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WIT2014 Workshop on Intelligent Trackers

US/Eastern
University of Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania

David Rittenhouse Labs 209 South 33rd street Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
Description
Third instalment of Workshop on Intelligent Trackers
Poster
    • 09:15 09:25
      Introduction 10m
    • 09:25 09:30
      Welcome from Department Chair 5m
      Speaker: Larry Gladney
    • 09:30 10:00
      A Parallel FPGA Implementation for Real-Time 2D Pixel Clustering for the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) Processor 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The parallel 2D pixel clustering FPGA implementation used for the input system of the ATLAS Fast TracKer (FTK) processor is presented. The input system for the FTK processor will receive data from the Pixel and micro-strip detectors from inner ATLAS read out drivers (RODs) at full rate, for total of 760Gbs, as sent by the RODs after level1 triggers. Clustering serves two purposes, the first is to reduce the high rate of the received data before further processing, the second is to determine the cluster centroid to obtain the best spatial measurement. For the pixel detectors the clustering is implemented by using a 2D-clustering algorithm that takes advantage of a moving window technique to minimize the logic required for cluster identification. The cluster detection window size can be adjusted for optimizing the cluster identification process. Additionally, the implementation can be parallelized by instantiating multiple cores to identify different clusters independently thus exploiting more FPGA resources. This flexibility makes the implementation suitable for a variety of demanding image processing applications. The implementation is robust against bit errors in the input data stream and drops all data that cannot be identified. In the unlikely event of missing control words, the implementation will ensure stable data processing by inserting the missing control words in the data stream. The 2D pixel clustering implementation is developed and tested in both single flow and parallel versions. The first parallel version with 16 parallel cluster identification engines is presented. The input data from the RODs are received through S-Links and the processing units that follow the clustering implementation also require a single data stream, therefore data parallelizing (demultiplexing) and serializing (multiplexing) modules are introduced in order to accommodate the parallelized version and restore the data stream afterwards. The results of the first hardware tests of the single flow implementation on the custom FTK input mezzanine (IM) board are presented. We report on the integration of 16 parallel engines in the same FPGA and the resulting performances. The parallel 2D-clustering implementation has sufficient processing power to meet the specification for the Pixel layers of ATLAS, for up to 80 overlapping pp collisions that correspond to the maximum LHC luminosity planned until 2022.
      Speaker: Stamatios Gkaitatzis (CERN)
      Slides
    • 10:30 11:00
      Towards a Level-1 tracking trigger for the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity LHC 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The future plans for the LHC accelerator allow, through a schedule of phased upgrades, an increase in the average instantaneous luminosity by a factor 5 with respect to the original design luminosity. The ATLAS experiment at the LHC will be able to maximise the physics potential from this higher luminosity only if the detector, trigger and DAQ infrastructure are adapted to handle the sustained increase in particle production rates. In this paper the changes expected to be required to the ATLAS detectors and trigger system to fulfill the demands of such a high luminosity scenario are described. The increased number of interactions per bunch crossing will result in higher occupancy in the detectors and increased rates at each level of the trigger system. The trigger selection will improve the selectivity, partly from increased granularity for the sub detectors and the consequent higher resolutions achievable. One of the largest challenges will be the provision of tracking information at the first trigger level, which should allow a large increase in the rejection power at this stage of the selection and yet still allow the full physics potential of the experiment to be fulfilled. In particular, reconstructing objects at the electroweak scale will still require that the thresholds on the transverse momenta of particles be kept as low as possible. Tracking provides essential information of this kind for individual particles so it is desirable to attempt to reconstruct tracks as early in the trigger chain as possible. The ability to apply fast processing that can take account of the properties of the tracks that are being reconstructed will enhance the rejection, while retaining high efficiency for events with desired signatures, such as high momentum leptons or multiple jets. Studies to understand the feasibility of such a system have begun, and proceed in two directions: a fast readout for high granularity silicon detectors, and a fast pattern recognition algorithm to be applied just after the Front-End readout for specific sub detectors. Both existing, and novel technologies can offer solutions. The aim of these studies is to determine the parameter space to which this system must be adapted. The status of ongoing tests on specific hardware components crucial for this system, both to increase the ATLAS physics potential and fully satisfy the trigger requirements at very high luminosities are discussed.
