New compact PMT have rate capability >300MHz, able to survive ~GigaRad radiation doses, and time resolution <50 ps. This study investigates high gain quartz window metal envelope compact multi-anode photomultipliers as direct in-situ light and particle sensors. In addition to the Cerenkov light generated in the quartz window (or as coupled to Cerenkov or scintillator tiles), the photomultiplier dynodes in-situ in hadron or e-m showers generate signals from ionizing particles traversing the PMT dynodes. The dynodes have smaller sensitivity to mips(minimum ionizing particles), but low momentum, low energy particles penetrating the PMT cause secondary emission electrons (SEe) at higher efficiency than mips, due to higher dE/dx in the dynodes, forming a dual-readout correction to an energy signal as combined with Cerenkov signal. PMT with metal envelopes and quartz windows have been shown to survive GigaRads. Shielded to <1T, PMT are in-situ calorimeter sensors and beam taggers.
|TIPP2020 abstract resubmission?||No, this is an entirely new submission.|