Sep 25 – 29, 2006
Valencia, Spain
Europe/Zurich timezone

ATLAS Pixel Detector Timing Optimisation with the Back of Crate Card of the Optical Pixel Read out System

Sep 27, 2006, 4:20 PM
1h 40m
Valencia, Spain

Valencia, Spain

IFIC – Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular Edificio Institutos de Investgación Apartado de Correos 22085 E-46071 València SPAIN


Tobias Flick (Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal)


The ATLAS detector is one of the LHC experiments going to start data taking in 2007. The innermost subdetector of ATLAS will be a pixel detector. It consists of 1744 pixel modules which are controlled and read out via optical signals. The off detector end of the optical link is the Back of Crate card which is performing the optical-electrical conversion and adopting the timing for the detector and the readout hardware. Studies to test the timing capabilities have been done during a combined test beam which will be presented. Additionally information about the production of this card and the optical link are given.


The Back of Crate card will be used in two subdetectors of ATLAS, namely SCT and the
Pixel detector.
It is a 9U VME card paired to one Read out Driver each. In the pixel detector 132
Back of Crate cards will be used. The card is the electrical-optical interface
between the Read out Drivers and the detector modules on one hand and between the
Read out Drivers and the Read out Buffers on the other hand.
It has to control data transmitting, laser control, data receiving and recovery, and
the timing of the on and off detector electronics.
The electrical-optical conversion itself is performed on plugin boards, the
TX-plugins and RX-plugins, housing laser arrays or pin arrays.
The timing capabilities of the Back of Crate card are important to drive the pixel
detector efficiently. The Back of Crate card is responsible for the timing of the on
detector and off detector electronics. It receives the 40MHz system clock from a
Timing-Trigger-Control Interface Module and copies it to the Read out Driver and to
the modules.
The clock for the detector modules is encoded on the Back of Crate card with the
control data for a module into one bi-phase mark signal. This signal is decoded at
the on detector system and passed to the module. It enables the system to use only
one optical
fibre per module to transmit the control signals and the clock. The data transmission
from the modules to the Back of Crate card is done over one or two fibres per module
depending on the transmission bandwidth.

The timing of the individual modules is quite important. If a read out trigger (LV1)
is sent to the module, all hits registered in the clock cycle matching the trigger
timestamp are read out. The hits being registered in the front end electronics have a
timewalk depending on the deposited charge in the sensor. Therefore hits coming from
a small charge deposition are registered significantly later than hits with higher
charge depositions. If the timing is not optimised, hits will be associated to a
wrong bunch crossing.
Because of cable length differences and different locations of the modules in the
detector the clock timing and trigger arrival has to be adopted for each module
individually, by modulewise delaying the encoded clock and data signal being
transmitted to the module.

During the ATLAS combined testbeam a study of this timing functionality has been
performed. It shows that it is possible to optimise the timing for the modules and
therefore increase the read out efficiency.
The read out window width of 25ns is confirmed and all hits being registered in the
correct 25ns wide clock cycle window are read out. Additionally an estimation about
the smallest amount of charge, which is necessary to associate the hit to the correct
bunch crossing, can be determined.

Primary author

Tobias Flick (Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal)

Presentation materials