VCI2019 - The 15th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation

Vienna University of Technology

Vienna University of Technology

Gusshausstraße 27-29, 1040 Wien
Manfred Krammer (CERN), Thomas Bergauer (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT)), Marko Dragicevic (HEPHY Vienna), Markus Friedl (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT)), Manfred Jeitler (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT)), Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT)), Christoph Schwanda (Austrian Academy of Sciences), Brigitte De Monte
    • Registration & Coffee
    • Opening EI7


      Convener: Manfred Krammer (CERN)
      • 1
        Opening EI7


        Speaker: Manfred Krammer (Chairman OC VCI)
      • 2
        Welcome EI7


        Speaker: Georg Brasseur (OeAW - President of the Division of Mathematics and Natural Sciences)
      • 3
        Welcome EI7


        Speaker: Jochen Schieck (TU and HEPHY - Director of HEPHY)
      • 4
        Welcome EI7


        Speaker: Danas Ridikas (IAEA - Head of Physics Section)
      • 5
        Information from the Organizers EI7


        Speaker: Thomas Bergauer (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
    • Plenary 1 EI7


      Convener: Manfred Krammer (CERN)
      • 6
        Searches for Gravitational Waves by LIGO and Virgo: Recent Results and Future Plans

        The first discoveries by LIGO and Virgo have established gravitational wave detectors as a powerful new tool for probing the highest energy astrophysical events in the universe. In this talk, I'll give an overview of the detectors and present the most recent results on the searches for binary black hole/binary neutron star mergers as well as searches for other classes of gravitational wave events. In addition, I'll give a preview of plans for the emerging global network of detectors in the next decade and beyond.

        Speaker: David Reitze
      • 7
        From particle physics technologies to society

        Particle physics has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe, and it is the epitome of basic research: seeking answers to fundamental questions. In its pursuit of knowledge, particle has also played a role in developing innovative technologies: frontier instruments like the Tevatron at Fermilab or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, and their detectors, require frontier technologies, well beyond the industrial know-how at the time the accelerators and the experiments were conceived. The tools of the trade of particle physicists – accelerators, detectors, computing and simulations – have found applications in a variety of fields outside physics research. In some cases, these software and hardware tools have been adopted by scientists working in entirely different research areas: Geant4, Scientific Linux, synchrotron light sources. Innovations such as the World Wide Web have profoundly changed society, and there are many prominent examples in healthcare, from accelerator-based cancer therapy to medical imaging instrumentation. But there is also a myriad of lesser-known applications that have an impact in aerospace, cultural heritage, industry 4.0, food safety. This talk will explain how advances in particle physics-related technologies have had a positive impact in many fields of society, and in particular in medical and biomedical technologies and research.

        Speaker: Benjamin Frisch (CERN)
    • 12:00 PM
      Lunch Break
    • Plenary 2 EI7


      Convener: Ariella Cattai (CERN)
      • 8
        New ALICE detectors for Run 3 and 4 at the CERN LHC

        During Run 3 and 4 ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) will gain two orders of magnitude in the statistics over the combined data collected during Run 1 and Run 2 at the LHC. ALICE will also conduct high-precision measurements of rare probes over a broad range of transverse momenta with particular focus on low signal-to-background probes at low pT values. To achieve that goal a sustained Pb-Pb readout rate of up to 50 kHz must be maintained while operating either continuously or with a minimum bias trigger. To cope with that challenge, ALICE is implementing new hardware and software solutions. In particular, three new detectors are being installed: the Inner Tracking System (ITS), the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) and the Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) detector. The new trackers are based on ALIPIDE (ALICE Pixel Detector), a custom designed sensor incorporating the requirements imposed by the physics program including a high-granularity and low material budget of the non-active elements. The new sensor will improve vertexing and tracking, especially at low pT values. The use of ALIPIDE by the Muon Forward Tracker will add vertexing capabilities to the Muon Spectrometer covering a broad range of transverse momenta and allowing ALICE to measure beauty down to pT~0 from displaced J/Psi vertices and to have an improved precision for the Psi(2S) measurement. It will also add high-granularity data to the forward multiplicity information acquired by FIT. In addition to providing inputs for the new Central Trigger Processor, FIT will serve as the main
        luminometer, collision time, multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane detector for the ALICE experiment.

        Speaker: Wladyslaw Henryk Trzaska (University of Jyvaskyla (FI))
      • 9
        Pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

        The physics aims at the proposed future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider pose challenging demands on the performance of the detector system. In particular the vertex and tracking detectors have to combine precision measurements with robustness against the expected high rates of beam-induced backgrounds. A spatial resolution of a few microns and a material budget down to 0.2% of a radiation length per vertex-detector layer have to be achieved together with a few nanoseconds time stamping accuracy. These requirements are addressed with innovative technologies in an ambitious detector R&D programme, comprising hardware developments as well as detailed device and Monte Carlo simulations. Various fine pitch hybrid silicon pixel detector technologies are under investigation for the CLIC vertex detector. The CLICpix and CLICpix2 readout ASICs with 25 micron pixel pitch have been produced in a 65 nm commercial CMOS process and bump-bonded to planar active edge sensors as well as capacitively coupled to High-Voltage (HV) CMOS sensors. Monolithic silicon tracking detectors are foreseen for the large surface (~140 square meters) CLIC tracker. Fully monolithic prototypes are currently under development in High-Resistivity (HR) CMOS, HV-CMOS and Silicon on Insulator (SOI) technologies. This talk presents an overview of the CLIC pixel-detector R&D programme, focussing on recent test-beam and simulation results.

        Speaker: Dominik Dannheim (CERN)
      • 10
        Development of the CMS Mip Timing Detector

        The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is undergoing an extensive Phase II upgrade program to prepare for the challenging conditions of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In particular, a new timing layer will measure minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) with a time resolution of ~30ps and hermetic coverage up to a pseudo-rapidity of |η|=3. This MIP Timing Detector (MTD) will consist of a central barrel region based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals read out with SiPMs and two end-caps instrumented with radiation-tolerant Low Gain Avalanche Detectors. The precision time information from the MTD will reduce the effects of the high levels of pile-up expected at the HL-LHC and will bring new and unique capabilities to the CMS detector. The time information assigned to each track will enable the use of 4D reconstruction algorithms and will further discriminate interaction vertices within the same bunch crossing to recover the track purity of vertices in current LHC conditions. We present motivations for precision timing at the HL-LHC and the ongoing MTD R&D targeting enhanced timing performance and radiation tolerance, including test beam results.

        Speaker: Marco Toliman Lucchini (Princeton University (US))
      • 11
        The LHCb Upgrade Programme and the VELO

        The LHCb Upgrade I, currently under construction and scheduled to start data taking in Run 3, will transform the experiment to a triggerless system reading out the full detector at 40 MHz event rate. The increased luminosity and trigger efficiency anticipated at the upgrade will allow a huge increase in precision, in many cases to the theoretical limit, and the ability to perform studies beyond the reach of the current detector. In order to allow the triggerless readout the front end electronics of all subdetectors will be changed, and many subdetectors will be upgraded to cope with the increased occupancy and radiation levels. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is the detector surrounding the interaction region, and will be a hybrid pixel system, featuring silicon pixel sensors with 55x55 μm pitch, read out by the VeloPix ASIC. The sensors and ASICs will approach the interaction point to within 5.1 mm and be exposed to a radiation dose of up to 370 MRad or 8.1015 1MeV neqcm−2. The ASICs must sustain pixel hit rates of over 800 Mhits/s with an output data rate of 15 Gbit/s. The pixel modules are coooled via evaporative CO2 circulating in microchannels embedded within a silicon substrate. In parallel to the construction efforts for the Upgrade I, LHCb has recently submitted a physics case for a an Upgrade II detector to begin operation in 2031. Here major parts of the detector will be replaced and functionality added to enable the detector to run at a futher luminosity step of up to 2×1034 cm−2 s−1. It is anticipated to collect approximately 300 fb−1 at Upgrade II. In the case of the VELO further enhancements will be needed to address the problems of real time pattern recognition and increased radiation doses. The current status of the VELO Upgrade I construction will be described and concepts for a future Upgrade II VELO presented.

        Speaker: Paula Collins (CERN)
    • 3:40 PM
      Coffee Break
    • Plenary 2 EI7


      Convener: Manfred Jeitler (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 12
        The Silicon Photomultiplier Status and Perspectives

        The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a solid-state device capable of sensing, timing
        and quantifying with high accuracy light signals down to the single-photon level.
        Featuring large internal gain with negligible fluctuations, high intrinsic timing resolution,
        low-voltage operation, insensitivity to magnetic fields, high degree of radio-purity,
        mechanical robustness and excellent uniformity of response, the SiPM is a very
        attractive alternative to Vacuum and Hybrid Photomultiplier Tube devices.

        This review talk summarizes the present status of the SiPM development
        and put it in future perspective by examining the four following subjects:
        1) Device Physics and Technology
        2) SiPM properties and performance
        3) New developments and trends
        4) Selected applications examples

        After a short introduction aiming at presenting the two main families of SiPM
        (namely the Analog and the Digital SiPM) the review will illustrate the Physics of the device.
        In particular the main working principles of the Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD),
        which is the building block of any SiPM, will be discussed in order to clarify both
        intrinsic benefits and issues related to the solid-state sensor and to introduce the
        technology challenges that in the last 15 years have been addressed and gradually solved.
        Key Technology points will be then shown to be mostly related to the constraints
        (1) of building the SiPM device as a closely packed array of thousands of
        SPADs working in parallel and (2) of providing effective feedback mechanisms for
        controlling the SPADs discharge and recharge. Custom and CMOS silicon technologies
        will be discussed while illustrating the main technological differences between the Analog
        and the Digital SiPM families.

        In the second part of the review the SiPM properties will be discussed in terms of
        main parameters characterization. Gain and dynamic range , Noise
        (both of uncorrelated and correlated type), Phodo-Detection Efficiency (PDE),
        Timing properties, stability and radiation hardness will be addressed, providing
        also the occasion for a performance comparison with respect to other types of
        high-sensitivity light sensors.

