The discovery of a Higgs particle by the LHC experiments has launched the exploration of electroweak symmetry breaking and potentially opened a new window into beyond Standard Model physics. Measurements of Higgs boson properties during Run 1 of the LHC are broadly consistent with the Standard Model predictions, although they leave significant room for New Physics contributions. At the same time, a number of exciting anomalies in low-energy precision flavor observables have cumulated over the years, whose potential implications are yet to be fully gauged. One of the most pressing questions in high energy physics is the origin of flavor and it is undeniably linked in an intimate way to the physics of the Higgs boson. The Standard Model comes with definite predictions for the structure of the couplings between the Higgs boson and the fermions. Probing this structure or observing any deviation will have long-reaching implications on our understanding on how Nature works at its most fundamental level, including connections with other cosmological problems. The primary goal of this workshop is to bring together experts from the theoretical and experimental communities for a joint brainstorming on the status of this research, identify areas for improvements, as well as set new promising directions to be confronted with the first LHC data at 13 TeV. The topics that will be covered include: - Flavor conserving Higgs interactions - Flavor violating Higgs interactions - Exclusive and inclusive Higgs decays as a measure to couplings to light quarks - Interplay with searches for a BSM Higgs sector - Probing CP violation in the Higgs sector - Role of precision physics in constraining a BSM Higgs sector (e.g. quark FCNC, charged LFV, Higgs LFV decays, flavor conserving measurements). - Effective Field Theory for a BSM Higgs sector - Connections of a BSM Higgs sector with other cosmological problems, in particular baryogenesis The workshop will take place at the Centro de Ciencias de Benasque Pedro Pascual, located in Benasque (Spain), between May 15 and 21, 2016. Benasque is a beautiful village with a famous ski resort, located in the heart of the Pyrenees, close to the Spanish border with France. In addition to the auditorium, the Center offers desk space, ubiquitous black boards and several meeting areas. To ensure a productive workshop, attendance will be limited to a maximum of 70 participants. In addition, the meeting agenda will be kept light, leaving plenty of time for discussion among participants, in the spirit of the Les Houches workshops.