introduced for $M_{Z′}∼2M_{DM}$, if DM pair annihilations into the SM particles occur only through the s-channel Z′ exchange. In this work, we show that this tight correlation between $M_{Z′}$ and $M_{DM}$ can be completely evaded both for scalar and fermionic DM, if we include the contributions from dark Higgs boson (H1). Dark Higgs boson plays a crucial role in DM phenomenology, not only for generation of dark photon mass, but also opening new channels for DM pair annihilations into the final states involving dark Higgs boson, such as dark Higgs pair as well as $Z′Z′$ through dark Higgs exchange in the s-channel, and co-annihilation into $Z′H_1$ in case of inelastic DM. Thus dark Higgs boson will dissect the strong correlation $M_{Z′}∼2M_{DM}$, and much wider mass range is allowed for $U(1)_X$-charged complex scalar and Dirac fermion DM, still explaining the muon $(g−2)$. We consider both generic $U(1)_X$ breaking as well as $U(1)_X→Z_2$ (and also into $Z_3$ only for scalar DM case).

        Referece : https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.04889

        Speaker: Dr Jongkuk Kim (KIAS)
      • 227
        Towards the first axion search results of the Any Light Particle Search II experiment

        Any Light Particle Search II (ALPS II) is a dual optical cavity enhanced light-shining-through-a-wall (LSW) experiment at DESY in Hamburg looking for axions and axion-like particles with a target search sensitivity of $g_{a \gamma \gamma}$ down to $2 \times 10^{-11}\,\textrm{GeV}^{-1}$ for masses $m_a \leq 0.1\,\textrm{meV}$. Two 120$\,$m long strings of superconducting dipole magnets have been set up, each providing a magnetic field-length product of $560\,\textrm{T}\cdot\textrm{m}$. A resonant optical cavity with a record-worthy storage time of as high as 6.75$\,$ms has been constructed to encompass one magnet string. During its initial data-taking phase ALPS~II will be operated with a simplified optical configuration that facilitates the characterization of the experiment. The first science run will presumably take place in the second quarter of 2023 and delve into uncharted parameter space by few orders of magnitude in comparison to previous LSW experiments. In this talk we will describe the current status of ALPS II, present presumably the first results, and draw the perspectives for further improvements in its search sensitivity.

        Speaker: Dr Li-Wei Wei (Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY))
      • 228
        New Evidence for DM-like Anomalies in neutron multiplicity spectra

        As it was reported at ICRC 2021 [1], TAUP 2021 [2], and VCI 2022 [3], subterrestrial neutron spectra show weak but consistent anomalies at multiplicities ~100 and above. The origin of the excess events remains ambiguous, but, in principle, it could be a signature of Dark Matter WIMP annihilation-like interaction with a massive Pb target. However, since the results of the available measurements are below the 5-sigma discovery level, and the observed anomalous structures are on a significant muon-induced background, an independent verification at even greater depth is needed. For that purpose, we have launched NEMESIS 1.4 – a new dedicated experiment consisting of 1134 kg of Pb and 14 He-3 detectors with PE moderators and a fully digital readout. NEMESIS 1.4 has been taking data at the deepest level (1.4 km, 4000 m.w.e.) of the Pyhäsalmi mine, Finland, since November 2022. The presentation will describe the idea behind the new setup, compare the first results with Monte Carlo simulations and other available data, and give the outlook for further research. If the existence of the anomalies is unambiguously confirmed and the model interpretation [4] positively verified, this will be the first Indirect Detection of Dark Matter in the laboratory.

        [1] https://doi.org/10.22323/1.395.0514
        [2] http://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2156/1/012029
        [3] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2022.167223
        [4] TAUP abstract #221

        Speaker: Wladyslaw Henryk Trzaska (University of Jyvaskyla (FI))
      • 229
        Antiprotonic atoms as gateways for dark matter

        Candidates for dark matter are proposed and searched from the sub meV to TeV scales. The indirect observations don’t provide sufficient power to constrain to a narrow parameter space of the searches. One of the dark matter candidates, a deeply bound (uuddss) sexaquark, $S$, with mass in the GeV range is hypothesized to be long lived and very compact, described within the Standard Model of Particle Physics without extensions. $S$ properties make it particularly challenging to explore experimentally.

        In this contribution we will show an experimental scheme [1] in which $S$ could be produced at rest through the formation of helium-3 antiprotonic atoms and their subsequent annihilation into S +K$^+$K$^+$+$\pi^-$. This channel is particularly clean as there is no other channel naturally populating the same final state. It can be uniquely identified both through the background-free tag of a S=+2, Q=+1 final state, as well as through full kinematic reconstruction of the final state recoiling against it.