        Despite the SiPM technology is quite mature there is still large room for improvement.
        Thus in the third part of the review the most challenging new developments and trends
        will be instanced by showing how noise (for example single photo-electron
        equivalent noise or correlated after-pulsing noise) can be mitigated,
        how the sensitivity spectra are being extended towards very short or long wavelengths
        (respectively VUV and NIR regions) and how radiation hardness can be improved.

        Eventually, selected application examples will illustrate how, in addition to
        straightforward applications, like for instance high energy calorimetry or
        medical imaging, the SiPM is becoming the baseline option also for low-light
        intensity applications, for fast timing applications and, by exploiting their excellent
        performances at cryogenic temperatures, even for very large area applications.
        Illustrations of options and clever solutions concerning the related Front-End
        electronics will be also provided.

        Speaker: Gianmaria Collazuol (University of Padova and INFN Padova)
      • 13
        Experimental advances of photon detection time resolution limits in SiPMs and scintillator based detectors

        Scintillator based radiation detectors readout by SiPMs successively break records in their reached time resolution. Nevertheless, new challenges in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) and high energy physics are setting unmatched goals in the 10ps range. Recently we have shown that high frequency (HF) readout of SiPMs significantly improves the measured single photon time resolution (SPTR), allowing to evaluate the intrinsic performance of large area devices; e.g. we measured 90ps FWHM with FBK NUV-HD SiPMs of 4x4mm$^2$ area and 40$\mu$m SPAD size. In this contribution we will summarize the intrinsic SPTR for different producers, e.g. FBK, HPK, Ketek, SensL etc. In TOF-PET such readout allows to lower the leading edge detection threshold, so that the fastest photons produced in the crystal can be utilized. This is of utmost importance if a high SPTR and prompt Cherenkov light generated by the hot-recoil electron upon 511keV photoabsorption should improve timing. In this context we measured a CTR of 150$\pm$3ps FWHM with 2x2x3mm$^3$ BGO crystals coupled to FBK SiPMs. This faint Cherenkov signal is as well present in standard LSO scintillators, improving the CTR of 2x2x3mm$^3$ LSO:Ce:Ca coupled to FBK NUV-HD 4x4mm$^2$ with 25$\mu$m SPAD size to 61$\pm$2ps FWHM using HF-electronics, as compared to 73$\pm$2ps when readout by the NINO front-end ASIC. This new experimental data will allow us to evaluate further the timing limits in scintillator-based detectors.

        Speaker: Stefan Gundacker (CERN)
      • 14
        Full System of Positron Timing Counter Having Time Resolution under 40 psec with Fast Plastic Scintillator Readout by SiPMs

        A positron timing counter (TC) required 30-40 ps time resolution for ~50 MeV/c positron by the MEG II experiment has been developed. We employed the high segmented design with 512 scintillator plates ($120 \times 40 \times 5$ mm$^3$ and $120 \times 50 \times 5$ mm$^3$) attached 6-SiPM-array at the both ends. Pile up is reduced by the segmented design, and multi-counter measurement improves the overall timing resolution.
        All the single counters were assembled and their resolutions were under 100 psec in pre-test with Sr source. The construction and installation was also completed in 2017. An engineering run was performed in the end of 2017 at the $\pi$E5 muon beam line in PSI, which supplies most intense muon beam ($7 \times 10^7$ stops/s on a target) in the world. We successfully operated the full system of TC in the MEG II environment and achieved the time resolution under 40 ps with more than 8 counter hits.
        The overall resolution for the signal positrons is estimated to be 38.5 ps by weighting with the number of hits distribution of the signal positrons obtained by MC. The time resolution of TC is improved by a factor of 2 from the MEG experiment.

        Speaker: Dr Miki Nishimura (KEK)
    • Art and History of Vienna EI7


      Convener: Markus Friedl (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 15
        Art and History of Vienna

        The city of Vienna was essentially founded by the ancient Romans. In the late middle ages, it became the capital of the Habsburg Empire, and consequently grew in size and importance. Even though there are some Roman excavations, most of the architectural heritage originates from the monarchy. In particular, the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries was undoubtedly a peak in many aspects of arts and culture, and even the population of Vienna was then higher than today. Nonetheless, the monarchy terminated almost hundred years ago and gave way to modernism. All periods of fine arts are represented in Vienna, by architecture as well as in museums. In addition, performing arts and classical music are offered in various places. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of Vienna, the periods of art and where to spot them, with a particular focus on the locations where social events will take place during this conference.

        Speaker: Markus Friedl (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
    • Welcome Reception
    • Plenary 3 EI7


      Convener: Thomas Bergauer (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 16
        Quantum Sensors in High-Energy Physics

        I will discuss recent efforts in applying quantum information science (QIS) technology to High Energy Physics experiments, in particular efforts using quantum sensors in the search for low mass dark matter, and axion-line particles. I will also discuss the possible applications in QIS for technologies developed for HEP experiments.

        Speaker: Juan Estrada (fermilab)
      • 17
        The CMS Outer Tracker for the High Luminosity LHC

        The era of High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider will pose unprecedented challenges for detector design and operation. The planned luminosity of the upgraded machine is $5-7.5\times10^{34} \mathrm{cm}^{-2}\mathrm{s}^{-1}$, reaching an integrated luminosity of 3000-4000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2039. CMS Tracker detector will have to be replaced in order to fully exploit the delivered luminosity and cope with the demanding operating conditions. The new detector will provide robust tracking as well as input for the first level trigger. This report is focusing on the replacement of the CMS Outer Tracker system, describing new layout and technological choices together with some highlights of research and development activities.

        Speaker: Erik Butz (KIT - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (DE))
      • 18
        Module and System test Development for the Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

        In the high-luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resulting increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The innermost part of ITk will consist of a pixel detector, with an active area of about 14 m². In order to cope with the changing requirements in terms of radiation hardness, power dissipation and production yield, several different silicon sensor technologies will be employed in the five barrel and endcap layers. With the arrival of the first readout chip prototype, the RD53A chip, the development of hybrid detector modules is starting to address numerous production issues, understanding of which will be crucial for the layout and production of the final ITk pixel detector modules. In addition, the new powering scheme is serial which gives further challenges. A large prototyping programme on system test level is ongoing. Components for larger structures with multiple modules based on the FE-I4 front-end chips were produced and are in assembly and evaluation. The paper will present latest results from the assembly and characterization of prototype modules as well as the latest evaluation and results of thermo-mechanical prototypes and fully electrical prototypes.

        Speaker: Dr Tobias Flick (Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (DE))
    • 10:40 AM
      Coffee Break
    • Plenary 3 EI7


      Convener: Markus Friedl (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 19
        Strategies for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from particle detectors operation at the CERN LHC experiments

        A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the CERN LHC experiments. Some gases, as C2H2F4, CF4, C4F10 and SF6, are greenhouse gases (GHG) with high global warming potential and therefore subject to a phase down policy affecting the market with price increase and reduced availability.
        The reduction of GHG emissions is an objective of paramount importance for CERN: four different strategies have been identified to achieve it.
        The first strategy is based on the use of gas mixture recirculation plants. This solution is used in all plants suppling gaseous mixture to the CERN LHC detector systems. The approach and the development of such technology made at CERN will be presented. Furthermore, to protect detectors against their intrinsic fragility, the development of additional modules is ongoing to achieve a pressure and flow stability which goes beyond original design.
        The second approach is based on recuperation of used gas mixtures followed by separation of the most critical GHG for its re-use. As state-of-the-art example, the CF4 recuperation plant and the prototype for C2H2F4 recuperation will be reviewed.
        A third approach is making use of industrially available solutions for disposal of GHG.
        Finally, the use of new eco-friendly gases is object of many R&D programs by the particle research community.
        The four strategies will be compared by considering investment required, potential return benefit and technological readiness.

        Speaker: Roberto Guida (CERN)
      • 20
        Upgrade of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber

        The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment is being upgraded with new readout chambers based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The upgraded detector will operate continuously and trigger-less without the use of a gating grid. It will thus be able to read out all minimum bias Pb-Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high-luminosity heavy-ion era. After several years of R&D, the last two years were devoted to the production of 80 quadruple-GEM chambers in several institutes and countries utilizing 640 GEM foils. The chambers underwent a detailed quality control procedure in order to ensure the highest standard as required for the installation in the ALICE TPC.To guarantee optimal operational safety, a careful design of the HV configuration, employing so-called cascaded power supplies, was developed. Continuous readout of the TPC data with rates up to 3 TByte/s into the online data farm will be accomplished by a new front-end scheme, utilizing the newly developed SAMPA readout ASIC, and the GBT readout system developed at CERN. The presentation will give an overview on the overall production process, with special focus on the results of the completed assembly of the new GEM-based read-out chambers and the production of the new readout electronics. Furthermore, an outlook on the forthcoming installation activities will be presented.

        Speaker: Robert Helmut Munzer (Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Univ. (DE))
      • 21
        High space resolution μ-RWELL for high rate applications

        The micro-Resistive-WELL (μ-RWELL) is a compact, simple and robust Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) developed for large area HEP applications requiring the operation in harsh environment.
        The detector amplification stage, similar to a GEM foil, is realized with a polyimide structure micro-patterned with a blind-hole matrix, embedded through a thin Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) resistive layer with the readout PCB. The introduction of a resistive layer (ρ~50÷200 MΩ/square) mitigating the transition from streamer to spark gives the possibility to achieve large gains (>10^4), while affecting the detector performance in terms of rate capability. Different detector layouts have been studied: the most simple one based on a single-resistive layer with edge grounding has been designed for low-rate applications (few tens of kHz/cm2); more sophisticated schemes are under study for high-rate purposes (O( MHz/cm2)).
        The single-resistive layer scheme, extensively tested and validated, it is mature for the technology transfer towards the industry working into the rigid and flexible PCB photolithography.
        The high-rate version of the detector has been developed in the framework of the phase-2 upgrade of the LHCB muon system, where strong requirements on the robustness and rate capability are required.
        An overview of the different architectures studied for the high-rate version of the detector, together with their performance measured at the high intensity PiM1 beam of the PSI will be presented.
        The presence of the resistive layer also affects the charge spread on the strips and consequently the spatial resolution of the detector: the results of a systematic study of the spatial resolution obtained with the charge centroid (CC) method for orthogonal tracks as a function of the DLC resistivity will be discussed.
        For non-orthogonal tracks the spatial resolution with CC method is compared with the performance obtained with the micro-TPC mode: a readout approach that exploiting the combined measurement of the time of arrival and the amplitude of the signals on the strips allows a fine estimation of the position of the track for a wide incident angular range.
        The excellent performance together with the high flexibility of the technology suggests the use of such a detector as a high space resolution inner tracker in HEP. The possibility to exploit the μ-RWELL technology to build a full Cylindrical detector will be eventually discussed.

