Lectures on Gravitational Waves from the Early Universe

Asia/Seoul
Hyun Min Lee (CAU - Chung-Ang University (KR))
Description

Lecturer: Dr. Kai Schmitz (CERN)

Abstract:

The field of gravitational-wave astronomy has seen rapid and impressive progress since the first direct detection of gravitational waves in 2015; and yet the exciting journey has just begun. In the coming decades, gravitational waves will continue to expand their role as an indispensable tool for astrophysics and cosmology and advance to a primary probe of fundamental physics in the 21st century. In light of these prospects, this lecture series will highlight some of the exciting new physics scenarios that we might be able to discover in the gravitational-wave sky, with a special focus on gravitational waves from the early Universe. After a general introduction to gravitational waves in general relativity (Lecture I) and an overview of ongoing and future gravitational-wave experiments and observations (Lecture II), we will turn to particle cosmology and possible cosmological sources of stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds, in particular, primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation (Lecture III), first-order phase transitions (Lecture IV), and cosmic defects (Lecture V). To conclude, we will discuss the recently announced NANOGrav signal and its possible interpretations and give an outlook onto the future of the field (Lecture VI).

***

Lecture I: Definition and properties of GWs in general relativity
Topics: GWs in linearized gravity, propagation of GWs in the expanding Universe, stochastic GW backgrounds in cosmology
 
Lecture II: Overview of existing and future GW experiments, basics behind the data analysis
Topics: GW interferometers, experimental sensitivity curves, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background
 
Lecture III: GWs in big-bang and inflationary cosmology
Topics: Bounds on the integrated GW energy density, amplification of primordial tensor perturbations during inflation, transfer function
 
Lecture IV: GWs from strong first-order phase transitions in the early Universe
Topics: GW signal from runaway and non-runaway phase transitions, models, sensitivity curves
 
Lecture V: GWs from cosmic defects
Topics: Introduction to cosmic defects, GW signal from a general defect network, GWs from cosmic strings
 
Lecture VI: NANOGrav signal, possible interpretations, outlook onto the field in the coming years
Topics: Overview of the NANOGrav measurement, possible astrophysical and BSM interpretations, upcoming pulsar timing data
 
 
*** Recommended reading before the lecture series:
 
I recommend to have a look at the nontechnical introductions on the following websites:
 

https://www.ligo.org/science.php
https://www.elisascience.org/articles/gravitational-wave-astronomy
http://nanograv.org/research/

and to skim through the following technical review paper:

Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Backgrounds
Nelson Christensen
https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.08797

*** Literature / further reading:

[1] Cosmological Backgrounds of Gravitational Waves
Chiara Caprini, Daniel G. Figueroa
https://arxiv.org/abs/1801.04268

[2] Detection Methods for Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Backgrounds: A Unified Treatment
Joseph D. Romano, Neil J. Cornish
https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.06889

[3] Gravitational Waves from Inflation
Maria Chiara Guzzetti, Nicola Bartolo, Michele Liguori, Sabino Matarrese
https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.01615

[4] Phase Transitions in the Early Universe
Mark B. Hindmarsh, Marvin Lüben, Johannes Lumma, Martin Pauly
https://arxiv.org/abs/2008.09136

[5] Probing the Gravitational-Wave Background from Cosmic Strings with LISA
Pierre Auclair et al. (LISA Cosmology Working Group)
https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.00819

[6] Gravitational-Wave Research Using Pulsar Timing Arrays
George Hobbs, Shi Dai
https://arxiv.org/abs/1707.01615

***

Organizers:

Ki-Young Choi (Sungkyunkwan Univ)

Hyun Min Lee (Chung-Ang Univ)

Seong Chan Park (Yonsei Univ)

***

Zoom links:
 
June 2 (Day 1): https://cau.zoom.us/j/82358987538?pwd=bmk1dXMvek41M1MvOVFnbmFYcThUZz09

Meeting ID: 823 5898 7538
Passcode: CAUGW
 
June 3 (Day 2): https://cau.zoom.us/j/87626528924?pwd=REZWL1o4YlFCVXl3UDNYUUNUeTVidz09

Meeting ID: 876 2652 8924
Passcode: CAUGW
 
June 4 (Day 3): https://cau.zoom.us/j/82582443348?pwd=OXR4anQ3N3pWY3RwNFdIR3dEZUc2UT09

Meeting ID: 825 8244 3348
Passcode: CAUGW
 
***

 

Registration
Participants
Participants
  • abishek khatri
  • Adil Jueid
  • Adriana Guerrero Menkara
  • Arnab Dasgupta
  • Bhushan Thakur
  • Chengcheng Han
  • Dhong Yeon Cheong
  • Duarte Azevedo
  • Eung Jin Chun
  • Francesca Borzumati
  • Francis Otani
  • Gansukh Tumurtushaa
  • Geunwoong Jeon
  • Gungwon Kang
  • Hun Jang
  • Hyeonseok Seong
  • Hyun Min Lee
  • Jaeweon Lee
  • Ji-Seon Song
  • Jinmian Li
  • Jiyoon Sun
  • Joern Kersten
  • Kai Schmitz
  • Kanak Sharma
  • KaYoung Ban
  • Ke-Pan Xie
  • kenji kadota
  • Kunio Kaneta
  • Ligong Bian
  • Mingwa Park
  • Mukharbek Organokov
  • Myeonghun Park
  • Ning Chen
  • Oleg Popov
  • Pedro Gabriel
  • Peiwen Wu
  • Po-Yan Tseng
  • Pyungwon Ko
  • Ralph Torres
  • Rehaan Khan
  • Sang Chul Hyun
  • Sang Hui Im
  • Se Yong Kim
  • Seodong Shin
  • Seong Chan Park
  • seong-sik Kim
  • Shuntaro Aoki
  • Sonal Dhingra
  • Sonal Dhingra
  • Sung Mook Lee
  • TaeHun Kim
  • Taehyeon Song
  • Toshinori Matsui
  • Ui Min
  • Wonwoo Lee
  • Yongsoo Jho
  • Yoo-Jin Kang
  • Youngjoon Kwon
Contact: Prof. Hyun Min Lee
    • 15:00 16:15
      Lecture I: Definition and properties of GWs in general relativity 1h 15m

      GWs in linearized gravity, propagation of GWs in the expanding Universe, stochastic GW backgrounds in cosmology.

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)
    • 16:15 16:45
      Coffee break and discussion 30m
    • 16:45 18:00
      Lecture II: Overview of existing and future GW experiments, basics behind the data analysis 1h 15m

      GW interferometers, experimental sensitivity curves, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)
    • 15:00 16:15
      Lecture III: GWs in big-bang and inflationary cosmology 1h 15m

      Bounds on the integrated GW energy density, amplification of primordial tensor perturbations during inflation, transfer function

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)
    • 16:15 16:45
      Coffee break and discussion 30m
    • 16:45 18:00
      Lecture IV: GWs from strong first-order phase transitions in the early Universe 1h 15m

      GW signal from runaway and non-runaway phase transitions, models, sensitivity curves

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)
    • 15:00 16:15
      Lecture V: GWs from cosmic defects 1h 15m

      Introduction to cosmic defects, GW signal from a general defect network, GWs from cosmic strings

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)
    • 16:15 16:45
      Coffee break and discussion 30m
    • 16:45 18:00
      Lecture VI: NANOGrav signal, possible interpretations, outlook onto the field in the coming years 1h 15m

      Overview of the NANOGrav measurement, possible astrophysical and BSM interpretations, upcoming pulsar timing data

      Speaker: Dr Kai Schmitz (CERN)