        [1] M. Doser, G. Farrar, G. Kornakov, “Searching for a dark matter particle with anti-protonic atoms”, arXiv:2302.00759 [hep-ph]

        Speaker: Georgy Kornakov (Warsaw University of Technology (PL))
    • High-energy astrophysics and cosmic rays: parallel session 4 Franz-König lecture hall

      Franz-König lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Christopher ECKNER (LAPP, CNRS)
      • 230
        Performance of the joint observations with CTA LST-1 and MAGIC

        The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation TeV gamma-ray observatory and the first prototype of the Large Sized Telescope (LST-1) was built in La Palma, Spain and is in its commissioning phase. Since one of the current generation TeV telescopes, MAGIC, is operating in the same site, it is possible to observe the same gamma-ray events with both instruments and perform joint stereoscopic analysis with both higher collection area and stronger background rejection. Therefore we routinely perform joint observations. We report the newly developed analysis pipeline for analysis of such joint data and its performance based on both the Monte Carlo simulations and data collected from the Crab Nebula. We find the joint observations allows us to detect 30% weaker sources compared to MAGIC-alone analysis and 40% compared to LST-1-alone analysis.

        Speaker: Yusuke Suda (Hiroshima University)
      • 231
        Axion-like particles constraints obtained by MAGIC observations of the Perseus cluster

        The search for axion-like particles (ALPs) is a hot topic in physics since axions were proposed as a solution for the strong CP problem. The axion mass and coupling to standard model particles extend over a wide range and can be constrained by collider experiments as well as by astrophysical and cosmological observations.
        ALPs are candidates for dark matter particles, making their search even more exciting. The MAGIC telescopes, operating in the very-high-energy gamma-ray range, search for dark matter in several astrophysical environments and in this work we present the results of ALPs searches in the Perseus Galaxy clusters and the constraints we obtained.
        When propagating through magnetic fields, very high-energy gamma rays can convert to ALPs, leaving signatures in the observed spectral energy distribution. We have analysed ~ 40 hours of data from the the MAGIC observations of the Perseus Cluster, in particular, the radio galaxy NGC1275 and the BL Lac object IC310. Given its proximity and strong magnetic field, which extends up to several hundreds of kpc, Perseus is a perfect candidate for the search of ALPs. By searching for distinctive spectral signatures and using a new statistical approach to the analysis, we confirmed constraints on ALPs with masses in the neV-μeV range and established the most stringent limits for ALPs with masses around 40 neV. Our results open the road for performing similar studies using the new generation of gamma-ray ground-based instruments.

        Speaker: Marina Manganaro
      • 232
        Probing the Extragalactic Background Light with the MAGIC telescopes.

        The Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) is the accumulated light produced throughout the history of the universe, spanning the UV, optical, and IR spectral ranges and mostly originating from stars, directly or re-processed by dust. However, measuring the EBL total intensity (beyond the contribution of resolved discrete sources) is challenging due to its faintness compared to foreground diffuse light like zodiacal light. A possible technique exploit the Very High Energy (VHE) photons coming from sources at cosmological distances. VHE photons can interact with the EBL and produce electron-positron pairs, an absorption process that can be identified in the observed gamma-ray spectrum. This method requires assumptions on the intrinsic spectrum of the source, which can affect the robustness of EBL constraints. In this contribution, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations, and of archival data of the MAGIC telescopes, we have studied the impact that the assumptions so far adopted in the literature have in the estimates of the EBL density, and how the use of more generic ones would modify the results. These studies can impact our understanding of evolution of Universe, gamma-ray propagation and large-scale structure formation.

        Speaker: Roger Grau Haro (Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (Spain))
      • 233
        Probing traces of intergalactic magnetic fields from gamma-ray bursts with very-high energy gamma-ray detectors

        The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is the weak magnetic field present in the voids of large-scale structures in the Universe. The interdisciplinary studies on the IGMF link several research fields of cosmology, astrophysics and astroparticle physics.
        Recently, gamma-ray observations in the GeV-TeV domain have been used to probe the possible presence and main properties of IGMF using different techniques. Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as interesting targets for the detection of a secondary delayed pair echo emission, a signature of the presence of a non-zero IGMF. This delayed signal depends on the configuration of the IGMF and can be used to constrain its properties.
        In this contribution, we present a phenomenological study of IGMF signatures from GRBs with TeV gamma-ray detectors. We predict the pair echo emission component generated by GRBs based on the intrinsic properties of GRB190114C and we determine the most convenient observational strategy for the current and future generation of gamma-ray instruments exploring different IGMF strengths, observational times and source intrinsic properties.