        Speaker: Giovanni Bencivenni (Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare Frascati (IT))
    • 12:35 PM
      Lunch Break
    • Calorimeter EI9


      Convener: Thomas Bergauer (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 22
        The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

        The CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements during the so-called Phase-II Upgrade to cope with a 10-fold increase in luminosity of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will then suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pile-ups in the detectors. Thus, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCal) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL, and a large fraction of HCAL, will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors produced from 8-inch wafers, each with several hundreds of individual cells of 0.5 - 1 cm$^{2}$ cell size. The remainder of the HCAL will be based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. An overview of the HGCAL project is presented in this talk with a focus on the silicon sensors; covering motivation, engineering design, expected performance and the current status of prototypes: from lab measurements to beam tests.

        Speaker: Rachel Yohay (Florida State University (US))
      • 23
        FoCal: a highly granular digital calorimeter

        In light of the upgrade program of the ALICE detector a calorimeter at forward rapidities (FoCal) is being considered. This detector would measure photons, electrons, positrons and jets for rapidities eta > 3 offering a wealth of physics possibilities.
        Its main focus is on measurements related to the structure of nucleons and nuclei at very low Bjorken-x and possible effects of gluon saturation.
        The FoCal electromagnetic calorimeter must be able to discriminate decay photons from direct photons at very high energy, which requires extremely high granularity.
        A dedicated R&D program is ongoing to develop the technology needed for such a high-granularity device. Within this program we have constructed a unique prototype of a digital electromagnetic calorimeter based on CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS).
        This prototype has has demonstrated the unique capabilities of such a highly granular digital calorimeter, providing unique shower profile measurements and good linearity and energy resolution. The prototype calorimeter was based on the MIMOSA chip, which is however not fast enough for application in a full detector at LHC. As a next step, the ALPIDE chip developed for the ALICE Inner Tracker Upgrade is being investigated for performance with high occupancy. We will present results from the current prototype, the performance of the ALPIDE and plans for the next prototype.

        Speaker: Naomi Van Der Kolk (Nikhef National institute for subatomic physics (NL))
      • 24
        A SiPM-based dual-readout calorimeter for future leptonic colliders

        Calorimeters for future leptonic collider experiments have to provide extreme precision in reconstructing energies of both isolated particles and jets springing off the colliding beams. Thanks to the expected energy resolution and the excellent particle ID capability, the dual-readout fibre calorimeter could be a possible solution. This calorimetric technique reconstructs the electromagnetic fraction (fem) by simultaneously measuring the scintillation and the Cherenkov light produced by the showers in the fibres of the calorimeter. In 2017, a first module readout with Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM) was designed, constructed and tested on beam at CERN. The results of this first test completed the proof-of-concept but also pointed out some crucial points to be addressed to make SiPM a reliable solution for dual-readout. Among these it is worth mentioning: the sensor non-linearity response, the optical crosstalk between fibres and the very large number of readout channels required for a full scale module. In 2018, an upgrade of the SiPM-based calorimeter was tested in another beam test. This talk reports the test beam results on the module performance, highlighting as well the key and potentially critical parameters and the adopted solutions. This is including electrical grouping of signals by single sensors, aimed at reducing the number of channels. Finally, the R&D program targeted to the design and construction of the building block of a full scale detector will be presented

        Speaker: Massimiliano Antonello (Università degli Studi e INFN Milano (IT))
      • 25
        Design and status of the Mu2e CsI + SiPMs calorimeter

        The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will search for the charged-lepton flavour violating neutrino-less conversion of a negative muon into an electron in the field of an aluminum nucleus.
        The Mu2e detector is composed of a tracker and an electromagnetic
        calorimeter and an external veto for cosmic rays.
        The calorimeter plays an important role in providing excellent particle identification capabilities, a fast online trigger filter while aiding the track reconstruction capabilities.
        The calorimeter requirements are to provide a large acceptance for ~100 MeV electrons and reach:
        1) a time resolution better than 0.5 ns @ 100 MeV;
        2) an energy resolution O(10%) @ 100 MeV;
        3) a position resolution of 1 cm.
        The calorimeter consists of two disks, each one made of 674 pure CsI
        crystals readout by two large area 2x3 array of UV-extended
        Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) of 6x6 mm^2 dimensions.
        A large scale prototype has also been constructed and tested at the beam test facility in Frascati. It consists of 51 pre-production crystals readout by a Mu2e SiPM.
        We will present all the test and progresses done on crystals and SiPMs to define the calorimeter design as well as the satisfying results obtained with the test beam of the prototype.

        Speaker: Mrs Raffaella Donghia (LNF - INFN and Roma Tre University)
    • Dark matter and other low-background experiments EI8


      Convener: Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 26
        CUPID-0: a double-readout cryogenic detector for Double Beta Decay search

        CUPID-0 is the first large mass neutrinoless double beta decay (0νDBD) experiment based on cryogenic calorimeters with dual read-out of light and heat for background rejection. The detector, consisting of 26 ZnSe crystals, 2 natural and 24 enriched at 95% in Se82, coupled with bolometric light detectors, has been constructed respecting very strict protocols and procedures, from the material selection during crystal growth to the new and innovative detector structure for the assembly in a bid to achieve the best performance of the array. The successful construction of the detector lead to promising preliminary detector results, that will be presented. The array is in fact taking data underground at LNGS (Italy) since March 2017 and the particle identification, enabled by the heat and light simultaneous read-out, provides an unprecedented background level, for cryogenic calorimeters, of only 3.2×10-3 counts/keV/kg/y in the region of interest (ROI) of the 0νDBD search for Se82, namely around 3 MeV.

        Speaker: Prof. Chiara Brofferio (University of Milano - Bicocca and INFN)
      • 27
        PandaX-III high pressure xenon TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay search

        The PandaX-III experiment uses high pressure Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of Xe-136 with high energy resolution and sensitivity at the China Jin-Ping underground Laboratory II (CJPL-II). Fine-pitch Microbulk Micromegas will be used for charge amplification and readout in order to reconstruct both the energy and track of the neutrinoless double-beta decay event. In the first phase of the experiment, the detector, which contains 200 kg of 90% Xe-136 enriched gas operated at 10 bar, will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure 5 m of water shielding. For the second phase, a ton-scale experiment with multiple TPCs will be constructed to improve the detection probability and sensitivity. A 20-kg scale prototype TPC with 7 Micromegas modules has been built to optimize the design of Micromegas readout module, study the energy calibration of TPC and develop algorithm of 3D track reconstruction. The preliminary results of the PandaX-III prototype TPC will be also presented in this talk.

        Speaker: Dr SHAOBO WANG (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
      • 28
        DANAE – A new effort to directly search for Dark Matter with DEPFET-RNDR detectors

        The direct search for dark matter (DM) at the sub-GeV/c² mass scale gained special interest during the last years, mainly motivated by various theoretical models. To search for individual DM-electron interactions in Si-semiconductor devices a readout noise level of less than 1e- RMS is required.

        One possible technique which promise a sub-electron noise level is the Depleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) with Repetitive Non Destructive Readout (RNDR). Such a low noise level was successfully demonstrated with a single pixel DEPFET-RNDR prototype [1]. The follow-up project DANAE aims to apply the DEPFET-RNDR technique to the direct search for DM-electron interactions. The assembly of a setup with a detector matrix of 64x64 pixels is envisaged. Currently, a dedicated test stand for the optimization of the dark current and the detector characterization is under construction.

        In this contribution we will introduce the DEPFET-RNDR technique and the DANAE project. Afterwards, the status of the ongoing R&D work will be reported which is currently focused on the setup construction and the investigation of the temperature dependence of the dark current. Finally we will discuss future prospects of DANAE.

        [1] A. Bähr, H. Kluck, J. Ninkovic, J. Schieck and J. Treis, Eur. Phys. J. C77 (2017) 905, arXiv:1706.08666

        Speaker: Dr Holger Kluck (HEPHY)
      • 29
        Quantum Dots for Rare Decays: the ESQUIRE Project

        The future Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD) experiments will require a particle detector easily scalable in mass and able to reach good energy resolution (around 2% or better) in the region of interest for the study of these rare decays, at about 3 MeV.
        The ESQUIRE (Experiment with Scintillating QUantum dots for Ionizing Radiation Events) project aims at the development of a new category of scintillating materials, based on nano-crystals (Quantum Dots) containing a 0νDBD candidate isotope. These scintillators would be coupled to high quantum efficiency optical photon sensors (SDDs) with high quantum efficiency (up to 80% in the 450-1000 nm λ region) and low electronic noise, thus solving in one fell swoop the scalability and the good energy resolution requests.
        We will report on the first results of the optical characterization measurements of the samples containing the nano-crystals and on the first scintillation measurements collected so far.

