An apparatus is constructed for Nb3Al short wires heat treatment with rapid heating and quenching (RHQ) method. Multifilamentary Nb/Al precursors are fabricated by rod-in-tube (RIT), powder-in-tube (PIT) and jelly-roll (JR) processes. These precursors are RHQ heat treated in the apparatus and then transformation heat treated at 800 °C for 10 h in a vacuum furnace. Transport and magnetization tests are performed to investigate the superconducting properties of the various short wires. The influences of RHQ time and maximum temperature on superconducting properties are also investigated. The highest onset TCs for RIT, PIT, JR wires are 17.2 K, 16.8 K, 17.5 K respectively. Microstructural observations show that wires prepared by JR method has homogeneous and stoichiometric A15 phase. The calculated JC based on Bean model for JR wire is 1100 A/mm2 @10 K, 2 T, which is the best of the three wires. All the results show that JR method is the most suitable method to prepare Nb3Al precursor for RHQT heat treatment.