Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is developing the international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to advance neutrino science. The flagship of the DUNE project consists of a large particle detector constructed one-mile (1.6 km) beneath the surface at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. The SURF detector is the largest of its type ever built and is comprised of four cryostats totaling 70,000 tons of liquid argon (LAr) to record neutrino interactions with unprecedented precision. Each cryostat houses a detector, the first includes 150 Anode Panel Assemblies (APA) submersed within 17,500 tons of LAr. Before installing 150 APA within the SURF detector they will be cryogenically cooled to nominally 90 K at the APA Test Facility (APATF) utilizing nitrogen flows. The APATF cryogenic system is entirely located one-mile underground at the SURF facility and includes nominally 13 kW of refrigeration at 80 K, cryogenic transfer lines, APA test cryostats, a cryogenic control system, and various control and pressure safety elements to ensure performance and safety requirements are achieved. The APATF preliminary design is in progress and major considerations include an efficient, cost-effective mechanism to deliver the required refrigeration to the APATF underground, support of rigid testing intervals to support the DUNE operating schedule, temperature stability of the APA and electronics within cryostats, efficient cryogenic system operation to minimize heat leak and/or liquid nitrogen consumption, thermo-mechanical stability and flexibility of components, and pressure safety of the APATF cryogenic system. Installation and integration of the APATF cryogenic system within the footprint and to adjacent sub-systems is also discussed.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, under Contract no. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy.