Prof. Thomas Udem (Max-Planck Inst.)
Time can be measured with the best accuracy of all physical quantities and forms the basis of all precision measurements. Usually this is accomplished by determining the period of an atomic oscillator. To measure means to compare. Measuring time essentially means to compare the number of cycles of different oscillators. I will elaborate on how this has been done in the past, what the state of...
Dr Gabriele Sirri (INFN Bologna)
The OPERA neutrino experiment located in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory measured the velocity of neutrinos composing the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km. Dedicated upgrades of the CNGS timing system and of the OPERA detector, as well as a high precision geodesy campaign for the measurement of the neutrino baseline, allowed to set a limit on the muon neutrino velocity with...
Prof. Antonio Masiero (Universita' di Padova)
In the plasma of particles of the primordial Universe it is expected that matter and antimatter were present in equal amount. To dynamically develop a matter-antimatter asymmetry starting from such a symmetrical situation, a necessary condition is that CP is violated. In local quantum field theories CP violation is always accompanied by the same amount of time-reversal violation. Interestingly...
Dr Giuseppe Finocchiaro (INFN Laborotorio Nazionale di Frascati)
The B factories have established with great accuracy the violation of the CP symmetry in the B system. However, no direct observation of time-reversal violation had been performed prior to the work, recently published by the BABAR Collaboration, discussed in the present talk. The quantum entanglement of B-Bbar pairs produced in the decay of the Y(4S) resonance at the PEP-II asymmetric B...
Seweryn Kowalski (University of Silesia (PL))
The aim of this project is to explore the QCD phase diagram within the range of thermodynamical variables (like e.g. temperature and baryon chemical potential) accessible at the SPS. In addition it provides precise hadro-production measurements to characterize the neutrino beam of the T2K experiment at J-PARC and to simulate cosmic-ray showers for the Pierre Auger Observatory,...
James Wells (CERN)
Matter and Gravity
One of the main motivations for low-scale or warped extra dimensions was to lower the scale of potentially dangerous quadratic divergences to the Higgs sector from quantum gravity. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered at the LHC, and extra dimensions so far have not, we take a critical look at the status of extra dimensions' ability to explain the weak scale.
Prof. Subir Sarkar (Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford)
Much effort has been devoted to the study of weak scale particles, e.g. supersymmeteric neutralinos, which have a relic abundance from thermal equilibrium in the early universe of order what is inferred for dark matter. This does not however provide any connection to the comparable abundance of baryonic matter, which must have a non-thermal origin. Interestingly "dark baryons" of mass ~5 GeV...
Jiro MATSUMOTO (Nagoya University)
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
It is known that the simply evaluated value of the zero point energy of quantum fields is extremely deviated from the observed value of dark energy density. In this study, it is shown that Casimir energy, which is the zero point energy brought from boundary conditions, can explain dark energy by using proper renormalization method and considering the finite temperature Casimir effect of the...
Ms Saeede Nafooshe (University of Nova Gorica)
It has been conjectured that Micro Black Holes(MBH) may be formed in the presence of large extra dimensions. These MBHs have very small mass and they decay almost instantaneously. Taking into consideration quantum effects, they should Howking radiate mainly to Standard Model particles, this radiation then gets modified by the non trivial geometry around the MBHs; the so called greybody factors...
Prof. Chris Smeenk (University of Western Ontario)
The problem of time's arrow arises due to the conflict between the time-reversal invariance of dynamical laws and temporal asymmetry of phenomena. In the late 19th century, Boltzmann proposed to avoid this conflict with speculative cosmological proposals, including the suggestion that the universe began in a low entropy initial state. Contemporary neo-Boltzmannians hold that this idea,...
Prof. J. Brian Pitts (University of Cambridge)
Supposedly it is trivial to implement formal general covariance for any physical theory; just use tensor calculus. It is also widely believed, going back to Weyl in 1929, that spinors as such cannot exist in coordinates in curved space-time; one needs an orthonormal tetrad with 6 extra fields and extra local O(1,3) gauge group. These (incompatible) claims are both false. In 1965 Ogievetsky...
