The ESS project will maintain Europe’s leadership in the use of neutrons for both materials sciences and for fundamental physics studies. The ESS project has been in preparation for 15 years or more, with initial operations planned for 2019. However, it will not be fully operational before 2023-2025. ESS is primarily designed for neutron scattering science, but it would also be possible to do other neutron related physics at ESS. It is even possible to share the proton driver linac of ESS with other intense proton users such as neutrino physics.