Machine learning and AI have quickly turned into indispensable tools for modern particle physics. They both greatly amplify the power of existing techniques - such as supercharging supervised classification - and enable qualitatively new ways of extracting information - such as anomaly detection and likelihood-free inference. Accordingly, the underlying statistical machinery needs to be...

Extracting scientific understanding from particle-physics experiments requires solving diverse learning problems with high precision and good data efficiency. We propose the Lorentz Geometric Algebra Transformer (L-GATr), a new multi-purpose architecture for high-energy physics. L-GATr represents high-energy data in a geometric algebra over four-dimensional space-time and is equivariant under...

Anomaly detection has emerged as a promising technique for identifying subtle New Physics signals amidst a dominant Standard Model background. Due to the novelty of these techniques, they are often proposed and demonstrated on toy datasets that mimic real LHC data before being deployed in actual experiments. In this talk, we will discuss the challenges encountered during the transition from...

This talk presents a novel approach to dark matter direct detection using anomaly-aware machine learning techniques in the DARWIN next-generation dark matter direct detection experiment. I will introduce a semi-unsupervised deep learning pipeline that falls under the umbrella of generalized Simulation-Based Inference (SBI), an approach that allows one to effectively learn likelihoods straight...

The statistical treatment of sterile neutrino searches suffers from the fact that Wilks’ theorem, a beneficial simplifying assumption, does not hold across all regions of parameter space. The alternative, the Feldman-Cousins algorithm, suffers from expensive computational run times that prohibit its application into many-experiment global fits. This contribution introduces a deep...

I will present and discuss several proposed metrics, based on integral probability measures, for the evaluation of generative models (and, more generally, for the comparison of different generators). Some of the metrics are particularly efficient to be computed in parallel, and show good performances. I will first compare the metrics on toy multivariate/multimodal distributions, and then focus...

Data analyses in the high-energy particle physics (HEP) community more and more often exploit advanced multivariate methods to separate signal from background processes. In this talk, a maximally unbiased, in-depth comparison of the graph neural network (GNN) architecture, which is of increasing popularity in the HEP community, with the already well-established technology of fully connected...

We present a method to accelerate Effective Field Theory reinterpretations using interpolated likelihoods. By employing Radial Basis Functions for interpolation and Gaussian Processes to strategically select interpolation points, we show that we can reduce the computational burden while maintaining accuracy. We apply this in the context of the Combined Higgs Boson measurement at CMS, a complex...

“The Multi-disciplinary Use Cases for Convergent Approaches to AI Explainability (MUCCA) project is pioneering efforts to enhance the transparency and interpretability of AI algorithms in complex scientific fields. This study focuses on the application of Explainable AI (XAI) in high-energy physics (HEP), utilising a range of machine learning (ML) methodologies, from classical boosted decision...

Bayesian model selection provides a powerful framework for objectively comparing models directly from observed data, without reference to ground truth data. However, Bayesian model selection requires the computation of the marginal likelihood (model evidence), which is computationally challenging, prohibiting its use in many high-dimensional Bayesian inverse problems. With Bayesian imaging...

We present an application of Simulation-Based Inference (SBI) in collider physics, aiming to constrain anomalous interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM). This is achieved by leveraging Neural Networks to learn otherwise intractable likelihood ratios. We explore methods to incorporate the underlying physics structure into the likelihood estimation process. Specifically, we compare two...

A key challenge in the field of AI is to make machine-assisted discovery interpretable, enabling it not only to uncover correlations but also to improve our physical understanding of the world. A nascent branch of machine learning – Symbolic Regression (SR) – aims to discover the optimal functional representations of datasets, producing perfectly interpretable outputs (equations) by...

Precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), such as the measurement of the top quark mass, are essential for advancing our understanding of fundamental particle physics. Profile likelihood fits have become the standard method to extract physical quantities and parameters from the measurements. These fits incorporate nuisance parameters to include systematic uncertainties. The...

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear exploding stars that can be used to put constraints on the nature of our universe. One challenge with population analyses of SNe Ia is Malmquist bias, where we preferentially observe the brighter SNe due to limitations of our telescopes. If untreated, this bias can propagate through to our posteriors on cosmological parameters. In this work, we...

Neural networks are increasingly used to emulate complex simulations due to their speed and efficiency. Unfortunately, many ML algorithms, including (deep) neural networks, lack interpretability. If machines predict something humans do not understand, how can we check (and trust) the results? Even if we could identify potential mistakes, current methods lack effective mechanisms to correct...