        Speaker: Dr Luca Gironi (Universita` e INFN di Milano Bicocca)
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Christoph Schwanda (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 30
        EDET DH80k - Characterization of a DePFET based sensors for TEM Direct Electron Imaging

        The EDET DH80k is a 1 MPixel camera system, optimized for the direct detection of 300 keV electrons from a TEM equipped with a pulsed, high intensity electron source. It was designed to record stroboscopic movies of dynamic processes with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. The camera consists of four identical modules with the complete set of frontend and peripheral electronics required for standalone operation. The sensitive part of each module is a sensor array with 512 x 512 pixels of 60 µm x 60 µm each, which yields an overall sensitive area of 3 cm x 3 cm. The same area is back thinned to either 50 μm or 30 μm to minimize the multiple scattering of electrons. In combination with a beam-stop optimized for low backscattering of electrons, this results in an optimized line spread function. The sensor array is based on the DePFET pixel design, which is a highly modifiable combined sensor-amplifier structure, with an inherently high peak to background ratio and high speed readout capability. For the EDET DH80k camera a DePFET design with

        • a nonlinear in-pixel signal compression,
        • large (~$10^6$ electrons) dynamic range,
        • and a specialized readout scheme that allows for an 80 kHz frame rate

        was developed.
        Detailed results from the first measurements on pixel level with low noise measurement setup (SPIX) will be presented.

        Speaker: Mitja Predikaka (Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society)
      • 31
        Deep Diffused Avalanche Photodiodes for Charged Particle Timing

        The upgrades ATLAS and CMS for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) highlighted physics objects timing as a tool to resolve primary interactions within a bunch crossing. Since the expected pile-up is around 200, with an rms time spread of 170ps, a time resolution of about 30ps is needed. The timing detectors will experience a 1-MeV neutron equivalent fluence of $\Phi_{eq}=10^{14}$ and $10^{15}$cm$^{-2}$ for the barrel and end-cap regions, respectively.
        In this contribution, deep diffused Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) produced by Radiation Monitoring Devices are examined as candidate timing detectors for HL-LHC applications. To improve the detector's timing performance, the APDs are used to directly detect the traversing particles, without a radiator medium where light is produced.
        Devices with an active area of $8\times8$mm$^2$ were characterized in beam tests. Two readout schemes were investigated: 1) a direct coupling to the APD with off-sensor capacitive coupling and 2) a capacitive coupling on the sensor realized by means of a metallic mesh isolated from the detector by a kapton layer. The timing performance and signal properties were measured as a function of position on the detector using a beam telescope and an MCP.
        Devices with an active area of $2\times2$mm$^2$ were used to determine the effects of radiation damage on current, signal amplitude, noise, and timing using a ps pulsed laser. These detectors were irradiated with neutrons up to $\Phi_{eq}=10^{15}$cm$^{-2}$.

        Speaker: Matteo Centis Vignali (CERN)
      • 32
        New test beam results of 3D detectors constructed with poly-crystalline CVD diamond

        The latest test beam results of 3D detectors fabricated with poly-crystalline
        chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds will be shown. The devices have
        50$\mu$m $\times$ 50$\mu$m cells with columns 2.6$\mu$m in diameter. In
        one of the devices the cells were ganged in a 3$\times$2 cell pattern and
        in the other the cells were ganged in a 5$\times$1 cell pattern to match
        the layouts of the pixel read-out chips currently used in the CMS and
        ATLAS experiments at the LHC, respectively. In beam tests, using tracks
        reconstructed with a high precision tracking telescope, both devices
        achieved tracking efficiencies greater than 97\%. In the same beam tests,
        the first pulse height distributions from poly-crystalline CVD
        diamond 3D pixel devices were measured and will be presented. Finally,
        the latest test beam results of irradiated poly-crystalline CVD
        diamond pad and pixel detectors will be presented.

        Speaker: Michael Philipp Reichmann (ETH Zurich (CH))
      • 33
        In-depth study of Inverse-Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (ILGAD) for 4-dimensional tracking and radiation tolerance assessment of thin LGAD

        For the high-luminosity LHC upgrade, the ATLAS and CMS experiments are planning to include dedicated detector systems to measure the arrival time of Minimum Ionising Particles (MIPs). Such systems should provide a timing resolution of 30 ps per MIP. State-of-the-art timing technologies integrating Silicon photo-multipliers and plastic scintillators do not tolerate the hadron fluences expected at the end-cap detector regions (up to 3×10^15 neq/cm2). To cope with these requirements, a Silicon sensor with integrated signal amplification, the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) is the baseline sensing technology of the end-cap timing detector systems at HL-LHC. A comprehensive radiation tolerance study of LGAD pad-like sensors manufactured at IMB-CNM and irradiated at CERN’s PS-IRRAD proton facility up to a fluence of 3×10^15 neq/cm2 is presented here. Two different active thicknesses were studied: 35-microns and 50-microns; the effect of carbon co-implantation on the radiation tolerance was also investigated. The building block LGAD sensor of the above mentioned timing detector systems is designed as a pad diode matrix. The timing resolution of this LGAD sensor is severely degraded when the MIP particle hits the inter-pad region since there is no amplification in this region. This limitation is named as the LGAD fill-factor problem. To overcome the fill factor problem, a p-in-p LGAD (Inverse LGAD) was introduced. Contrary to the conventional LGAD, the ILGAD has a non-segmented deep p-well (the multiplication layer). Timing and tracking performance of the first ILGAD prototype is presented. ILGADs should ideally present a constant timing performance over all the sensitive region of the device without timing degradation between the signal collecting electrodes.These studies were performed within the context of the RD50 collaboration and partially funded by the H2020 EU project AIDA-2020.

        Speaker: Esteban Curras Rivera (Universidad de Cantabria (ES))
    • Poster Session A

      Posters displayed on a board with an even number

    • Calorimeter EI9


      Convener: Iouri Tikhonov (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (RU))
      • 34
        Belle II electromagnetic calorimeter.

        The electromagnetic calorimeter of the Belle II detector and its
        performance in the first KEKB run during 2018 are described. It is a
        high-granularity homogeneous calorimeter based on 8736 CsI(Tl)
        scintillating crystals. The scintillation light is detected by two PIN
        photodiodes. Electronics of the calorimeter provides signal readout with
        2 MHz digitization followed by wave form analysis (WFA) in FPGA resulting in
        both amplitude and time reconstruction. Usage of the WFA reduces
        a contribution of the pile-up noise, the time information allows to
        suppress the beam background. The information from the calorimeter is used
        for particle energy measurement, particle idetification as well as for the
        collider luminosity measurement. The figure shows the reconstructed energy for
        photons from $e^+e^-\to\gamma\gamma$. Red and blue points correspond
        to data and MC, respectively.

        Speaker: Alexander Kuzmin (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics/Novosibirsk State University)
      • 35
        Development of new large calorimeter prototypes based on Lanthanum Bromide and LYSO crystals coupled to silicon photomultipliers: A direct comparison

        The challenges for new calorimetry for incoming experiments at intensity frontiers is to provide detectors with ultra-precise time resolution and supreme energy resolution.

        Two very promising materials on the market are BrilLanCe (Cerium doped Lanthanum Bromide,
        LaBr3 (Ce)) and LYSO (Lutetium Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate, Lu2(1-x) Y2x SiO5 (Ce)), supported by recent developments aiming at providing new relative large crystals.

        The response of both LaBr3 (Ce) and LYSO prototypes fired with gammas at an energy of 55 MeV have been studied. Very promising results have been obtained.
        For the (R = 4.45 cm, L = 20.3 cm) LaBr3 (Ce) crystal an energy resolution of σE /E ∼ 2.3(1)% and a timing resolution of σt ∼ 35(1) ps have been predicted. The energy resolution can be further improved by using larger crystals (either R = 6.35 cm or R = 7.6 cm, L = 20.3 cm) approaching respectively a σE/E ∼ 1.20(3)% and a σE /E ∼ 0.91(1)%.
        Competitive results can be obtained with (R = 3.5 cm, L = 16 cm) LYSO crystal with an energy resolution of σE /E ∼ 1.48(4)%, that can be further improved ( R = 6.5 cm, L = 25 cm, σE /E ∼ 7.37(1)% ). A timing resolution less performing than the LaBr3 (Ce) one but better than any available nowadays calorimeter working at this energy can be obtaiend, σt ∼ 49(1) ps, ultimately improved to σt ∼ 40(1) ps with optimal photosensors.
        Such results put these future high energy calorimeters at the detector forefront at intensity frontiers.

        Speaker: Dr Angela Papa (UniPi&INFN, PSI)
      • 36
        The PreProcessor modules for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

        The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter made of steel plates and plastic scintillators, read out by approximately 10,000 photomultipliers. In 2024, the LHC will be upgraded to the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) allowing it to deliver up to 7 times the nominal instantaneous design luminosity. The Phase-II TileCal Upgrade will accommodate the detector and data acquisition system to the HL-LHC requirements. The on- and off-detector electronics will be completely redesigned, using a new readout architecture with a full-digital trigger system.
        The upgraded on-detector electronics will transfer digitized data for every bunch crossing (~25 ns) to the Tile PreProcessor system (TilePPr) in the counting rooms, with a total data bandwidth of 40 Tbps. The TilePPr will store the detector data in pipeline memories to accommodate the new ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition architecture requirements, and will interface with the FELIX system and the first trigger level. A total of 32 TilePPr modules will be needed to read out the entire detector. The TilePPr module is composed of a full-size ATCA carrier blade equipped with four FPGA- based Compact Processing Modules with single-width AMC form factor.
        This contribution presents the hardware and firmware developments, results and experiences for the final design of the Tile PreProcessor for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

        Speaker: Fernando Carrio Argos (Univ. of Valencia and CSIC (ES))
      • 37
        The CMS ECAL Phase-2 Upgrade for High Precision Timing and Energy Measurements

        The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is a homogeneous calorimeter made of about 75000 lead tungstate scintillating crystals. In view of the high-luminosity phase of the LHC, the ECAL electronics must be upgraded to cope with the more stringent requirements in terms of trigger latency and rate. The new electronics will transmit the data in streaming mode from the front-end electronics to the off-detector electronics, where the trigger primitives will be formed in powerful FPGAs. The front-end electronics will feature two new radiation-hard chips: a dual gain trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) and a sampling ADC with loss-less data compression. The TIA choice allows preserving the fast pulse shape of the lead tungstate coupled to Avalanche Photodiodes (APD), and it is more resilient to the noise increase due to the radiation-induced APD leakage current. An important characteristic of the new design will be the capability to provide precision timing measurements, of the order of 30 ps, for photons and electrons above 50 GeV. The excellent time resolution will improve the overall CMS physics performance by mitigating the high pile-up effects. First characterization results of the TIA chip will be shown, and studies of energy and timing resolution performed in beam tests with the electronic prototypes will be presented.

        Speaker: Federico Ferri (Université Paris-Saclay (FR))
    • Dark matter and other low-background experiments EI8


      Convener: Jochen Schieck (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 38
        Status of the NEXT project

        Status of the NEXT project
        The NEXT program is developing the technology of high-pressure Xe gas TPCs with electroluminescent amplification (HPXe-EL) for neutrinoless double beta decay searches. The first phase of the program included the operation of two small prototypes, NEXT-DEMO and NEXT-DBDM, which demonstrated the robustness of the technology, its excellent energy resolution and its unique topological signature. The NEXT-White radiopure demonstrator (50 cm diameter and length) is the second phase of the program and has been operating in Canfranc underground laboratory since October 2016 with 5 kg of depleted Xe (to be replaced by Xe enriched to 90% 136Xe). NEXT-100 constitutes the third phase of the program. It will deploy 100 kg of enriched Xe at 15 bar and is a scale-up of NEXT-White by ~2:1 in linear dimensions. In addition to a physics potential which is competitive with the best current experiments in the field, NEXT-100 can be considered as a large scale demonstrator of the suitability of the HPXe-EL technology for detector masses in the ton-scale. In this talk we will describe the NEXT-White detector and its latest results on energy resolution, topology and background rate, discuss the expected physics reach of NEXT-100 and outline ongoing R&D activities towards a ton-scale HPXe-EL detector. These include, in particular, the use of low-diffusion Xe gas mixtures for better imaging, cryogenic operation of the TPC and the development of barium tagging techniques.

        Speaker: Dr Lior Arazi (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (IL))
      • 39
        The Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless $\beta\beta$ Decay (LEGEND)

        The use of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors enriched in the isotope $^{76}$Ge is one of the most promising techniques to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, a process forbidden in the Standard Model of particle physics. A discovery of this lepton number violating process might answer the question of why the universe consists of matter (but not antimatter) and consequently, why matter exists at all.

        The Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (LEGEND) Collaboration has been formed to pursue a tonne-scale $^{76}$Ge experiment with the discovery potential at a half-life beyond $10^{28}$ years. To achieve this, increased detector mass, improved background rejection, as well as a further reduction in intrinsic radioactive backgrounds with respect to current-generation experiments, are required. The LEGEND Collaboration develops a phased neutrinoless double-beta decay experimental program based on the approaches pursued by Majorana Demonstrator and GERDA - the two $^{76}$Ge experiments that lead the field in both the background level in the signal region of interest as well as energy resolution and spectroscopic performance achieved. A first phase - expected to start by 2020 - with ~ 200 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory.

        In this talk, I will discuss the plans and physics reach of LEGEND as well as the combination of R&D efforts and existing resources employed to expedite physics results.

        Speaker: Dr Michael Willers (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 40
        Searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay with GERDA

        The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge operating bare, enriched Ge diodes in liquid argon. The BEGe detectors feature an excellent background discrimination from the analysis of the time profile of the detector signals, while the instrumentation of the cryogenic liquid volume surrounding the germanium detectors acts as an active veto to further suppress the external background. With a total exposure of 82.4 kg ‧ yr we remain in the background free regime and have achieved a median sensitivity on the half-life of T1/2>1.1 x 10^26 yr (90% C.L.). We observed no signal and derive a lower limit of T1/2>0.9 x 10^26 yr (90% C.L.). In this talk we will summarize the basic concept of the GERDA design, the data taking and the physics results obtained in Phase II. We will then present the last upgrade performed and the expected performances for the full 100 kg ‧ yr exposure.

        Speaker: Natalia Di Marco (LNGS - INFN)
      • 41
        NU-CLEUS: Exploring coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering with cryogenic detectors

        The detection of coherent-neutrino nucleus scattering (CEνNS) opens the door for new physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. NU-CLEUS is a novel neutrino experiment at a nuclear power reactor which allows for precision measurements with a novel cryogenic gram-scale detector design based on CRESST technology. A recent prototype detector has achieved an ultra-low energy threshold of 20eV for nuclear recoils, one order of magnitude lower than previous devices. The NU-CLEUS experimental concept contains a fiducial-volume cryogenic detector concept, which is expected to significantly reduce backgrounds. The NU-CLEUS experiment aims to operate at close distance to a power reactor; a promising site at the CHOOZ power plant in France is currently being investigated. In this talk we present in detail the cryogenic detector technology of NU-CLEUS and report about the strategy of the new experiment which has recently been fully funded.

        Speaker: Mr Alexander Langenkämper (Physikdepartement E15, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany)
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Marko Dragicevic (HEPHY Vienna)
      • 42
        Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the Large Hadron Collider

        The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer
        Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and readout upgrades to
        meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and
        luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with
        record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 2 x 1034 cm-2 s-1 recently
        The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are
        summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure
        optimum data quality and data taking efficiency will be described, with special
        emphasis to radiation damage experience.

        Speaker: Kerstin Lantzsch (University of Bonn (DE))
      • 43
        Operational Experience of the Phase-1 CMS Pixel Detector

        In 2017, CMS has installed a new pixel detector with 124M channels that features full 4-hit coverage in the tracking volume and is capable to withstand instantaneous luminosities of $2 \times 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and beyond. Many of the key technologies of modern particle detectors are applied in this detector, like efficient DCDC low-voltage powering, high-bandwidth $\mu$TCA backend electronics, and light-weight CO2 cooling. By now the detector has been successfully operated for two years in p-p and heavy ion collisions and very valuable experience has been collected with the afore mentioned components. During the long shutdown of LHC from 2019 to 2021 the CMS pixel detector will be extracted and the modules of the inner most layer that suffered the most from radiation damage will be replaced. For that reason, a better readout chip as well as a new token bit manager chip will be used for these modules that fixes problems observed during operation.
        This talk gives an overview of the detector performance in 2018 and describes the improvements made and challenges faced in the last two years of the detector operation.

        Speaker: Benedikt Vormwald (Hamburg University (DE))
      • 44
        The CMS Pixel Detector for the High Luminosity LHC

        The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at CERN is expected to collide protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV and to reach the unprecedented peak instantaneous luminosity of $5-7.5x10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average number of pileup events of 140-200. This will allow the ATLAS and CMS experiments to collect integrated luminosities up to 3000-4500 fb$^{-1}$ during the project lifetime. To cope with this extreme scenario the CMS detector will be substantially upgraded before starting the HL-LHC, a plan known as CMS Phase-2 upgrade. The entire CMS silicon pixel detector will be replaced and the new detector will feature increased radiation hardness, higher granularity and capability to handle higher data rate and longer trigger latency. In this talk the Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS silicon pixel detector will be reviewed, focusing on the features of the detector layout and on developments of new pixel devices.

        Speaker: Giacomo Sguazzoni (INFN (IT))
      • 45
        Belle II Pixel Detector – Performance of final DEPFET Modules

        In spring 2018 the SuperKEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan, provided first e+e- -collisions to the upgraded Belle II experiment. During this commissioning phase the volume of the innermost vertex detector was equipped with dedicated detectors for measuring the radiation environment as well as downsized versions of the final Belle II silicon strip (SVD) and pixel (PXD) detectors.
        The PXD is the sub-detector closest to the interaction point. It is made from all-silicon modules integrating support structure and sensor. The sensors are pixel matrices of DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistors (DEPFET) which are steered and read out by 14 ASICs bump-bonded to each module.
        Four of the first available PXD modules of the final iteration were set up in the commissioning PXD detector. They were operated with close-to-final services and their data used to help evaluate accelerator operation.
        Final PXD modules were also characterized in the laboratory and at beam tests at DESY. This talk will highlight the results of these performance measurements and the long term tests during accelerator commissioning.
        Furthermore a short status and outlook of the final Belle II PXD that will be included in the first physics run is given.

        Speaker: Mr Botho Paschen (University of Bonn)
    • Dark matter and other low-background experiments EI8


      Convener: Prof. Jochen Schieck (Institut für Hochenergiephysik der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1050 Wien, Austria)
      • 46
        Upgrade of the KamLAND-Zen Mini-balloon and Future Prospects

        The observation of a neutrino-less double-beta (0$\nu\beta\beta$) decay
        would be evidence of neutrino's Majorana nature, and it might be a clue
        to explain the baryon asymmetry and the extremely light neutrino masses.
        The half-life of 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay is more than 10$^{26}$ year in
        case of $^{136}$Xe, thus it is important to make radiopure detector to
        find the very rare decay.
        KamLAND-Zen is a 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay search experiment with Xe loaded
        liquid scintillator (XeLS) containing 90.77\% enriched $^{136}$Xe.
        The mini-balloon is a container for holding XeLS at the center of the
        KamLAND detector without impairing the extremely low radiation
        We have installed a new mini-balloon with a thickness of 25 $\mu$m and a
        radius of 1.92 m, which was made in a class 1 clean room and is almost
        twice as large as the last one. The mini-balloon is going to hold about
        750 kg of Xe gas in the XeLS and 0$\nu\beta\beta$ decay search will
        start soon.

        After the KamLAND-Zen experiment, it is planned to do a 0$\nu\beta\beta$
        decay search experiment with a remodeled KamLAND detector to improve the
        energy resolution (KamLAND2-Zen).
        I will also talk about novel hardware improvements to collect data
        without loss just after a large light yield event such as a cosmic ray
        muon spallation at KamLAND2-Zen.

