Prior to the course we encourage you having a certain 'basic' knowledge of Linux. Below you'll find a first selection of useful/needed commands and for those of you still feeling a bit uneasy with the use of Linux, we kindly ask you to have a closer look, as well as possibly follow related Linux tutorials which are available on the network: Linux tutorial
Furthermore, those of you bringing their own laptop are kindly requested to verify the proper functioning of FLUKA & FLAIR, at least in terms of software requirements (gcc, Python, gnuplot, etc...).
Hardware and Software requirements:
For the moment FLUKA does not support Windows and Mac, thus even though one could envisage running through X-window connections (such as Exceed, Putty, VNC,...) we do not encourage doing so for the course. Course participants intending to use their own laptop need a working LINUX system installed. We encourage everybody to check if their LINUX system contains all elements listed below, as well as their correct functioning:
how to verify?
(type in terminal)
3.0 or higher
4.6 or higher
g77 -v gfortran -dumpversion
|Python (with Tkinter and Tk/Tcl)
2.3 or higher (but not V3.+)
8.3 or higher
pythonin terminal and then type:
import TkinterIf you get error messages you don't have Tkinter installed. Type
Ctrl-Dto exit the python interpreter.
|For the interactive geometry visualization
|Depending on the distribution can have the names python-dev, python-devel, tk-dev, tk-devel, tk-dev85 etc..
4.0 or higher
(4.2 or higher recommended)
gnuplot -Von the command line. This will print the gnuplot version.
|Anything which reads PDF files (Acrobat Reader, xpfd, kpdf etc.)
If your computer does not fulfill all the requirements above please ask your local system administrator for help or contact us in advance.
Computing skills (LINUX) required for the FLUKA course:
In the course LINUX will be used as operating system and we strongly encourage that you are familiar with the main basic shell commands - ideally already before the course.
The following is needed for the course:
- opening a terminal (depends on your distribution, on most systems there is an icon on the Desktop or in the taskbar of the desktop environment, or it can be found somewhere in the start menu)
- being able to work with a text editor (Emacs, nedit, gedit, kate, vim, vi, joe etc.) to create, edit and save files
Knowledge of the following Linux commands:
|list the contents of short files to the screen
|change the current working directory
cdstarting from root directory:
cd /homemove to parent directory:
cd ..move to user directory:
|copy the file; will overwrite destination if exists
cpprompt before overwrite:
cp -icopy file to current directory:
cp .copy whole directory and all its contents:
|search for a string in file(s)
grepsearch recursively in whole directory:
grep "fluka" report.txt
|displays the contents of the file (user can scroll up/down)
lslist all files with a lot of info:
|get detailed information how to use particular command; press SHIFT+Z twice to exit
|create a directory
|move or rename file
|show the name of the current working directory
removes a file:
rmremoves all files in current directory except subdirs:
rm *removes directory with all its contents: rm -r
|remove dir if empty
|tool for (de)compress file(s)
tar -xvf archive.tar
tar -xzf archive.tar.gzto create an archive from directory:
tar -czf archive.tar.gz
Environment variables are 'placeholders' used in the shell holding 'strings'. In this course we will use them to set the variable FLUPRO which defines the path to the directory where FLUKA is installed. Depending on the shell used (bash, tcsh ...) one has to use different commands setenv or export. To access the name of the variable one has to put a $ in front of the name, $FLUPRO in this case. An example:
setenv FLUPRO /path/to/FLUKA
To see if the variable is set correctly set one can print its content by:
echo $FLUPROThis should print /path/to/FLUKA