A new generation of astronomical surveys, such as the recently launched European Space Agency’s Euclid mission, will soon deliver exquisite datasets with unparalleled amounts of cosmological information, poised to change our understanding of the Universe. However, analysing these datasets presents unprecedented statistical challenges. Multiple systematic effects need to be carefully accounted...

How much cosmological information can we reliably extract from existing and upcoming large-scale structure observations? Many summary statistics fall short in describing the non-Gaussian nature of the late-time Universe and modelling uncertainties from baryonic physics. Using simulation based inference (SBI) with automatic data-compression from graph neural networks, we learn optimal summary...

Many physics analyses at the LHC rely on algorithms to remove detector effect, commonly known as unfolding. Whereas classical methods only work with binned, one-dimensional data, Machine Learning promises to overcome both problems. Using a generative unfolding pipeline, we show how it can be build into an existing LHC analysis, designed to measure the top mass. We discuss the model-dependence...

We introduce Noise Injection Node Regularization (NINR), a method that injects structured noise into Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) during the training stage, resulting in an emergent regularizing effect. We present both theoretical and empirical evidence demonstrating substantial improvements in robustness against various test data perturbations for feed-forward DNNs trained under NINR. The...

Background modeling is one of the critical elements of searches for new physics at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. In many searches, backgrounds are modeled using analytic functional forms. Finding an acceptable function can be complicated, inefficient and time-consuming. This poster presents a novel approach to estimating the underlying PDF of a 1D dataset of samples using Log...

The matrix element method is the LHC inference method of choice for limited statistics, as it allows for optimal use of available information. We present a dedicated machine learning framework, based on efficient phase-space integration, a learned acceptance and transfer function. It is based on a choice of INN and diffusion networks, and a transformer to solve jet combinatorics. We showcase...

Recent innovations from machine learning allow for data unfolding, without binning and including correlations across many dimensions. We describe a set of known, upgraded, and new methods for ML-based unfolding. The performance of these approaches are evaluated on the same two datasets. We find that all techniques are capable of accurately reproducing the particle-level spectra across complex...

I plan to touch on several theoretical topics (overparameterization, neural balance, attention and transformers) and their applications in physics and end on a proposal to solve some of the societal issues raised by AI inspired by physics.

Discrepancies between cosmological parameter estimates from cosmic shear surveys and from recent Planck cosmic microwave background measurements challenge the ability of the highly successful ΛCDM model to describe the nature of the Universe. To rule out systematic biases in cosmic shear survey analyses, accurate redshift calibration within tomographic bins is key. In this work, we improve...

A powerful class of statistical inference methods are starting to be used in across fields that leverage the power of machine learning (ML) to perform inference directly from high-dimensional data. They can be used, for instance, to estimate fundamental physics parameters from data collected in high energy physics experiments, or cosmological / astrophysics observations and work with both...

Looking for a way modern machine learning transforms LHC physics, unfolding has for a long time been one of our goal, and only modern networks allow us to do this meaningfully. It does not only make analyses with a wide range of theory hypotheses more efficient, it also allows the LHC collaborations to publish their data. I will show how generative networks can be used for this purpose,...

Simulation-based inference is undergoing a renaissance in statistics and machine learning. With several packages implementing the state-of-the-art in expressive AI [mackelab/sbi] [undark-lab/swyft], it is now being effectively applied to a wide range of problems in the physical sciences, biology, and beyond.

Given the rapid pace of AI/ML, there is little expectation that the implementations...

New physics searches are usually done by training a supervised classifier to separate a signal model from the known Standard Model physics (also called the background model). However, even when the signal model is correct, systematic errors in the background model can influence supervised classifiers and might adversely affect the signal detection procedure. To tackle this problem, one...

In recent years, deep generative models (DGMs) have become essential for various steps in the LHC simulation and analysis chain. While there are many types of DGMs, no Swiss-army-knife architecture exists that can effectively handle speed, precision, and control simultaneously. In this talk, I will explore different DGMs, outline their strengths and weaknesses, and illustrate typical...

In social sciences, fairness in Machine Learning (ML) comprises the attempt to correct or eliminate algorithmic bias of gender, ethnicity, or sexual orientation from ML models. Many high-energy physics (HEP) analyses that search for a resonant decay of a particle employ mass-decorrelated event classifiers, as the particle mass is often used to perform the final signal extraction fit. These...