      Speaker: Dr. Tim Martin (University of Warwick)
      Slides
    • 11:00 11:30
      Break 30m
    • 11:30 12:00
      Level-1 track triggering at CMS for the HL-LHC 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to deliver luminosities of 5x10^34 cm^2/s, with an average of about 140 overlapping proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing. These extreme pileup conditions place stringent requirements on the trigger system to be able to cope with the resulting event rates. A key component of the CMS upgrade for HL-LHC is a track trigger system which would identify tracks with transverse momentum above 2 GeV already at the first-level trigger. This talk presents a proposal for implementing the L1 tracking using tracklets for seeding. The expected performance and the use of L1 tracks for triggering is discussed.
      Speaker: Louise Skinnari (Cornell University (US))
      Slides
    • 12:00 12:30
      Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA): The Readout ASIC for the Pixel-Strip (PS) module of the CMS Inner Tracker at HL-LHC 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The CMS tracker at HL-LHC is required to provide prompt information on high transverse momentum to the central level one trigger. The innermost part of the tracker is based on a combination of a pixelated sensor with a short strip sensor, the so-called Pixel-Strip module (PS). The readout of the sensors is carried out by two ASICs, the Strip Sensor ASIC (SSA) for the strip layer and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixel layer. The processing of the data directly on the front-end module represents a design challenge due to the large data size (30720 pixels and 1920 strips per module) and the limited power budget. This is the reason why several studies have been carried out to find the best compromise between stub finding efficiency and power consumption. This talk describes the current status of the ASIC development, focusing on the MPA chip development where the logic for the stub generation is implemented. An overview of the readout ASIC is presented with particular attention on the cluster reduction, position encoding and momentum discrimination logic. Concerning the testing, a software test bench capable of reading Monte-Carlo generated events has been developed and used to validate the MPA design and to evaluate the MPA performance. The obtained results will be reported and compared with the standard analysis software. In addition the first prototype of the MPA ASIC, namely the MPA-Light, will also be presented in the talk. The MPA-Light is scheduled for this year and will include the full analog functions and a part of the digital logic of the final version in order to qualify the chosen VLSI technology for the analog front-end, the module assembly and the low voltage digital supply.
      Speaker: Davide Ceresa (CERN)
      Slides
    • 12:30 13:00
      A Time-Multiplexed Track-Trigger architecture for CMS 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The CMS Tracker under development for the HL-LHC includes an outer tracker based on “PT-modules” which will provide track stubs based on coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, allowing the rejection of low transverse momentum hits before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track-segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with that originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data is still an open question. One attractive option is to explore a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The Time Multiplexed Trigger concept will be explained and the potential benefits of applying it for processing future tracker data using a possible design based on currently existing hardware will be described.
      Speaker: Geoff Hall (Imperial College Sci., Tech. & Med. (GB))
      Slides
    • 13:00 14:00
      Lunch 1h
    • 14:00 14:30
      Beam test performance of the 2S prototype module for the High Luminosity Upgrade of the CMS Strip Tracker. 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The 2S module for the High Luminosity upgrade of the CMS Tracker has recently passed an important milestone, with the first beam test of two versions of the prototype mini 2S modules equipped with both n-on-p and p-on-n strips sensors and read out by two CBC2 ASICs. The first test of the stacked strip sensors concept in beam also provided the opportunity to evaluate the CBC2 readout ASIC in beam and the integration with the bespoke uTCA-based DAQ. The CBC2 correlation logic appears to be working well, and the analysis of the Pt selection cut and of the performance of the system as a function of the particle incident angle is presented. Other recent activities such as the TID irradiation of the CBC2 ASIC are also presented.