Ms Renate Quehenberger (Scientific researcher, Quantum Cinema Project,Uni. f. applied Arts Vienna)
The Quantum Cinema 3D animated geometry depiction model is based on the idea that geometry must not remain restricted to the plane 2-D page but the invention of digital media makes the appropriate outlook of higher mathematics possible and animated 3-D graphics are the new medium for a new geometry which is introduced here. The basic discrete geometric model obeys the rules of the algebraic...
Prof. James Wells (CERN)
Prof. Wim de Boer (KIT - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (DE))
The following points will be discussed: - Evidence for a Higgs particle in CMS - Is it Peter´s Higgs or just a Higgs? - What it has to do with the “origin of mass” in the universe? - What is the Higgs boson good for? - What is so special about the observed Higgs particle?
Prof. Marko Mikuz (University of Ljubljana and Jozef Stefan Institute)
Results on measurements the Higgs-like boson, discovered at a mass around 125 GeV, with the ATLAS detector are presented. The proton-proton collision data were collected at 7 TeV in 2011 representing an integrated luminosity close to 5/fb, and at 8 TeV in 2012 with results reported on integrated luminosity up to the full collected luminosity of 21/fb. Discovery of a new, Higgs-like boson can...
Prof. Luca Amendola (Institut fur Theoretische Physik - Universitat Heidelberg)
In the next few years new data from ground and space will push the limit of cosmological observations to new frontiers. Combining CMB, weak lensing, redshift clustering and supernovae data, we will be able to constrain the properties of dark energy and its interactions from the background to the non-linear level. In this talk I discuss these methods and the future expected constraints on the...
Prof. George Wei-Shu Hou (National Taiwan University)
A Higgs-like new boson with mass around 126 GeV is discovered during 2012. However, it could still be the dilaton of scale-invariance violation, which can only be ruled out after the LHC restarts with the 13 TeV run in 2015, by observing the vector boson fusion or Higgsstrahlung production processes. With the existence of already three generations of chiral quarks, i.e. left and right-handed...
Damiano Tommasini (University of Debrecen)
The Origins of Mass, Higgs Boson
I briefly review the theoretical status on the different production and decay channels of a Standard Model Higgs boson at the LHC. After this overview, I focus on the most important channels that are the gluon-gluon fusion, for the production, and on the Electro-Weak channels for the decay. When combined they represent the most important ones for the Higgs boson searches at the LHC. Some...
Dr Ruben Conceição (LIP)
The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the most energetic particles known, the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The observatory, covering an area of 3000 km$^2$, combines two different detection techniques to study the huge particle showers created by the interaction of the primary cosmic ray with the atmosphere. The analysis of the showers allows to extract information...
Prof. Gerard 't Hooft (Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Utrecht)
Although the suspicion that quantum mechanics is emergent has been lingering for a long time, only now we begin to understand how a bridge between classical and quantum mechanics can be squared with Bell's inequalities and other conceptual obstacles. It is helpful to have some good model examples such as string theory.
Prof. Elizabeth Winstanley (University of Sheffield)
Over the past 15 years models with large extra space-time dimensions have been extensively studied. We have learned from these models that the energy scale of quantum gravity may be many orders of magnitude smaller than the conventional value of 10^19 GeV. This raises the tantalizing prospect of probing quantum gravity effects at the LHC. Of the possible quantum gravity processes at the LHC,...
Dr Chris Stoughton (Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics)
Matter and Gravity
Fermilab is conducting an experiment sensitive to effects of quantum gravity at the Planck scale. Inspired by the Holographic Principle, we calculate the "holographic noise" when measuring location, defined by position in two non-degenerate directions. We use power recycled Michelson interferometers to measure the location of the beam splitter. I will discuss the experimental strategy and...
Maximiliano Sioli (Dipartimento di Fisica)
The possibility of mixing between standard active neutrinos and neutrino fields which are singlets under the gauge symmetries of the Standard Model is a natural consequence of neutrino non-zero masses. The discovery of a sterile neutrino state would have profound impact on our understating of particle physics and on the evolution of the Universe. Recent tensions between world-wide experimental...
Mr Antonio Pasqua (University of Trieste)
Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Motivated by the holographic principle, it has been suggested that the dark energy density may be inversely proportional to the area A of the event horizon of the universe. However, such a model would have a causality problem. In this work, we consider the entropy-corrected version of the holographic dark energy model in the non-flat FRW universe and we propose to replace the future event...