        Speaker: Mr Hideyoshi Ozaki (Tohoku University)
      • 47
        Neutral bremsstrahlung in two-phase argon electroluminescence: first results and possible applications

        A new mechanism of proportional electroluminescence (EL) in two-phase Ar has been revealed, namely that of neutral bremsstrahlung (NBrS), that quantitatively describes the photon emission below the Ar excitation threshold and non-VUV component above the threshold. This paves the way for direct readout of electroluminescence (S2) signals in two-phase TPCs, using PMT and SiPM matrices, in particular in dark matter two-phase detectors. In addition, this mechanism predicts the enhanced contribution of the fast component to S2 signal, which can affect the correct determination of diffusion coefficients and z-coordinate fiducialization in liquid Ar detectors. The NBrS effect has a universal character: it should be present in all noble and molecular gases. It may also explain the non-VUV components observed earlier in various light emission processes, in particular the primary and secondary scintillations in noble liquids in the visible and NIR range.

        Speaker: Ekaterina Shemyakina (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS)
      • 48
        Detectors for direct Dark Matter search at KamLAND

        Nature and properties of the Dark Matter (DM) in the Universe are among the most fundamental questions of the modern particle physics and astrophysics. So far, the only experiment that claimed detection of a signal from the DM is the DAMA/LIBRA NaI(Tl) experiment located at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. Until the recent time, the main obstacle in repeating the DAMA/LIBRA experiment was insufficient radio-purity of NaI(Tl) crystals developed by other collaborations. However, we successfully developed an ultra-low background NaI(Tl) crystals of required purity and prepare for independent verification of the DAMA/LIBRA result. In addition, we study sources of alternative explanation for modulation of the background in detectors located at deep underground laboratories.

        Speaker: Dr Alexandre Kozlov (The University of Tokyo)
      • 49
        Development of a 3D highly granular scintillator neutrino detector for the T2K experiment

        The long baseline neutrino experiment T2K has launched the upgrade project of its near detector ND280, crucial to reduce the systematic uncertainty in the prediction of number of events at the far detector to less than 4%. An essential component of this upgrade is a highly segmented scintillator detector, acting as a fully active target for the neutrino interactions.
        The baseline concept for it is a novel device, called SuperFGD (arXiv:1707.01785, 2018_JINST_13_P02006), with dimensions of ~200x180x60 cm3 and a total mass of about 2 tons. It consists of about 2x106 small scintillator cubes each of 1 cm3. The signal readout from each cube is provided by wavelength shifting fibers inserted in these holes and connected to micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes MPPCs. The total number of channels will be ~60,000. We have demonstrated that this detector, providing three 2D projections, has excellent tracking performance, including a $4 \pi$ angular acceptance, especially important for short proton and pion tracks.
        Prototypes of this detector have been tested in a beam of charged particles at CERN in 2017-2018. The detector response of these prototypes, including the light yield, the cross-talk, and the time resolution has been measured.
        In November 2018 we will release the detailed TDR describing all the components of this device (the installation is planned in 2021). The progress in the R&D of this detector, future plans and results of simulations will be also reported.

        Speaker: Saba Parsa (Universite de Geneve (CH))
    • Gas Detectors EI9


      Convener: Ariella Cattai (CERN)
      • 50
        Development of resistive Micromegas TPCs for the T2K experiment

        The long baseline neutrino experiment T2K has launched the upgrade project of its near detector ND280, crucial to reduce the systematic uncertainty to less than 4%. An essential component of this upgrade consists of the resistive Micromegas TPCs, for 3D track reconstruction, momentum measurement and particle identification. These TPC, with overall dimensions of 2x2x0.8 m3, will be equipped with 32 resistive bulk Micromegas.
        The thin field cage (3cm thickness, 4% rad. length) will be realized with laminated panels of Aramid and honeycomb covered with a kapton foil with copper strips. The 34x42 cm2 Micromegas will use a 500 kOhm/square DLC foil to spread the charge over the pad plane, each pad being appr. 1 cm2 . The front-end cards, based on the AFTER chip, will be mounted on the back of the Micromegas and parallel to its plane.
        In Summer 2018 we have tested one resistive Micromegas detector on the ex-Harp TPC field cage in the CERN PS test beam (electrons, pions and protons with momenta between 0.5 and 2 GeV/c) with excellent results both for the space point resolution and for dE/dx. In particular we have tuned the charge spreading by varying the electronics shaping time from 100 to 600 ns.
        In November 2018 we will release the detailed TDR describing all the components of this device (the installation is planned in 2021). In this talk we will report on the design of this detector, its performance, the results of the test beam and the plan for its construction.

        Speaker: Alain Delbart (CEA/IRFU,Centre d'etude de Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette (FR))
      • 51
        First Production Modules of the ATLAS Micromegas and Performance Studies

        The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has endorsed the resistive Micromegas technology, along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC), for the high luminosity upgrade of the first muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) project. After the R&D, design and prototyping phase, the first series production Micromegas quadruplets have been constructed at all involved construction sites: in France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Greece. The achievement of the requirements for these detectors revealed to be even more challenging than expected, when scaling from the small prototypes to the large dimensions. We will describe the construction and relevant problems, to a large extent common to other micro-pattern gaseous detectors, and the adopted solutions. Final validation results on the achieved mechanical precision and on the stability during operation will be presented, along with the main results of the modules certification with cosmic rays. Additionally, one of the first series modules, equipped with a prototype of the final front-end electronics based on VMM chip, was tested in muon/pion beam at the H8 line of SPS at CERN during the summer of 2018. We present the test setup and performance results on efficiency and resolution for perpendicular and inclined tracks. These studies were focused to establish and determine the working point of the ATLAS Micromegas detectors. Comparison to initial requirements for operation in ATLAS is also discussed, namely spatial resolution of 100 μm at high background hit rate of up to 20 kHz/cm2. Studies with several gas mixtures were also carried out and will be presented. In addition, we will report on results from the exposure of the Micromegas detector under X-ray irradiation environment at GIF++ facility of CERN.

        Speaker: Aimilianos Koulouris (National Technical Univ. of Athens (GR))
      • 52
        Progress on the PICOSEC-Micromegas Detector Development: towards a precise timing, radiation hard, large-scale particle detector with segmented readout

        Detectors with a time resolution of a few 10ps and robustness in high particle fluxes are necessary for precise 4D track reconstruction in future, high luminosity HEP experiments. In the context of the RD51 collaboration, the PICOSEC detector concept has been developed, which is a two-stage Micromegas detector with a photocathode coupled to a Cherenkov radiator. Single channel PICOSEC prototypes equipped with a CsI photocathode have demonstrated an excellent resolution, of 24 ps, for timing the arrival of MIPs. The PICOSEC timing characteristics have been extensively studied with laser beams and have been understood in terms of detailed simulations and phenomenological models.
        Due to the fact that ion back-flow in the drift region damages the CsI photocathode, alternative photocathode materials (e.g., pure metallic and Diamond-Like Carbon) have been investigated. Comparison of the charge distribution of the PICOSEC response signal to UV light and muons, allows to consistently estimate the photoelectron yield of the photocathode, a parameter which affects critically the PICOSEC performance. Different resistive anode layers have also been tested for stable operation in a high intensity pion beam.
        Towards developing PICOSEC detectors for practical applications, multi-channel PICOSEC prototypes with CsI photocathodes and anodes segmented in hexagonal pads (5 mm side) have been tested in UV light and muon beams. After correcting for systematic errors due to imperfections on the anode planarity, a uniform timing resolution of 25 ps for each pad is achieved. Furthermore, a similar timing resolution has been measured for signals shared across multiple pads.
        This conference contribution will present the progress and developments towards a well understood, robust, large-area, PICOSEC detector offering precise timing in the HL-LHC era and beyond.

        Speaker: Kostas Kordas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (GR))
      • 53
        Commissioning and beam test a high pressure time projection chamber

        Due to their large active volume and low energy threshold for particle detection Time Projection Chambers (TPCs) are promising candidates to characterise neutrino beams at the next generation long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments such as DUNE and Hyper-K, the successor of the T2K experiment. The higher target density for the incoming neutrino beam of a TPC filled with gas at High Pressure (HPTPC), will potentially allow a better neutrino-nucleus interaction measurements as compared to a TPCs at $1\,$atm.

        Our HPTPC has about $0.5\,\textrm{m}^{3}$ active volume which is embedded into a pressure vessel rated up to $5\,\textrm{barA}$. A cascade of meshes amplifies the primary ionisations. The induced charge on each mesh is read out. In addition the photons emitted during the gas amplification are read out by four CCD cameras focused on the readout plane, which thus image the 2D projection of particle's tracks on the transverse plane. The third coordinate is reconstructed from the charge signal.

        We report on the commissioning of the HPTPC and on its performance during a four week long beam test at the CERN PS, measuring low momentum protons ($\leq0.5\,\textrm{GeV}$) interactions with the counting gas. Several mixtures with Argon predominance have been tested for their light yield and gas gain. Eventually, the proton Ar cross section will be calculated from the data sample, which will enter the calculations of final state interactions in neutrino Ar scattering.

        Speaker: Alexander Deisting (Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (DE))
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Marko Dragicevic (HEPHY Vienna)
      • 54
        The EUSO-SPB2 mission

        EUSO-SPB2 is a second generation Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) on a Super-Pressure Balloon (SPB). The mission broadens the scientific objectives of the EUSO program and constitutes the first step towards the study of neutrino signals from the high atmosphere and space.
        The EUSO-SPB2 science payload will be equipped with three detectors designed for a long duration mission. One is a fluorescence telescope developed to detect Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays via the UV fluorescence emission of the particle showers generated in the atmosphere. The other two telescopes will measure Cherenkov light emission from showers of lower energy cosmic rays to study and measure the background contribution for detecting cosmogenic neutrinos.
        These specific techniques and detection methods are performed in light of the realization of POEMMA (Probe of Extreme Multi Messenger Astronomy), a space mission, currently under NASA funded conceptual design studies. The EUSO-SPB2 mission has been approved by NASA and foreseen to be launched in 2021.
        In this paper we will give a description of the payload, including details on the detection techniques and the telescopes design.

        Speaker: Valentina Scotti
      • 55
        APiX: a two-tier avalanche pixel sensor for charged particle detection and timing.