      Speaker: Davide Braga (RAL/STFC)
      Slides
    • 14:30 15:00
      System Architecture and Vertical Slice Demonstration for CMS L1 Silicon-based Tracking Trigger 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The development of a silicon-based L1 tracking trigger system is of utmost importance for CMS for the HL-LHC, in order to maintain physics acceptances for the important trigger objects (such as leptons). A silicon-based L1 tracking trigger has never been realized at this scale and thus it is imperative that its feasibility be demonstrated before the design of the Phase-II Tracker can be finalized. The higher occupancies anticipated at the HL-LHC and the low latencies required at L1 present us with a formidable set of challenges that we need to attack with a well organized R&D campaign. For the off-detector part of tracking trigger, the main challenges are the complex data dispatching and the pattern recognition and track fitting. Data dispatching is where the stubs from many thousands silicon modules must be organized and delivered to the appropriate eta-phi trigger towers. Due to the finite size of the beam’s luminous region in z and the finite curvature of charged particles in the magnetic field, some stubs must be duplicated and sent to multiple towers in an intelligent way. Since all this must be done within a very short time (of the order of a micro-second), communication between processing elements in different towers requires very high bandwidth and very low latency. In addition, extremely fast and effective pattern recognition and track fitting is also required. Extensive R&D and experimentation of innovative ideas is needed in this area. Therefore, it is desirable that the design of the overall architecture can address the need for efficient dispatching of the data for time and regional multiplexing and the capability of providing a common flexible framework to test different possible solutions for track finding and fitting. For this purpose, a custom full mesh enabled ATCA board called Pulsar II has been designed at Fermilab with the goal of creating a scalable architecture abundant in flexible, non-blocking, high bandwidth board-to-board communication channels. In addition, pattern recognition mezzanine cards can be designed for Pulsar II, and this will be the pattern recognition engine and can host FPGA with the new associative memory chips being developed. In this talk, we will present a status report of the off-detector L1 silicon-based tracking trigger R&D program, from system level architecture considerations to the concept of a Vertical Slice Demonstration, with board and chip level prototype results designed for such a demonstration. This R&D is being pursued in collaboration with a few CMS institutions, and some of the R&D activities will be presented in other talks at this workshop.
      Speaker: Tiehui Ted Liu (Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (US))
      Slides
    • 15:00 15:30
      Hardware Implementation of FPGA based Level-1 Tracking 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      This presentation describes a new approach for track reconstruction to be used in the Level 1 trigger. This is intended for the upgraded CMS all-silicon tracker, which is to be installed for the High Luminosity era of the LHC (HL-LHC). The track finding is seeded with pairs of hits from adjacent layers in the tracker that are combined to form 'tracklets'. The tracklets are projected to other layers (both outside-in and inside-out), where hits consistent with the trajectory of a high-pT track are added. The pT threshold for the tracks to be considered is 2 GeV. A linearized track fit provides the final 3-D track parameters. The strict timing requirements of the L1-trigger at CMS require that the fit is done within 5 us, which is within the estimates for the algorithm. The algorithm is such that allows for an integer implementation to be used on an FPGA. Currently we are working on a demonstrator hardware implementation using a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA.
      Speaker: Jorge Chaves (Cornell University (US))
      Slides
    • 15:30 16:00
      Break 30m
    • 16:00 16:30
      L1 track triggering with associative memories for the CMS HL-LHC tracker 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      One of the proposed solutions currently under study in CMS to reconstruct tracks at the first level trigger (L1) for the HL-LHC is based on the usage of Associative Memory (AM) chips. The tracker information is first reduced to suppress low pT tracks and sent to boards equipped with AM chips. Each AM compares the tracker information with pre-calculated expectations (pattern matching) in a very short time (order or a µs), therefore providing a solution to the challenging computational problem of pattern recognition in a very busy environment. Associated to fast track fit methods, like the Hough transform, the AM approach should be able to fulfill the very demanding requirements of L1 tracking. The proposed architecture for the AM-based L1 track reconstruction system will be presented, together with the latest results obtained using a complete software emulation of this system.