        Speaker: Davide Miceli (University & INFN Padova, Italy)
      • 234
        Insights into the high-energy emission of archetypical TeV blazars from the first X-ray polarization measurements

        Blazars are one of the prime objects to be studied in the current multi-messenger era. However, even though they have been studied for decades, the underlying emission mechanisms are far from understood. In 2022, IXPE announced the first detection of X-ray polarization in blazars, which opened a new window for probing acceleration and radiation processes.
        In this contribution, we put the first IXPE observations of the two blazars Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 in a multiwavelength context, including data from the radio regime up to the very-high-energy (>0.2 TeV, VHE) γ-rays. We investigate the X-ray polarization evolution, and compare it, for the first time, with the behavior in the VHE band. For Mrk 501, we find clear evidence for an extreme emission state in March 2022 with a synchrotron component peaking above 1 keV. Additional NuSTAR data allows us to accurately characterize the component and evaluate the underlying electron population. While the X-ray emission is harder and brighter than usual, the VHE data reveals a far lower inverse-Compton dominance than usual. Mrk 421 shows a variety of emission states during 2022, which allows to investigate multi-band correlations around the IXPE observations. For one IXPE night, significant flux variations are seen on an hourly time scale in the hard X-rays by NuSTAR, which we use to access information about the acceleration and cooling processes in the source exploiting hysteresis patterns.

        Speaker: Lea Alina Heckmann (Max Planck Institute for Physics)
      • 235
        Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation using the extraordinary flare of Mrk 421 in 2014

        Some candidates for the theory of quantum gravity allow for Lorentz invariance violation (LIV). If Lorentz's invariance is violated, it may cause an observable effect on the light curve and spectra of very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) photons coming from cosmic sources. One of the possible consequences of the LIV is in-vacuo dispersion which implies that the photon group velocity is energy dependent. In this line of LIV studies, one needs a fast variable source and the highest possible photon energies. So, in order to explore the possibility of a LIV effect, we analysed an exceptional VHE flare from the blazar Mrk 421 detected by the MAGIC telescopes in April 2014. The flare reached energies up to 10 TeV with fast intra-night variability. Through an innovative time-binned likelihood analysis, which has never been used in LIV studies before, we searched for arrival-time delays that increase linearly or quadratically with the photon energy. We were unable to significantly detect any energy-dependent time delay, which enabled us to establish stringent limits on the expected energy scale for LIV.

        Speaker: Jelena Strišković (Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Department of Physics, Osijek, Croatia)
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 4A Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Andre de Gouvea (Northwestern University)
      • 236
        The first neutrino mass measurement of HOLMES

        The absolute mass of neutrinos is one of the most important riddles yet to be solved, since it has many implications in Particle Physics and Cosmology. HOLMES is an ERC project started in 2014 that will tackle this topic. It will perform a model independent calorimetric measurement of the neutrino mass with a sensitivity of the order of 1 eV using 1000 low temperature microcalorimeters detectors (TES) embedded with 163Ho.
        After an intensive measurement campaign, the detector fabrication procedure was performed successfully and their response without 163Ho was exhaustively characterized, alongside the capability of readout 32 detectors at the same time with the microwave multiplexing technique.
        The custom ion implanter has also undergone extensive testing, and is now ready to perform an implantation at low dose (around 1 Hz per channel) in the TESs for the very first time. These achievements have represented an essential milestone for HOLMES.
        In the last quarter of 2023, we’re supposed to be taking data from 64 detectors and we should be in an early stage of the analysis. Nevertheless, this low activity phase of the experiment will lead to the most stringent limit (O(10) eV) on the neutrino mass with a calorimetric technique.
        In this contribution, I will present the recent experimental results achieved by the collaboration.

        Speaker: Matteo Borghesi
      • 237
        LEGEND-200: From Construction to Physics Data Taking

        The LEGEND Collaboration pursues an experimental program to search for the neutrinoless double-beta $(0\nu\beta\beta)$ decay of $^{76}Ge$ with discovery potential at half-lives beyond $T_{1/2} (0\nu\beta\beta) = 10^{28}$ yr. The first phase, LEGEND-200 has started operations at LNGS with 140 kg of HPGe detectors and plans to install additional detectors in the near future. With an exposure of 1 ton-year and a background index in the region of interest of less than $2 \cdot 10^{-4}$ cts/(keV kg yr), LEGEND-200 will reach a sensitivity of $T_{1/2} (0\nu\beta\beta)$ of about $10^{27}$ years.

        In this talk, we present the experimental setup of LEGEND-200, the installation and commissioning of the first 140 kg of enriched detectors, and the performance of the sub-detector systems. We discuss the energy resolution, stability, and performance of the pulse shape discrimination of the HPGe detectors, the photo-electron yield and suppression factors of the liquid argon instrumentation, and the efficiency of the water Cherenkov detector.