        A novel pixelated charged particle detector with fast timing capabilities is under development. It addresses two important requirements for the next generation of position sensitive detectors: minimization of material budget and power consumption, while providing high granularity and excellent timing. It is a "thin" (tens of micron), window-less, vertically integrated, CMOS detector. Internal gain and fast timing (tens of ps) are provided by operating the sensor in quenched Geiger mode. Each pixel on the upper tier is vertically integrated with its corresponding partner on the second tier and operated in coincidence. This dramatically reduces the dark count rate and allows digital mode operation. A proof-of-principle prototype was implemented in a 150 nm CMOS process and tested with high energy particle beams at CERN. The device radiation tolerance was investigated, via irradiation, at Legnaro National Laboratory (LNL). A second prototype featuring a larger fill-factor has been manufactured and characterized. Potential applications include high resolution tracking and radiation monitoring in space-borne experiments and radiation imaging in nuclear medicine. A small hand-held demonstrator is under construction for radio-guided surgery.

        Speaker: Dr Paolo Brogi (Univ. of Siena and INFN Pisa, IT)
      • 56
        Microfabricated silicon substrates for pixel detectors assembly and thermal management

        At CERN, the Detector Technologies (DT) group of the Experimental Physics (EP) department is actively investigating a number of innovative solutions for heat management and detector module assembly in HEP experiments. Among these, recent research carried out at EP-DT has focused on the development of microfluidic devices to cool silicon pixel detectors. In this respect, continuous advances in microengineering have opened the door to smaller and more efficient cooling devices capable of handling increasing power densities with a minimum mass penalty.
        In 2014, the NA62 experiment has pioneered the use of a silicon microfluidic system with single-phase liquid $C_{6}F_{14}$ for the thermal management of its GigaTracKer (GTK) pixel detectors. Following the NA62 success, LHCb became the first LHC experiment to adopt a similar solution. The future upgrade of the LHCb’s Vertex Locator (VeLo) will combine multiple silicon plates with embedded microchannels with an evaporative $CO_{2}$ system to cool fifty-two pixel detector modules dissipating a total of about 2 kW.
        This paper will present the implementation of this novel approach for the construction and thermal management of the NA62 GTK and LHCb VeLo pixel detectors. Future developments such as 3D-printed microfluidics and microchannels embedded into monolithic pixel detectors will also be discussed.

        Speaker: Alessandro Mapelli (CERN)
      • 57
        RD53A: a large-scale prototype chip for the phase II upgrade in the serially powered HL-LHC pixel detectors

        The phase II upgrade of the HL-LHC experiments within the LHC intends to deepen the studies of the Higgs boson and to allow the discovery of further particles by adding an integrated luminosity of about $4000 fb^{-1}$ over 10 years of operation. This upgrade would overwhelm the installed pixel detector readout chips with higher hit rates and radiation levels than ever before. To match these extreme requirements the RD53 collaboration, a joint effort between ATLAS and CMS, developed RD53A, a new generation pixel detector readout chip prototype manufactured in a $65 nm$ CMOS technology. It is half the size of the final pixel chips and designed to meet requirements in the face of $3 GHz{/}cm^2$ hit rate after irradiation to $500 Mrad$. The detector is capable to use $50x50 \mu m^2$ or $25x100 \mu m^2$ pixels with high readout speed of up to 4 links per chip with $1.28 Gbit{/}s$ each. Shunt-LDO regulators integrated on the bottom of the chip provide the required voltages to the two power domains, analog and digital. These regulators enable serially powering of the pixel modules, which is the only feasible, radiation hard scheme to ensure acceptable power cable losses and to stay within the material budget for the future pixel detectors. An overview of the status and challenges of serial powering and the shunt-LDO regulator development will be given.

        Speaker: Aleksandra Dimitrievska (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (US))
    • Poster Session B

      Posters displayed on a board with an odd number

    • Cherenkov EI8


      Convener: Giacomo Sguazzoni (INFN (IT))
      • 58
        Belle II aerogel RICH detector

        Aerogel Ring Imaging CHerenkov counter (ARICH) - is the particle identification device installed in the forward region of the Belle II detector at SuperKEKB accelerator facility in Japan. The first electron – positron collisions at SuperKEKB took place 26 of April in 2018 during so called phase 2 run. Measured performance of the ARICH detector based on recorded bhabha events during phase 2 are presented.

        To focus Cherenkov light ARICH use two 20 mm thick layers of silica aerogel radiator with 1.045 and 1.055 refractive index for upstream and downstream layer respectively. The photon detector plane consist of 420 Hybrid Avalanche Photo Detectors (HAPD) which conceived to operate in 1.5 T magnetic field. Each HAPD has 144 channels with size of 4.9 mm x 4.9 mm. ARICH is located two meters far from the iteration point. Its main goal is to separate kaons from pions in 0.5 - 4.0 GeV/c momentum range.

        The particle identification algorithm based on ratios of log likelihood which takes into account Cherenkov angle and number of Cherenkov and background photons for given particle hypothesis. We measure 16 mrad angular resolution per photon and 10 photons per bhabha electron within 6 – 8 GeV/c momentum range which is in agreement with simulation within 10 % while measured number of background photons per track is 1.3 which is 30 % more than seen from simulation.

        Speaker: Leonid Burmistrov (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (FR))
      • 59
        The RICH detector of the NA62 experiment at CERN

        NA62 is the last generation kaon experiment at the CERN SPS aiming to study the ultra-rare $K^+ \rightarrow \pi^+ \nu \overline{\nu}$ decay. The main goal of the NA62 experiment is the measurement of this BR with 10% accuracy. This is achieved by collecting about 100 $K^+ \rightarrow \pi^+ \nu \overline{\nu}$ events.
        The challenging aspect of NA62 is the suppression of background decay channels with BR up to 10 orders of magnitude higher than the signal and with similar experimental signature, such as $K^+ \rightarrow \mu^+ \nu$.
        To this purpose, the NA62 experimental strategy requires, among other conditions, good particle identification (PID) capability and rejection power of the kinematic selection.
        A key element of PID in NA62 is the Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, exploiting neon gas at atmospheric pressure as radiator medium. According to the NA62 requirements, the RICH identifies $\mu^+$ and $\pi^+$ in the momentum range between 15 and 35 GeV/c with a muon rejection factor of $10^{-2}$.
        It also measures the arrival time of charged particles with a precision better than 100 ps and is one of the main components of the NA62 trigger system.
        The RICH detector has been successfully operated during the 2016, 2017 and 2018 data taking periods of NA62. The main design aspects and operational characteristics of the detector will be described in detail and a detailed report of its performance, directly measured with the data collected, will be presented.

        Speaker: Monica Pepe (INFN Perugia (IT))
      • 60
        Beam tests of a large-scale TORCH time-of-flight demonstrator

        The TORCH time-of-flight detector is designed to provide particle identification over the momentum range 2–10 GeV/c over large areas. The detector exploits prompt Cherenkov light produced by charge particles traversing a 10 mm thick quartz plate. The photons propagate via total-internal reflection and are focussed onto a detector plane comprising position-sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors. The goal is to achieve a single-photon timing resolution of around 70 ps, giving a timing precision of 15 ps per charged particle by combining the information from around 30 detected photons. The MCP-PMT detectors have been developed with a commercial partner (Photek), leading to the delivery of a square tube of active area 53 x 53mm^2 with 8 x 128 pixels equivalent. A large-scale demonstrator of TORCH with a quartz plate of dimensions 660 x 1250 mm^2, read out by a pair of MCP-PMTs with custom readout electronics, has been verified in beam tests at the CERN PS. Preliminary results indicate that excellent single-photon timing resolution can be achieved by employing a data-driven calibration. The projected performance of a full-scale TORCH detector at the LHCb experiment will also be presented.

        Speaker: Thomas Henry Hancock (University of Oxford (GB))
    • Gas Detectors EI9


      Convener: Ariella Cattai (CERN)
      • 61
        The ultra light Drift Chamber of the MEGII experiment

        The MEG experiment, at the PSI, aims at searching the charged lepton flavor violating decay $\mu^{+}\rightarrow e^{+}\gamma$. MEG has already determined the world best upper limit on the branching ratio: BR<4.2$\times10^{-13}$@90\%CL.
        The new positron tracker is a high transparency single volume, full stereo cylindrical Drift Chamber (DC), immersed in a non uniform longitudinal B-field, with length of $1.93~m$ , internal radius of $17~cm$ and external radius of $30~cm$. It is composed of 9 concentric layers, divided in 12 identical sector of 16 drift cells. The single drift cell is approximately square, with a $20~\mu$m gold plated W sense wire surrounded by $40~\mu$m silver plated Al field wires in a ratio of 5:1. The total number of wires amounts to 12288 for an equivalent radiation length per track turn of about 1.45x10$^{-3}$ X$_{0}$ when the chamber is filled with a gas mixture of helium and iso-butane. Due to the high wire density ($12 wires/cm^{2}$), the use of the classical feed-through technique as wire anchoring system could hardly be implemented and therefore it was necessary to develop new wiring strategies. The number of wires and the stringent requirements impose the use of an automatic system (wiring robot) to operate the wiring procedures. Several tests have been performed in different prototypes of the drift chamber, exposed to cosmic rays, test beams and radioactive sources, to fulfill the requirement on the spatial resolution to be less than $110~\mu$m.

        Speaker: Dr Malte Hildebrandt (Paul Scherrer Institut)
      • 62
        Upgrade of the CMS Muon System with GEM Detectors: recent progress on construction, certification, Slice Test, and Long-term Operation

        The CMS Muon Spectrometer is being upgraded (the GE1/1 project) during the LS2 shutdown (2019-2020) using large-area, trapezoidal-shaped triple-GEM detectors in the forward region, 1.6 < eta < 2.2. We present the chamber assembly and qualification procedure, as well as an overview of the results obtained during detector qualification. We report preliminary results on system integration and tests of the production version of the chambers with their digital electronics. Results from the pre-production chambers installed during 2017-2018 (Slice Test) are presented together with details of the detector control system. Slice Test results are presented on front-end electronic channel loss and a solution to mitigate the problem. We present an overview and recent results on classical aging studies and longevity tests and their impact for the use of triple-GEM detector systems in CMS.