      Speaker: David Sabes (Universite Claude Bernard-Lyon I (FR))
      Slides
    • 16:30 17:00
      A New Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the Mu3e Experiment based on a fast Multiple Scattering Fit 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      A new track reconstruction algorithm developed for the high track multiplicity environment of the *Mu3e* experiment, where track uncertainties are dominated by multiple scattering, is presented. The goal of the *Mu3e* experiment is to search for the lepton flavor violating decay $\mu^+ \rightarrow e^+ e^- e^+$. To reach a sensitivity of $10^{-16}$ the experiment will be performed at a future high intensity beam line (*HiMB*) at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) providing more than $10^9$ muons per second. Muons with a momentum of $\approx$ 28 MeV are stopped on a target. Their decay at rest, in which mainly low momentum positrons with energies below 53 MeV are produced, is analyzed by the *Mu3e* tracking detector consisting of four cylindrical layers of thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of $80 \times 80~\mu\textrm{m}^2$ allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high occupancy environment of the *Mu3e* experiment reaching 100 tracks per readout frame of 50 ns. These tracks will be reconstructed online using a triggerless readout scheme. The implementation of a fast 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets, where spatial uncertainties are ignored, is described and performance results in the context of *Mu3e* experiment are presented. Also the implementation on Graphics Processor Units (GPUs) for fast online reconstruction is discussed.
      Speaker: Dr. Alexandr Kozlinskiy (University Heidelberg)
      Slides
    • 17:00 17:30
      Three-Dimensional Triplet Tracking for LHC and Future High Rate Experiments 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The hit combinatorial problem is one of the main challenges for track reconstruction and track triggering at high rate experiments. At hadron colliders the dominant fraction (99%) of hits is due to low momentum tracks for which multiple scattering effects dominate hit resolution effects. Multiple scattering is also the dominating source for track uncertainties in low energy precision experiments. In such environments, track reconstruction and fitting can be largely simplified using three-dimensional (3D) hit-triplets, where the track uncertainties are solely determined by multiple scattering effects at the middle hit layer. Fitting of hit-triplets is particularly simple in experiments exploiting a solenoidal magnetic field. In contrast to track reconstruction methods based on the linking of single hits or hit pairs (vector tracking) a triplet method provides full track parameters and does not suffer from fake combinations as the 3D-triplet fit is over-constrained. Full tracks are step-wise reconstructed by connecting already fitted hit triplets, thus heavily reducing the combinatorial problem and enabling a fast track reconstruction. The triplet method is ideally suited for pixel detectors, which allow to treat hits as space-points. With the advent of relatively cheap and industrially available CMOS-sensors the construction higly granular full scale pixel tracking detectors is possible. Tracking performance studies for full-scale pixel detectors, including the optimisation for 3D-triplet tracking are presented and compared to standard tracker designs and reconstruction methods. The potential of reducing the number of tracking layers and - along with that- the material budget using this new tracking concept is discussed. The possibility of using 3D-triplet tracking for track triggering or fast online tracking is also mentioned.
      Speaker: Andre Schoening (Physikalisches Institut-Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg-U)
      Slides
    • 17:30 18:00
      Test of a Fast Cluster Finding Self-Seeded Trigger System for the ATLAS Upgrade 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The ABCN 130 chip developed for the high luminosity LHC upgrade of the ATLAS silicon strip tracker implements a Fast Cluster Finder (FCF). The FCF is capable of reading out certain track cluster information serially with a clock rate up to 640 MHz, sufficient to output the location within the 40 MHz collision frequency. An external correlator circuit can be used to find the position coincidence of clusters at two adjacent layers of silicon sensor. The coincidence offset is related to the transverse momentum of the track, and therefore it provides information which may contribute to a Level-1 trigger decision. These circuit elements have been implemented in sensor doublet configuration coupled to an FPGA which executes the correlator algorithm. Design and test results of this system will be presented.