        This work is supported by the German MPG, BMBF, and DFG; the Italian INFN; the Polish NCN and MNiSW; the Czech MEYS; the Slovak SRDA; the European ERC and Horizon programs; the Swiss SNF; the UK STFC; the U.S. DOE and the NSF, the LANL, ORNL and LBNL LDRD programs; the Russian RFBR; the Canadian NSERC and CFI; the LNGS and SURF facilities.

        Speaker: Dr Michael Willers (Technische Universität München)
      • 238
        LEGEND-200: First glance at the background in physics data

        The LEGEND Collaboration pursues an experimental program to search for the neutrinoless double-beta $(0\nu\beta\beta)$ decay of $^{76}Ge$ with discovery potential at half-lives beyond $T_{1/2} (0\nu\beta\beta) = 10^{28}$ yr. The first phase, LEGEND-200 has started operations at LNGS with 140 kg of HPGe detectors and plans to install additional detectors in the near future. With an exposure of 1 ton-year and a background index in the region of interest of less than $2 \cdot 10^{-4}$ cts/(keV kg yr), LEGEND-200 will reach a sensitivity of $T_{1/2} (0\nu\beta\beta)$ of about $10^{27}$ years.

        In this talk we present initial results based on the first months of data-taking with LEGEND-200. We will discuss the event selection, the analysis and characterization of signal and background event topologies leading to the signal acceptance and the background rejection efficiencies. We will also review our assessment of the background index and the resulting measured final-state energy spectrum, except for the blinded signal region.

        This work is supported by the German MPG, BMBF, and DFG; the Italian INFN; the Polish NCN and MNiSW; the Czech MEYS; the Slovak SRDA; the European ERC and Horizon programs; the Swiss SNF; the UK STFC; the U.S. DOE and the NSF, the LANL, ORNL and LBNL LDRD programs; the Russian RFBR; the Canadian NSERC and CFI; the LNGS and SURF facilities.

        Speaker: Katharina von Sturm
      • 239
        First results from the CUORE background model

        The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a tonne scale detector searching for neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$) in $^{130}$Te. The CUORE detector is made of 988 TeO$_{2}$ crystals operated at around 15 mK in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Italy).
        Being the $0\nu\beta\beta$ a very rare process, every single background component has to be precisely understood. Material screenings and assays, together with a detailed set of Monte Carlo simulations, accomplish this essential and complex task, modeling the experimental background. This is essential to better understand the data of CUORE and to deepen the knowledge about the cryogenic setup, which is planned to be used also for the next generation experiment: CUPID.
        The CUORE background model reconstructs the data by means of a Bayesian fitting algorithm.
        We will present the new results of this analysis showing an estimation of all the contamination activities of crystals and surrounding materials. In particular, a dedicated delayed coincidence analysis allows to better determine surface $\alpha$ contaminations which represent the most prominent background in the $0\nu\beta\beta$ region of interest.
        We will also present the updated measurement of the $2\nu\beta\beta$ decay half-life of $^{130}$Te.

        Speaker: Mr Stefano Ghislandi (Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy)
      • 240
        Status of AMoRE-II

        The main stage of AMoRE, AMoRE-II, is about to start its data taking. The experiment takes place 1000 meters underground at Yemilab in Jeongseon, Korea. A cryogenic system containing molybdenum-100 enriched crystal detector modules is surrounded by heavy passive shields and muon counters made of plastic scintillator panels and water Cherenkov detectors. We expect the background level to be below $10^{-4}$ count/keV/kg/year with a 10 keV full-width-half-maximum energy resolution at the region of interest. Starting with 90 detector modules consisting of about 29 kg of lithium-molybdate crystals, the detector will eventually be upgraded using 180 kg of crystals. Data-taking will last for more than five years. The projected sensitivity covers the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of molybdenum-100 up to about $4.5\times 10^{26}$ years, corresponding to the effective Majorana mass of 18 — 31 meV.

        Speaker: Yoomin Oh
      • 241
        R&D status of the Selena Neutrino Experiment

        Imaging sensors made from an ionization target layer of amorphous selenium (aSe) coupled to a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel array for charge readout are a promising technology for neutrino physics. The high spatial resolution in a solid-state target provides unparalleled rejection of backgrounds from natural radioactivity in the search for neutrinoless $\beta\beta$ decay and for solar neutrino spectroscopy with $^{82}$Se. We present results from the first aSe/CMOS devices optimized for charge collection in aSe. We explore the scientific reach of a large neutrino detector with the proposed technology based on our experimental understanding of the detector performance.