Systematic uncertainties usually have a negative connotation since they reduce the sensitivity of an experiment. However, the practical and conceptual challenges posed by various types of systematic uncertainty also have a long track record of motivating new ideas. I will outline some examples for my own career where systematics were my muse for innovation.

We demonstrate a neural network training, capable of accounting for the effects of systematic variations of the utilized data model in the training process and describe its extension towards neural network multiclass classification. We show the importance of adjusting backpropagation to be able to handle derivatives of histogram bins during training and add an interpretation of the...

The field of high energy physics (HEP) benefits immensely from sophisticated simulators and data-driven techniques to perform measurements of nature at increasingly higher precision. Using the example of HEP, I will describe how and where uncertainties are incorporated into data analysis to address model misspecification concerns. My focus will be how machine learning (ML), in the variety of...

Computing the Bayesian evidence is an important task in Bayesian model selection, providing a principled quantitative way to compare models. In this work, we introduce normalizing flows to improve the learned harmonic mean estimator of the Bayesian evidence. This recently presented estimator leverages machine learning to address the exploding variance problem associated with the original...

Many model-independent search methods can be understood as performing a high-dimensional two-sample test. The test is typically performed by training a neural network over the high-dimensional feature space. If the test indicates a significant deviation from the background, it would be desirable to be able to characterize the "signal" the network may have found. In this talk, I will describe...

“If you can simulate it, you can learn it.” The concept of conditional generation is powerful and versatile. The heavy lifting is distributed over a generator of a latent distribution of interest and an embedding network to encode the information contained in the data. Concrete applications to the reconstruction of neutrino kinematics in LHC collisions and associated interpretability...

A new generation of astronomical surveys, such as the recently launched European Space Agency’s *Euclid* mission, will soon deliver exquisite datasets with unparalleled amounts of cosmological information, poised to change our understanding of the Universe. However, analysing these datasets presents unprecedented statistical challenges. Multiple systematic effects need to be carefully...

A new generation of astronomical surveys, such as the recently launched European Space Agency’s Euclid mission, will soon deliver exquisite datasets with unparalleled amounts of cosmological information, poised to change our understanding of the Universe. However, analysing these datasets presents unprecedented statistical challenges. Multiple systematic effects need to be carefully accounted...

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear exploding stars that can be used to put constraints on the nature of our universe. One challenge with population analyses of SNe Ia is Malmquist bias, where we preferentially observe the brighter SNe due to limitations of our telescopes. If untreated, this bias can propagate through to our posteriors on cosmological parameters. In this work, we...

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear exploding stars that can be used to put constraints on the nature of our universe. One challenge with population analyses of SNe Ia is Malmquist bias, where we preferentially observe the brighter SNe due to limitations of our telescopes. If untreated, this bias can propagate through to our posteriors on cosmological parameters. In this work, we...

We present an application of Simulation-Based Inference (SBI) in collider physics, aiming to constrain anomalous interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM). This is achieved by leveraging Neural Networks to learn otherwise intractable likelihood ratios. We explore methods to incorporate the underlying physics structure into the likelihood estimation process. Specifically, we compare two...

We present an application of Simulation-Based Inference (SBI) in collider physics, aiming to constrain anomalous interactions beyond the Standard Model (SM). This is achieved by leveraging Neural Networks to learn otherwise intractable likelihood ratios. We explore methods to incorporate the underlying physics structure into the likelihood estimation process. Specifically, we compare two...

We present a detailed comparison of multiple interpolation methods to characterize the amplitude distribution of several Higgs boson production modes at the LHC. Apart from standard interpolation techniques, we develop a new approach based on the use of the Lorentz Geometric Algebra Transformer (L-GATr). L-GATr is an equivariant neural network that is able to encode Lorentz and permutation...

We present a detailed comparison of multiple interpolation methods to characterize the amplitude distribution of several Higgs boson production modes at the LHC. Apart from standard interpolation techniques, we develop a new approach based on the use of the Lorentz Geometric Algebra Transformer (L-GATr). L-GATr is an equivariant neural network that is able to encode Lorentz and permutation...

The aim of this work is to solve the problem of hadronic jet substructure recognition using classical subjettiness variables available in the parameterized detector simulation package, Delphes. Jets produced in simulated proton-proton collisions are identified as either originating from the decay of a top quark or a W boson and are used to reconstruct the mass of a hypothetical scalar...