      Speaker: Haichen Wang (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US))
      Slides
    • 09:00 09:30
      Wireless data transfer with mm-waves for future tracking detectors 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      Wireless data transfer has revolutionized the consumer market for the last decade giving products equipped with transmitters and receiver for wireless data transfer. Wireless technology has features attractive for data transfer in future tracking detectors. The removal of wires and connectors for data links is certainly beneficial both for the material budget and the reliability of the system. Other advantages is the freedom of routing signals which today is particularly complicated when bringing the data the first 50 cm outside the tracker. With wireless links intelligence can be built into a tracker by introducing communication between tracking layers within a Region Of Interest which would allow the construction of track primitives in real time. The wireless signal is transmitted by a passive antenna structure which is clearly a much less complex and radiation hard object than an optical transmitter. The technology used in consumer goods are however not suitable for trackers. The first limitation is the low data transfer capacity with current 5 GHz transceivers but also the relatively large feature sizes of the components. Due to the requirement of high data rates in detectors a high bandwidth is required. The frequency band around 60 GHz turns out to be a very promising candidate. The frequency is a strong candidate for future WLAN use hence components are available on the market. The high baseband frequency allow for data transfer of the order of several Gbit , and due to the small wave length in the mm range, only small structures are needed. The challenge is to bring the signal around or trough boundaries that are not transparent to the mm-waves like silicon detector modules or support structure. Further more low power operation and strong focusing antennas is required for massive parallelization of data transfer inside the tracker. We will present patch antennas produced on flexible Printed Circuit Board substrate that can be used in future trackers. The antennas can be connected to transceivers for data transmission/reception or be connected by wave-guides to structures capable of bringing the signal pass boundaries. This presentation aims to present results on simulation, modelling, fabrication and characterisation of such antennas. Studies of a 60 GHz data link for radial transmission of mm-waves through a ATLAS detector model will be shown.
      Speaker: Daniel Pelikan (Uppsala University (SE))
      Slides
    • 10:00 10:30
      60 GHz Wireless Data Transfer for Tracker Readout Systems - First Studies and Results 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      To allow highly granular trackers to contribute to first level trigger decisions or event filtering a fast readout system with very high bandwidth is required. Space, power and material constraints however pose severe limitations on the maximum available bandwidth of electrical or optical data transfers. A new approach for the implementation of a fast readout system is the application of a wireless data transfer at a carrier frequency of 60 GHz. The available bandwidth of several GHz allows for data rates of multiple Gbps per link. Transceiver chips can be produced with a small form factor and a high integration level. A prototype transceiver currently under development at the University of Heidelberg is presented in this talk. Furthermore, results of bit error rate measurements with a commercially available wireless 60 GHz transceiver are shown. Crosstalk might be a big issue for a wireless readout system in a tracking detector. Direct crosstalk can be avoided by using directive antennas, linearly polarised waves and frequency channelling. Reflections from tracking modules can be reduced by applying an absorbing material like graphite foam. Properties of different materials typically used in tracking detectors and graphite foam have been measured in the 60 GHz frequency range. Moreover, directive horn antennas made from aluminised thin Kapton foil have been tested successfully to focus the radio signal. In addition, linear polarisation of the wireless signal and parallel communication through different frequency channels have been analysed with respect to their benefit to reduce crosstalk.
      Speaker: Mr. Sebastian Dittmeier (University Heidelberg)
      Slides
    • 10:30 11:00
      Multi-Gigabit Low-Power Radiation-Tolerant Data Links for High Energy Physics Experiments 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      This work presents data link technologies that are capable of multi-gigabit data-transmission rates in the harsh environments typical of High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The presented modules are IP cores -- designs that can be incorporated into HEP ASICs to enable fast data transfer. We developed two data link versions in a 130nm CMOS process. A low-power 1Gbps serializer and deserializer that work at ~1mW each, a pair of transmit and receive differential 3GHz I/O drivers that consume 6mW and 22mW respectively. An additional 5Gbps data link has been developed. The data link is based on a 8mW serializer integrated with a 35 mW for transmitter and a 5mW deserializer integrated with a 5 mW receive amplifier. The 5Gbps link uses a unique pseudo-synchronous encoding, allowing it to operate asynchronously for short bursts, 4 bits at a time in our implementation. This operating mode does not require a high-speed clock in either transmit or receive devices. Projections for behavior at the 65 nm node are also presented.
      Speaker: Mr. Merritt Miller (UCSB)
      Slides
    • 11:00 11:30
      Break 30m
    • 11:30 12:00
      Design and Assembly Studies for Track Trigger Modules 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      High luminosity upgrade of the LHC will require that tracking detectors participate in the lowest levels of trigger decisions. The implementation of such track-trigger logic systems will necessitate local processing of information and sparsification of data transmitted to global processors. Further, such a system will require dense interconnections between various sensors, readout electronics and local trigger logic. We will describe R&D efforts aimed at optimizing module concepts and mechanical designs that realize this functionality. We will also describe interconnect technologies that will be employed in such assemblies. Progress in prototyping of modules will be presented.
