Electron clouds pose an intensity and luminosity limitation for proton beams in LHC and its upgrades.
The limitations are due to electron cloud induced heat loads, instabilities and also incoherent beam intensity effects. At present, electron cloud induced effects are well controlled in LHC using different counter-measures, like for example coatings and bunch filling pattern, together with state-of-the-art simulation tools.
Compared to LHC the FCC-hh should have a smaller and complex beam screen, optimized for absorption of synchrotron radiation.
As in the LHC, the electron cloud build-up depends on the details of the secondary emission yield (SEY) of the beam pipe surface. Using a simplified SEY model together with the detailed geometry of the FCC-hh screen in our simulation tool  we study the influence of the beam energy on the electron cloud build-up and the resulting wakefields. We also compared the resulting tune spreads and beam intensity thresholds to results obtained for LHC, using the same simulation models.
 – https://github.com/openecloud/openecloud