        Speaker: Prof. Alvaro Chavarria (University of Washington)
      • 242
        Going big for Phase III of the Project 8 neutrino mass experiment

        Project 8 is a next-generation experiment aiming to directly measure the neutrino mass using the tritium endpoint method with a targeted sensitivity of 40 meV. Having established a new measuring technique, Cyclotron Radiation Emission Spectroscopy (CRES), the next development phase will demonstrate CRES on a large source volume, culminating in a pilot-scale CRES experiment with atomic tritium. A promising option is a mode-filtered, cylindrical resonant cavity in which cyclotron radiation from magnetically trapped beta electrons couples only to the lowest eigenmode, maximizing effective volume and minimizing signal complexity. I will show
        recent progress in the experimental design, including a small scale cavity CRES proof-of-concept apparatus to demonstrate CRES in cavities and its scalability to large volumes.

        This work is supported by the US DOE Office of Nuclear Physics, the US NSF, the PRISMA+ Cluster of Excellence at the University of Mainz, and internal investments at all institutions.

        Speaker: Juliana Stachurska (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
      • 243
        New prospects in the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{96}$Zr

        Currently-running and planned neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\nu$-DBD) experiments aim to reach an experimental sensitivity in terms of half-life at the order of 10$^{27}$–10$^{28}$ yr to probe the inverted neutrino hierarchy using a short list of isotopes – $^{76}$Ge, $^{100}$Mo, $^{130}$Te and $^{136}$Xe. However, $^{96}$Zr is also a promising nuclide due to its high energy transition (Q$_{2\beta}$ = 3.35 MeV) that helps to overcome the issue with the environmental gamma-radioactivity (up to 2.6 MeV) and internal beta-active nuclides from U/Th decay chains (up to 3.27 MeV). The high transition energy is also favorable from a theoretical point of view, as the expected half-life for $0\nu$-DBD is proportional to (Q$_{2\beta}$)$^{5}$.
        Here we present the first complex study of Cs$_2$ZrCl$_6$ (CZC) scintillating crystals in terms of their chemical- and radio-purity, scintillating performance and pulse-shape discrimination ability. The low-background measurements with two CZC crystals (11 g and 24 g) over 456.5 days, supported their high radiopurity leading to a counting rate of 0.17 (kg$\cdot$keV$\cdot$yr)$^{-1}$ at the Q$_{2\beta}$ of $^{96}$Zr. Limits on different DBD modes of $^{96}$Zr were set at the level T$_{1/2}$ $\sim$ 10$^{17}$-10$^{20}$ yr (90$\%$ C.L.). The detailed analysis of the internal background components was performed to be used in further developments of Cs$_2$ZrCl$_6$ detectors and to optimize the future experiment.

        Speaker: Dr Serge Nagorny (Queen's University)
    • Neutrino physics and astrophysics: parallel session 4B Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 21 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Vasile Mihai Ghete (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 244
        New physics implications of COHERENT data

        The observation of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS) has opened the window to many physics opportunities. In this talk I will discuss the implication of the observation of CEvNS by the COHERENT Collaboration using two different targets, CsI and argon, on new physics scenarios. These include, for instance, new light mediators.

        Speaker: Dr Valentina De Romeri (IFIC CSIC/UV (Valencia, Spain))
      • 245
        NUCLEUS: Detecting Coherent Elastic Reactor Neutrino Nucleus Scattering at the Chooz nuclear plant

        The NUCLEUS experiment aims to detect and characterize coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CEvNS) in an ultra-low background environment using a 10 g cryogenic detector made of CaWO4 and Al2O3 crystals. The experiment will be installed between the two 4.25 GW reactor cores of the Chooz-B nuclear power plant in the French Ardennes, with commissioning scheduled for 2023 at the Technical University of Munich before moving to the Chooz reactor site in 2024. NUCLEUS will provide important insights into neutrino physics and potential new physics beyond the Standard Model.

        Speaker: Dr Thierry Lasserre
      • 246
        At the 100 eV Frontier: Calibrating Nuclear Recoils with CRAB

        Low-threshold detectors for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) and light dark matter (DM) searches rely crucially on understanding their response to sub-keV nuclear recoils, which is difficult to access using conventional calibration techniques. The CRAB collaboration proposed a new method based on mono-energetic nuclear recoils in the 100 eV - 1 keV range induced by the emission of MeV-$\gamma$ rays following thermal neutron capture. We performed simulation studies on the expected energy spectrum which include in detail the involved nuclear physics for typical detector materials, e.g., Si, Ge, CaWO$_4$, and Al$_2$O$_3$. Recently, we reported a major breakthrough with the first direct observation of a nuclear recoil peak at the 100 eV scale measured with a NUCLEUS CaWO$_4$ detector.