      Speaker: Prof. Mani Tripathi (UC Davis)
      Slides
    • 12:00 12:45
      Bio-inspired vision sensors and processing systems 45m
      Biology provides us with a fascinating example of an intelligent, low-power, and highly efficient sensory system. With the advances in CMOS technology, it has become feasible to build microelectronic systems that mimic some of the key features found in biology. The presentation describes our work on neuromorphic vision sensors that include on-chip processing modeled after the biological system. This will include a retina-like imager, a focal-plane multi-mode imager and a polarizer imager. If time permits we will give a brief overview of a wireless Brain-Machine-Brain Interface (BMBI) system whose purpose is to effectively link the brain to external hardware to create new sensory and motor pathways for persons suffering from neurological disorders.
      Speaker: Prof. Jan Van der Spiegel
    • 12:45 14:00
      Lunch 1h 15m
    • 14:00 14:30
      Analysis of data compresssion efficiency in silicon detector readout 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      On-detector intelligence permits a reduction of the information to be sent off detector. In the best case this permits the scrutiny of every event before any trigger decision. This work investigates what is the minimum number of bits needed to send a given amount of information off detector. This permits a systematic analysis of the readout efficiency relative to this theoretical minimum number of bits. The greater the readout efficiency the lower the burden on the processing needed to reduce information. Different level efficiencies are defined to include context information and engineering properties needed for reliable transmission, such as DC-balance. A commonly used encoding method is analyzed as an example and found to have an efficiency only of order 50\%. A new encoding method called Pattern Overlay Compression is introduced to illustrate how the systematic analysis can guide the construction of more efficient readout methods. Pattern Overlay Compression significantly outperforms the above example in the occupancy range relevant of strip detector readout. These results are documented in a paper submitted to JIST that can be found here: http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1869. The analysis of pixel detector readout introduces added complications. On-going work on pixel readout will be presented along with results on strip detector readout.
      Speaker: Mauricio Garcia-Sciveres (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US))
      Paper
      Slides
    • 14:30 15:00
      The artificial retina processor for track reconstruction at the LHC crossing rate 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      We present the results of an R&D study for a specialized processor capable of precisely reconstructing events with hundreds of charged-particle tracks in pixel detectors at 40 MHz, thus suitable for processing LHC events at the full crossing frequency. We design a massively parallel pattern-recognition algorithm, inspired by studies of the processing of visual images by the brain as it happens in nature, and propose an efficient hardware implementation in modern, high-speed, high-bandwidth FPGA devices.
      Speaker: Diego Tonelli (CERN)
      Slides
    • 15:00 15:30
      Simulation and performance of an artificial retina algorithm for 40 MHz track reconstruction 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      We present the results of a detailed C++ simulation of the artificial retina pattern-recognition algorithm, designed to reconstruct events with hundreds of charged-particle tracks in pixel detectors at 40 MHz. The detailed geometry and charged-particle's activity of a large tracking detector are simulated and used to assess the performance of the artificial retina algorithm. We find that offline-like quality tracking is possible with sub microsecond latencies.
      Speaker: Pietro Marino (Sezione di Pisa (IT))
      Slides
    • 15:30 16:00
      Break 30m
    • 16:00 16:30
      Sensors with several different pixel geometries assembled into modules with common pixel ASIC 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      ATLAS is proposing to replace the entire tracking system for operation at the HL-LHC. The baseline pixel geometry at higher radii is 50x250um, based on the FE-I4 readout chip and is optimized for the central barrel region. The tracking performance in the end-cap pixel disks can benefit from enhanced resolution in the R-direction to improve the Z-resolution of the track vertex reconstruction, which is critical in the high pile-up environment of the HL-LHC. So called strixel geometries, with long narrow pixels, are proposed at higher z in the barrel where tracks pass through at large angles. Larger pixels can also be considered for an additional pixel layer if this could reduce the requirements, and therefore cost, for the outer part of the tracker. This presentation will report on the development and testing of pixel sensors with different geometries assembled into modules with the FE-I4 readout chip: 50µm x250µm (the size that matches the front end), 25µm x500µm , 100µm x 125µm, 125 µm x167 µm, 50µm x2000µm and 25 µmx2000µm "strixels" for the outer regions of the barrel pixel system. The sensors with geometries 50µm x250µm, 25µm x500µm, 100µm x 125µm were irradiated and tested at the DESY testbeam. These and other testbeam results as well as results from characterization of these sensors in the laboratory will be presented.