Neural networks are increasingly used to emulate complex simulations due to their speed and efficiency. Unfortunately, many ML algorithms, including (deep) neural networks, lack interpretability. If machines predict something humans do not understand, how can we check (and trust) the results? Even if we could identify potential mistakes, current methods lack effective mechanisms to correct...

Neural networks are increasingly used to emulate complex simulations due to their speed and efficiency. Unfortunately, many ML algorithms, including (deep) neural networks, lack interpretability. If machines predict something humans do not understand, how can we check (and trust) the results? Even if we could identify potential mistakes, current methods lack effective mechanisms to correct...

We demonstrate a neural network training, capable of accounting for the effects of

systematic variations of the utilized data model in the training process and describe

its extension towards neural network multiclass classification. We show the importance

of adjusting backpropagation to be able to handle derivatives of histogram bins during

training and add an interpretation of the...

Traditional statistical methods are often not adequate to perform inclusive and signal-agnostic searches at modern collider experiments delivering large amounts of multivariate data. Machine learning provides a set of tools to enhance analyses in large scale regimes, but the adoption of these methodologies comes with new challenges, such as the lack of efficiency and robustness, and potential...

A key challenge in the field of AI is to make machine-assisted discovery interpretable, enabling it not only to uncover correlations but also to improve our physical understanding of the world. A nascent branch of machine learning -- Symbolic Regression (SR) -- aims to discover the optimal functional representations of datasets, producing perfectly interpretable outputs (equations) by...

A key challenge in the field of AI is to make machine-assisted discovery interpretable, enabling it not only to uncover correlations but also to improve our physical understanding of the world. A nascent branch of machine learning -- Symbolic Regression (SR) -- aims to discover the optimal functional representations of datasets, producing perfectly interpretable outputs (equations) by...

In social sciences, fairness in Machine Learning (ML) comprises the attempt to correct or eliminate algorithmic bias of gender, ethnicity, or sexual orientation from ML models. Many high-energy physics (HEP) analyses that search for a resonant decay of a particle employ mass-decorrelated event classifiers, as the particle mass is often used to perform the final signal extraction fit. These...

In social sciences, fairness in Machine Learning (ML) comprises the attempt to correct or eliminate algorithmic bias of gender, ethnicity, or sexual orientation from ML models. Many high-energy physics (HEP) analyses that search for a resonant decay of a particle employ mass-decorrelated event classifiers, as the particle mass is often used to perform the final signal extraction fit. These...

Scattering transforms are a new type of summary statistics recently developed for the study of highly non-Gaussian processes, which have been shown to be very promising for astrophysical studies. In particular, they allow one to build generative models of complex non-linear fields from a limited amount of data, and have also been used as the basis of new statistical component separation...

I will present and discuss several proposed metrics, based on integral probability measures, for the evaluation of generative models (and, more generally, for the comparison of different generators). Some of the metrics are particularly efficient to be computed in parallel, and show good performances. I will first compare the metrics on toy multivariate/multimodal distributions, and then focus...

I will present and discuss several proposed metrics, based on integral probability measures, for the evaluation of generative models (and, more generally, for the comparison of different generators). Some of the metrics are particularly efficient to be computed in parallel, and show good performances. I will first compare the metrics on toy multivariate/multimodal distributions, and then focus...

Data analyses in the high-energy particle physics (HEP) community more and more often exploit advanced multivariate methods to separate signal from background processes. In this talk, a maximally unbiased, in-depth comparison of the graph neural network (GNN) architecture, which is of increasing popularity in the HEP community, with the already well-established technology of fully connected...

Data analyses in the high-energy particle physics (HEP) community more and more often exploit advanced multivariate methods to separate signal from background processes. In this talk, a maximally unbiased, in-depth comparison of the graph neural network (GNN) architecture, which is of increasing popularity in the HEP community, with the already well-established technology of fully connected...

Many physics analyses at the LHC rely on algorithms to remove detector effect, commonly known as unfolding. Whereas classical methods only work with binned, one-dimensional data, Machine Learning promises to overcome both problems. Using a generative unfolding pipeline, we show how it can be build into an existing LHC analysis, designed to measure the top mass. We discuss the model-dependence...

