This work deals with the bulk damage due to 23 MeV, 188 MeV and 23 GeV protons
to 200$\mu$m silicon pad sensors (bulk materials: FTH, MC or dd-FZ). I-V, C-V-f and
TSC measurements were performed at subsequent annealing steps.
Two challenges in performing TSC measurements will be pointed out: the first one
concerns the application of a forward current in the order of 1mA at the filling
temperature T=10K; the second one is related to the impact of higher filling
temperature on the measured TSC spectra.
The TSC spectra are analyzed with a revisited SRH statistics, modified to account for
the cluster-related defect contributions.
A proton-energy dependent introduction of defects is found, except for cluster-related
defects. Moreover, shallow defects are present in different concentration according to
the material type. A correlation between the leakage current and the concentrations
of three defects (the V2, E5 and H(220K) defects) is notable. It is not excluded that the
changes in the space charge in p-type sensors are mainly due to the E(30K) and the
BiOi defects, and three deep acceptors (namely the H(116K), H(140K) and the