        Currently, the CRAB collaboration prepares precision measurements with a clean thermal neutron beam at a research reactor at TU Wien. The sensitivity of the CRAB method is further increased by the detection of the emitted $\gamma$-ray in coincidence with the subsequent nuclear recoil and by the interplay of the timing of the γ-cascade and the nuclear recoil. With its novel idea, CRAB provides a direct and accurate calibration of nuclear recoils and will enable future quenching factor measurements in the region of interest of light DM and CEvNS experiments. This is essential for finding and studying new physics. The latest results and the experimental strategy will be presented.

        Speaker: Victoria Wagner (Technical University Munich)
      • 247
        New CEνNS limit from the CONUS experiment

        The CONUS experiment aimed to detect coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS) of reactor antineutrinos on germanium nuclei in the fully coherent regime. It operated from 2017 to 2022 at 17m from the 3.9 GWth core of the Brokdorf nuclear power plant (Germany). The CEνNS search was performed with four 1 kg point-contact high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which provided a sub keV energy threshold with background rates in the order of 10 events per kg, day and keV.

        The analysis of the final CONUS data set allows to establish the current best limit on CEνNS from a nuclear reactor with a germanium target, improving by an order of magnitude on the previous world's best limit. Moreover, this new result refutes other measurements where quenching factors deviating significantly from Lindhard theory were considered. The results from the last physics run together with the quenching measurements performed by CONUS will be discussed in this talk.

        Speaker: Edgar Sanchez (MPIK (Germany))
      • 248
        Upgraded CONNIE experiment with Skipper CCDs

        The Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Interaction Experiment (CONNIE) is located at a distance of 30 m from the core of the Angra 2 nuclear reactor in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its goal is to detect the coherent elastic scattering of reactor antineutrinos, known as CEvNS, off silicon nuclei using fully depleted high-resistivity charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Running since 2016, the experiment has set upper limits on the CEvNS rate and placed stringent constraints on some scenarios beyond the Standard Model involving light mediators. Recently, the collaboration has also explored the experiment's sensitivity to other exotic scenarios such as milli-charged particles. With the purpose of further reducing the energy threshold, two Skipper CCDs were installed in the summer of 2021. The collaboration has demonstrated stable operation of the new sensors with a readout noise of 0.15 electrons and a single-electron rate of ~0.05 e-/pix/day. New techniques have been developed to reduce the effects of instrumental backgrounds, allowing to reach a threshold of 20 eV. In this presentation, I will discuss the performance of Skipper CCDs, along with the enhanced data selection techniques employed. Additionally, I will present the preliminary results of the reactor ON-OFF low energy spectrum difference from the Skipper data. Finally, I will touch upon the future prospects for detecting CEvNS with Skipper-CCDs technology.

        Speaker: Dr Alexis Aguilar-Arevalo (Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
      • 249
        Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Elastic Scattering at Reactor with TEXONO Experiment

        The low-energy coherent neutrino nucleus elastic scattering ($\nu A_{\rm{el}}$) is being studied in a number of experimental programs around the world. As part of TEXONO's neutrino research program at Kuo-Sheng nuclear power plant, state-of-art high purity point-contact Germanium detectors with $\mathcal{O}$(100 eV) threshold are utilized to study such low-energy neutrino interactions at the complete coherency regime. This presentation will provide an overview of current $\nu A_{\rm{el}}$ activities and recent results at the TEXONO experiment. We will also discuss the quantitative studies of quantum-mechanical coherency effects in $\nu A_{\rm{el}}$.

        Speaker: Dr Manoj Kumar Singh (Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica)
      • 250
        Status of the NEON experiment (Neutrino Elastic-scattering Observation in NaI)

        Taking advantage of recent NaI crystal detector development, we established stable data-taking of the NEON experiment with a 16.7 kg crystal array at 23.7 meters away from the reactor core of the Hanbit nuclear power plant (2.8-GWth) in April 2022. NEON aims at detecting a coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering process for reactor antineutrinos.
        Using preliminary analyses of approximately 150 (143) days of reactor-ON(OFF) data, we found that the detector performs stably and better than expected, reaching crystal light yield of the unprecedented 24 photoelectrons per 1 keV energy deposit. Until now, 6 counts/day/kg/keV of the single-hit background rate at 0.6 keV have been achieved. The status of the experiment and its expected sensitivity assuming 0.2 keV energy threshold depending on quenching systematics will be reported.

