Neutrino emission from neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in nuclear matter like the pion polarization effect and the Cooper pairing of nucleons. The larger is the star mass (central density) the stronger is the pion polarization. The ``nuclear medium cooling scenario” relates slow and rapid neutron star cooling to the neutron star masses (interior densities). Recent measurements of the masses of the pulsars PSR J1616-2230, PSR J0348-0432 and J00737-3039B and the companion of J1756-2251 provide independent proof for existence of compact stars with masses in a broad range from 1.2 to 2 solar mass. The hadronic equation of state should be rather stiff to explain existence of heavy neutron stars. The data on the cooling of neutron stars can be comfortably explained in the nuclear medium cooling scenario exploiting a stiff equation of state.
|Type of contribution||Invited talk|