Many physics analyses at the LHC rely on algorithms to remove detector effect, commonly known as unfolding. Whereas classical methods only work with binned, one-dimensional data, Machine Learning promises to overcome both problems. Using a generative unfolding pipeline, we show how it can be build into an existing LHC analysis, designed to measure the top mass. We discuss the model-dependence...

Discrepancies between cosmological parameter estimates from cosmic shear surveys and from recent Planck cosmic microwave background measurements challenge the ability of the highly successful $\Lambda$CDM model to describe the nature of the Universe. To rule out systematic biases in cosmic shear survey analyses, accurate redshift calibration within tomographic bins is key. In this work, we...

The Multi-disciplinary Use Cases for Convergent new Approaches to AI explainability (MUCCA) project is pioneering efforts to enhance the transparency and interpretability of AI algorithms in complex scientific endeavours. The presented study focuses on the role of Explainable AI (xAI) in the domain of high-energy physics (HEP). Approaches based on Machine Learning (ML) methodologies, from...

The Multi-disciplinary Use Cases for Convergent new Approaches to AI explainability (MUCCA) project is pioneering efforts to enhance the transparency and interpretability of AI algorithms in complex scientific endeavours. The presented study focuses on the role of Explainable AI (xAI) in the domain of high-energy physics (HEP). Approaches based on Machine Learning (ML) methodologies, from...

Computing the Bayesian evidence is an important task in Bayesian model selection, providing a principled quantitative way to compare models. In this work, we introduce normalizing flows to improve the learned harmonic mean estimator of the Bayesian evidence. This recently presented estimator leverages machine learning to address the exploding variance problem associated with the original...

The performance of machine learning classification algorithms are evaluated by estimating metrics, often from the confusion matrix, using training data and cross-validation. However, these do not prove that the best possible performance has been achieved. Fundamental limits to error rates can be estimated using information distance measures. To this end, the confusion matrix has been...

Background modeling is one of the critical elements of searches for new physics at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. In many searches, backgrounds are modeled using analytic functional forms. Finding an acceptable function can be complicated, inefficient and time-consuming. This poster presents a novel approach to estimating the underlying PDF of a 1D dataset of samples using Log...

Consider a binary mixture model of the form $F_\theta=(1−\theta)F_0+\theta F_1$, where $F_0$ is standard normal and $F_1$ is a completely specified heavy-tailed distribution with the same support. Gaussianity of $F_0$ reflects a reduction of the raw data to a set of pivotal test statistics at each site (e.g. an energy level in a particle physics context). For a sample of $n$ independent and...

Consider a binary mixture model of the form , where is standard normal and is a completely specified heavy-tailed distribution with the same support. Gaussianity of reflects a reduction of the raw data to a set of pivotal test statistics at each site (e.g. an energy level in a particle physics context). For a sample of independent and identically distributed values , the maximum likelihood...

The matrix element method is the LHC inference method of choice for limited statistics, as it allows for optimal use of available information. We present a dedicated machine learning framework, based on efficient phase-space integration, a learned acceptance and transfer function. It is based on a choice of INN and diffusion networks, and a transformer to solve jet combinatorics. We showcase...

The matrix element method is the LHC inference method of choice for limited statistics, as it allows for optimal use of available information. We present a dedicated machine learning framework, based on efficient phase-space integration, a learned acceptance and transfer function. It is based on a choice of INN and diffusion networks, and a transformer to solve jet combinatorics. We showcase...

Recent innovations from machine learning allow for data unfolding, without binning and including correlations across many dimensions. We describe a set of known, upgraded, and new methods for ML-based unfolding. The performance of these approaches are evaluated on the same two datasets. We find that all techniques are capable of accurately reproducing the particle-level spectra across complex...

Recent innovations from machine learning allow for data unfolding, without binning and including correlations across many dimensions. We describe a set of known, upgraded, and new methods for ML-based unfolding. The performance of these approaches are evaluated on the same two datasets. We find that all techniques are capable of accurately reproducing the particle-level spectra across complex...

Precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), such as the measurement of the top quark mass, are essential for advancing our understanding of fundamental particle physics. Profile likelihood fits have become the standard method to extract physical quantities and parameters from the measurements. These fits incorporate nuisance parameters to include systematic uncertainties. The...

Precision measurements at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), such as the measurement of the top quark mass, are essential for advancing our understanding of fundamental particle physics. Profile likelihood fits have become the standard method to extract physical quantities and parameters from the measurements. These fits incorporate nuisance parameters to include systematic uncertainties. The...