        Speaker: Chang Hyon Ha (Chung-Ang University)
      • 251
        Exploring neutrino electromagnetic properties with CEvNS

        The observation of neutral-current coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) at the COHERENT experiment has opened a new window to search for new physics beyond the Standard model. In this talk we will focus on the sensitivity of current CEvNS data to neutrino electromagnetic properties, such as the neutrino charge radius or the neutrino magnetic moment. The discovery potential of upcoming CEvNS experiments will also be discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Mariam Tórtola
    • Underground laboratories: parallel session 4 Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      Hörsaal 5 lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Conveners: Laura Cardani, Dr Silvia SCORZA (CNRS/LPSC Grenoble)
      • 252
        Measurement of a superconducting qubit in a deep underground laboratory

        In the past years there has been a growing interest in superconducting qubits. This technology, other than being one of the most promising ones for the realization of quantum computers, has also applications for particle detectors. Detectors relying on superconducting qubits are already being used to search for light dark matter candidates such as hidden photons or axions.
        As the technology will improve in the next years, quasiparticles, i.e. broken Cooper pairs, are expected to become the main limit to the performances of qubits. Previous researches have already shown that ionizing radiation is a source of quasiparticles, that can result in a loss of the qubit state or, if multiple qubits are involved, correlated errors. Radioactivity has also been found to affect the stability of magnetic flux biasing of fluxonium qubits. Investigating further these effects and developing mitigation strategies is then crucial for the development of next-generation quantum devices.
        In our research we studied the behavior and the performances of a fluxonium qubit in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) deep-underground facility. The facility is surrounded by 1.4 km of rock, which acts as a natural shield for cosmic rays, allowing the characterization of the qubit in an unprecedented low-radioactivity environment.
        In this contribution we will present the results of these measurements and the comparison with what obtained in the above ground characterization of the same qubit.

        Speaker: Francesco De Dominicis (Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy)
      • 253
        Modeling Ionizing Radiation Interactions with Superconducting Quantum Devices in a Shielded, Shallow Underground Facility

        Ionizing radiation has been shown to have deleterious effects on superconducting qubit performance, particularly by generating correlated errors in multiple qubits, which is particularly problematic for quantum error correction codes. To better study the effects of ionizing radiation on superconducting qubits and sensors, we have recently installed a dilution refrigerator in the Shallow Underground Laboratory (30 meters-water-equivalent overburden) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The fridge will be augmented with a lead shield designed to reduce the interaction rate from external gammas by greater than 99%. We estimate the residual ionizing radiation interaction rate from the fridge itself and from typical instrumentation hardware. We have assayed the radioactive contaminant levels in samples of superconducting qubits, which were found to be very low in radioactivity, and in common coax connectors and circuit board composites, which we find to substantially dominate the radiation budget. An assessment of required steps to further reduce backgrounds is provided. I will also present some details on a recent publication describing the Geant4 Condensed Matter Physics (G4CMP) software, which simulates charge and phonon transport in crystal substrates and transduction into quasiparticle production in superconducting films.

        Speaker: Dr Ben Loer (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
      • 254
        Strategies of radon and cleanliness control in underground environment at JUNO

        JUNO is building a 20 kt liquid scintillator (LS) detector at a depth of 700 m underground, and the radioactive control of the environment is very important. The whole underground space at JUNO site is about 300,000 m3, including the main hall of 120,000 m3 and a number of attached halls and tunnels, making it the largest underground laboratory in the world. Since the laboratory is located underground, the rocks and water will release large amounts of 222Rn (radon) into the air. The detector components have the risk of air exposure during installation, so radon and its daughter nuclei can attach to the surface of the material and contaminate the LS. Therefore, the control of radon concentration in the experimental hall is very important. Moreover, the residual dust is another source of radioactive background. The cleanliness inside the experimental hall should reach the level of Class 100,000 or better. In order to achieve an installation environment with low radon and well cleanliness, the optimization of the ventilation was carried out in the experimental hall. The radon concentration in the experimental hall has been stabilized at about 100 Bq/m3 with great efforts. Both the radon and the cleanliness level have met the requirements. Details about the strategies of radon concentration and cleanliness control in underground environment at JUNO site will be reported in this talk.

        Speaker: Dr Jie Zhao (Institute of High Energy Physics)
      • 255
        Radon modelling and measument

        This work summarize different approaches that were carried out in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM). In this work the simulation of Radon daughter implantation on different surfaces is presented. The work compares a Geant4 based approach to the SRIM code . This lies in the simulation of the nucllear recoil on a metal plate. The different materials are tested respectively to radon deposition. Mainly we try to simulate accurately the nuclear recoil and the different surface states that will govern the implantation depth. Moreover different material were tested in radon deposition chamber that allowed us to test different environmental possibilty. the main material and packing are tested and the accuracy of simulation is tested.In the conclusion a discussion is made to check if this simulation can be generalized to underground experiment and the surface lead 210 deposition background background contribution coming from the storage of materials before building the experiment.This work could be discuss as a possibility to anticipate the background coming by monitoring the radon level or giving a radon budget for the experiment building and anticipate the lead 210 contribution.