      Speaker: Marko Milovanovic (University of Liverpool (GB))
      Slides
    • 16:30 17:00
      The upgrade of the LHCb trigger system 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz to 1 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. The major bottleneck in LHCb's trigger efficiencies for hadronic heavy flavour decays is the hardware trigger. The LHCb experiment plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018. In this upgrade, a purely software based trigger system is being developed, which will have to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge, particularly in the context of running stability and long term reproducibility of the trigger decisions. We discuss the use of disk space in the trigger farm to buffer events while performing run-by-run detector calibrations, and the way this real time calibration and subsequent full event reconstruction will allow LHCb to deploy offline quality multivariate selections from the earliest stages of the trigger system. We discuss the cost-effectiveness of such a software-based approach with respect to alternatives relying on custom electronics. We discuss the particular importance of multivariate selections in the context of a signal-dominated production environment, and report the expected efficiencies and signal yields per unit luminosity in several key physics benchmarks the LHCb upgrade.
      Speaker: Conor Fitzpatrick (CERN)
      Slides
    • 17:00 17:30
      Event building and reconstruction at 30 MHz using a CPU farm 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      The upgrade of the LHCb detector relies on the ability to perform a full detector readout and event building at the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, corresponding to a data rate of approximately 2.4 TB/s. We describe a novel uniform event builder architecture, based around a farm of commercial PCs linked by a bidirectional network, which fulfils this requirement in a cost effective way. We furthermore demonstrate that the event building itself can be performed while taking up only a small fraction of the computing power of this farm, while the rest is available to perform the earliest stages of event reconstruction and classification. We discuss the kinds of reconstructions which can be deployed in this farm and their uses in classifying the LHCb upgrade events with reference to several key physics benchmarks of the LHCb upgrade.
      Speaker: Umberto Marconi (INFN Bologna)
      Slides
    • 17:30 18:00
      Discussion 30m
    • 09:00 09:30
      R&D on detector components using 3D IC for LHC upgrades and other future detectors 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      Three dimensional integrated circuit technologies offer the possibility of fabricating large area arrays of sensors integrated with complex electronics with minimal dead area, which makes them ideally suited for applications at the LHC upgraded detectors and other future detectors. We describe the ongoing R&D efforts to demonstrate functionality of components of such detectors. This includes testing of TSV technology, fabrication and testing of silicon or glass interposer structures to assemble arrays that integrate and match the pitch of large area sensors with arrays of readout integrated circuits, as well as the study of integrated 3D electronics with active edge sensors to produce "active tiles" which can be tested and assembled in to arrays of arbitrary size with high yield. The latter includes studies of possible post-processing to achieve active edges without the complexity of silicon-on-insulator sensor assemblies.
      Speaker: Julia Thom (Cornell University)
      Slides
    • 09:30 10:00
      Thin pixel assembly fabrication development with backside compensation layer 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      ATLAS is proposing to replace the entire tracking system for operation at the HL-LHC. This will include a significantly larger pixel detector. It is critical to reduce the mass of the pixel modules and this requires thinning both the sensor and readout to 150 micrometers. The bump yield in module assembly using solder based bump bonding can be problematic due to wafer bowing during processing at high temperatures. A new bump-bonding process using backside compensation to address the issue of low yield will be presented. Results from characterisation of thinned readout wafers and the effect of applying backside compensation will be presented. This work is presented on behalf of the UK ATLAS Pixel collaboration.
      Speaker: Richard Bates (University of Glasgow (GB))
      Slides
    • 10:00 10:30
      3-D Pixel Imagers with Exploitation of Delta-rays in Precision Tracking and Identification of Relativistic Particles 30m 25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      25' presentation + 5' for discussion

      no abstract summary only
      Slides
    • 10:30 11:30
      Discussion 1h
    • 11:30 12:00
      Break 30m
    • 12:00 12:30
      Close-out 30m
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