        Speaker: Mr Guillaume WAROT (LSM-CLPSQC-CNRS)
      • 256
        A measurement of the ambient radon rate and MeV-scale calorimetry in the MicroBooNE LArTPC

        Many physics goals of future large LAr detectors like DUNE hinge on the achievement of high radiopurity to minimize backgrounds to low-energy signals like supernova and solar neutrinos. Radon in particular is a concerning source of backgrounds, as its progeny generate diffuse signals from betas, gammas, and neutrons at the MeV-scale. In this talk, we report a measured limit on the specific activity of Rn222 in the bulk LAr of the MicroBooNE neutrino detector at Fermilab during standard data-taking periods. This measurement, achieved with newly developed low-energy LArTPC reconstruction and analysis techniques, is the first of its kind for a noble element detector incorporating liquid-phase purification. We also demonstrate the calorimetric capabilities of single-phase LArTPC technology at the ~MeV and sub-MeV scale with reconstructed energy spectra of betas and alphas from tagged isotope decays.

        Speaker: Dr William Foreman (Illinois Institute of Technology)
    • Social Events: Bowling Kugeltanz


      Kugeltanz, Hauptalle 124, 1020 Vienna
      • 257
        Bowling Kugeltanz


        Kugeltanz, Hauptalle 124, 1020 Vienna

        Further details at

    • Social Events: Classical Concert Festsaal of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austrian Academy of Sciences)

      Festsaal of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

      Austrian Academy of Sciences

      Dr. Ignaz Seipel Platz 2, 1010 Vienna
      • 258
        Classical Concert Festsaal of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

        Festsaal of the Austrian Academy of Sciences

        Dr. Ignaz Seipel Platz 2, 1010 Vienna

        Further details at

    • Registration
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Loredana Gastaldo (Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University)
      • 259
        Review on dark matter models (heavy & light)

        Dark Matter constitutes more than 80% of the total amount of matter in the Universe: we know it exists, we can guess some of its properties, but we have no idea of what it actually is. This is humbling and it constitutes one of the most pressing issues in cosmology and particle physics today. Notoriously, the range of masses for possible candidates to the role of Dark Matter covers more than 80 orders of magnitude. Even limiting only to elementary particles, the range is huge: looking for an axion or a WIMP is like being an explorer and setting off to search for something that can have the size of an atom or of a continent.
        We will review quickly the main ideas behind this huge variety and focus on some specific cases.

        Speaker: Marco Cirelli (CNRS LPTHE Jussieu)
      • 260
        Direct detection of light dark matter particles (< ~ 1 GeV)
        Speaker: Karoline Julia Schaeffner (Max-Planck Institute for Physics)
      • 261
        Direct detection of heavy dark matter particles (> ~1 GeV)

        Dark matter accounts for 23% of the mass-energy density of the Universe, however, its nature and origins remain the most important open questions in physics. The search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), one of the leading dark matter particle candidates, is now in a decisive phase, with experiments targeting both the high-mass and the low-mass (<10 GeV) WIMP scenarios. This talk will present the status of the leading experimental searches and summarize constraints on main theoretical models. Searches of heavy non-WIMP dark matter candidates will be also be briefly summarized. Finally, perspectives and limitations for future dark matter searches with very large next generation noble liquid detectors will be discussed.

        Speaker: Marcin Kuzniak (AstroCeNT / NCAC Polish Academy of Sciences)
    • 10:30 AM
      Coffee break
    • Plenary session Audimax


      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Dr Silvia SCORZA (CNRS/LPSC Grenoble)
      • 262
        Axion dark matter (theory & experiment)

        We review the motivation for the axion as a solution of the strong
        CP puzzle and as a candidate for cold dark matter. Then we discuss
        benchmark axion models and present their predictions concerning
        (i) axion dark matter abundance and (2) axion couplings to the Standard Model.
        Finally, we give an overview on the discovery potential of current and planned
        axion experiments, reaching from axion dark matter direct detection,
        over searches for solar axions, to direct production and detection
        of axions in the laboratory.

        Speaker: Andreas Ringwald (DESY)
      • 263
        Dark matter searches at colliders

        The existence of dark matter, indicated by astronomical observations, is one of the main proofs of physics beyond the standard model. Despite its abundance, dark matter has not been directly observed yet. This talk reviews the latest results from accelerator-based experiments with a focus on recent highlights.

        Speaker: Deborah Pinna (University of Wisconsin Madison (US))
      • 264
        Dark Matter searches from astrophysical and cosmological observations
        Speaker: Nicole Bell (The University of Melbourne)
    • 12:30 PM
      Lunch break
    • Dark matter and its detection: parallel session 5A BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      BIG-Hörsaal lecture hall

      University of Vienna

      Universitätsring 1 A-1010 Vienna, Austria
      Convener: Phillip Urquijo (University of Melbourne (AU))