        Speaker: Francesco Fallavollita (Università e INFN Pavia)
      • 63
        AXEL: High-pressure Xe gas TPC for BG-free 0v2b search

        Observation of the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0v2b) is a key to solve the neutrino absolute mass and the Majorana nature. Recent 0ν2b search experiments will test the neutrino mass region allowed in case of the inverted mass ordering, but oscillation experiments favor the normal ordering. For 0v2b search in the normal ordering region, a background-free search with a 1-ton scale large detector is essential. To realize such search, we are developing a new detector AXEL.
        The AXEL is a high-pressure 136Xe gas TPC with using the electroluminescence (EL) process as a signal readout for good energy-resolution. The event topology is reconstructed by our unique tracking-plane of ELCC. The ELCC consists of four layers: anode Cu plate, rigid PTFE structure, ground mesh electrode, and photosensor array, with a cell structure. Drift electrons produced in the gas region are collected into each cell along the electric field, and they are linearly amplified by EL process. The ELCC promise high energy resolution and the scalability for the large volume.
        With a 10 L size prototype chamber, we evaluated the feasibility study of ELCC; we achieved 0.8 - 1.0% of energy resolution with extrapolation to Q-value. For a precise measurement, we are constructing next prototype with 180 L size.
        In this presentation, we will report the performance obtained with the 10 L prototype chamber, the latest upgrade status of a 180L-size prototype construction, and future prospect including deep learning.

        Speaker: Dr Shuhei Obara (Kyoto University)
    • Miscellaneous EI7


      Convener: Joachim Mnich (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg and Zeuthen (DE))
      • 64
        A multi-PMT photodetector system for the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment

        Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) is the next upgrade of the currently operating Super-Kamiokande experiment. Hyper-K is a large water Cherenkov detector with a fiducial volume which will be approximately 10 times larger than its precursor. Its broad physics program includes neutrinos from astronomical sources, nucleon decay, with the main focus the determination of leptonic CP violation.
        To detect the weak Cherenkov light generated by neutrino interactions or proton decay, the employment of the multi-PMT concept, first introduced in the KM3NeT detector, is considered as a possible solution. A multi-PMT Optical Module - a pressure vessel instrumented with multiple small diameter photosensors, readout electronics and all required power supplies (incl. high voltage) - offers several advantages, such as weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, increased granularity and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the development of a multi-PMT module for Hyper-K is

        Speaker: Gianfranca De Rosa (INFN)
      • 65
        Dual-readout calorimetry, an integrate high-resolution solution for energy measurements at future electron-positron colliders

        Traditional energy measurements in hadron detection have always been spoiled by the non-compensation problem. Hadronic showers develop an electromagnetic component, from neutral mesons’ decays, over-imposed on the non electromagnetic component. As the two are typically sampled with very different responses, fluctuations between them directly spoil the hadronic energy resolution. Dual-readout calorimetry allows to reconstruct the electromagnetic component on an event-by-event basis and correct the energy measurements for its fluctuations, thus providing a significant step towards the ultimate energy resolution in hadron and jet detection. The IDEA detector proposal for the CepC and FCC-ee future collider, devises a single dual-readout calorimeter, for electromagnetic, hadronic and jet energy measurements. In this talk, the main developments required to bring the technique to an effective solution will be presented. Results from full simulations of a standalone calorimeter indicates that an energy resolution in hadron detection of $\frac{\sigma}{E} = \frac{30\%}{\sqrt{E}}$ is reachable. A possible full-coverage $4\pi$ geometry is under development, with full simulations, as well. From the hardware side, results from a new dual-readout prototype optimized for electron/hadron identification in a multi particle environment and tested at the recent IDEA vertical slice test beam will be presented as well.

        Speaker: Lorenzo Pezzotti (Universita and INFN (IT))
    • Viennese Waltz Experience Tanzschule Dorner

      Tanzschule Dorner

      Favoritenstraße 20, 1040 Wien
    • Classical Concert Kuppelsaal


      Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Wien
    • Dark matter and other low-background experiments EI8


      Convener: Gilles Gerbier (Queen's Univesrity)
      • 66
        Micro Pattern Gas Detector Optical Readout for Directional Dark Matter Searches

        The Time Projection method is ideal to track low kinetic energy charged
        particles. Large volumes can be readout with a moderate number of channels
        providing a complete 3D reconstruction of the tracks within the sensitive volume.
        The total released energy and the energy density along the tracks can be both measured allowing for particle identification and to solve the head-tail ambiguity of the track. Moreover, gas represents a very interesting target to study Dark Matter interactions. In gas, nuclear recoils induced by a Dark Matter particle scattering can yield tracks long enough to be detected.
        We describe here a prototype TPC with a GEM amplification stage. The readout is based on the detection of the light produced in the GEM with a high granularity CMOS sensor in conjunction with a photomultiplier. The prototype was exposed to $\gamma$, neutron source and minimum ionizing particles, obtaining very promising results in terms of detection efficiency, energy resolution and particle identification.

        Speaker: Gianluca Cavoto (Sapienza Universita e INFN, Roma I (IT))
      • 67
        Lumped element kinetic inductance detectors on CaF2 for neutrino-less double-beta decay and spin-dependent dark matter search

        Superconducting detectors (SCDs) are widely used in astroparticle physics experiments such as dark matter search and cosmic microwave background experiments. Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) is one of the promising SDCs since KID has several technical advantages: very low fundamental noise, easy fabrication, and high scalability with frequency domain multiplexing. KID consists of microwave resonance circuit with superconducting film on substrate. Any energy deposit will break apart Cooper pairs in the superconducting film, resulting in an excess quasi-particle population. The change in the population increases kinetic inductance in the resonance circuit. The signal is readout from the change of the resonance.
        Generally, silicon is used as substrate. We implement lumped element KIDs (LEKIDs) in CaF2 crystal which is used as substrate. CaF2 is a novel target for neutrino-less double-beta decay and spin-dependent dark matter studies, since 48Ca is one of the double-beta decay nuclei and 19F is sensitive to spin-dependent elastic scattering with dark matter.

        LEKID on CaF2 is cooled to 300mK with 3He sorption cryocooler. The resonance is found in O(1GHz). Thus, we confirmed that LEKID on CaF2 worked well. This result opens a new possibility in the next generation of astroparticle physics experiments

        Speaker: Koji Ishidoshiro (Tohoku University)
      • 68
        Direction-Sensitive Dark Matter Search Using Tungstate Scintillator

        Ones of the candidates for the Dark Matters are weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), and we expect that the Earth should experience a “wind” (named 'WIMP wind') against the direction of the rotation, where is direction to Cygnus.
        In this study, we propose a new type Dark matter detector using single crystals in order to have higher detection efficiency than gaseous ones. Some team reported that ZnWO$_4$ can detect the direction of incident particles due to anisotropic. However, the mechanism has been not revealed. A Mg-admix ZnWO$_4$ crystal is expected to have different lattice constant from normal ZnWO$_4$, and anisotropic properties can be changed. Thus, we compare scintillation and anisotropic properties for ZnWO$_4$ and Mg-admix ZnWO$_4$ in this paper.
        We grew ZnWO$_4$ and (Zn, Mg)WO$_4$ single crystals with diameters of ~0.5 inch grown by the Czochralski process. We checked the crystal phase and structure using the powder X-ray diffraction.
        Light outputs of the crystals irradiated with 5.5 MeV alpha rays and 59.5 keV X-rays were estimated for each surface (orientation) for ZnWO$_4$ and (Zn, Mg)WO$_4$ using a photo multiplier and an $^{241}$Am source, and the light output ratios ($\alpha$ /$\beta$ ratio), defined as peak channel of 5.5-MeV alpha-ray absorption peak over that of 59.5-keV X-ray, were evaluated.The results show we find anisotropic for both samples, while anisotropic effect for Mg-admix made smaller than Mg-free one.

        Speaker: Shunsuke Kurosawa (Tohoku Universtiy)
      • 69
        The SuperNEMO Demonstrator double beta experiment

        The SuperNEMO experiment will study decays of 82Se in order to look for neutrinoless double beta decays (0νββ), interactions that, if observed, would prove the Majorana nature of neutrinos. SuperNEMO inherits the tracking-calorimetry technology of NEMO-3, which allows for a clear determination of event kinematics, while aiming for an improved background suppression and 0νββ sensitivity. A demonstrator module will start operating in 2019. The double beta emitting source, 7 kg of 82Se, is shaped in thin foils (20 squared meters), and surrounded by a half meter long helium tracking chamber composed of 2000 Geiger cells. A 4 PI gamma catcher and electron calorimeter, made of plastic scintillators with an energy resolution of 7% (FWHM) at 1 MeV, surrounds the whole. The demonstrator is constructed in ultra low radioactivity materials and is installed in the Modane Underground Laboratory in the Frejus Tunnel under the French-Italian Alps.

        Speaker: Andrea Jeremie (Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP))
    • Gas Detectors EI9


      Convener: Ariella Cattai (CERN)
      • 70
        The Cylindrical-GEM Inner Tracker Detector of the KLOE-2 Experiment

        The KLOE-2 experiment represents the continuation of KLOE and acquired 5.5 fb$^{-1}$ data from November 2014 to March 2018 with the aim of collecting the largest sample of $\phi$ mesons at the DA$\Phi$NE $e^+e^-$ collider at the Frascati National Laboratory of INFN.
        A new tracking device, the Inner Tracker, was installed at the interaction region of KLOE-2 and it was operated together with the Drift Chamber to improve track and vertex reconstruction capabilities of the new experimental apparatus.
        The Inner Tracker is a four-layer cylindrical triple-GEM detector with each layer equipped with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout.
        Although GEM detectors have been extensively used in high energy physics experiments, the IT, with its fully-cylindrical geometry, is a frontier detector and KLOE-2 is the first experiment which benefited of this novel detector technology operated at a collider.
        The operation of the Inner Tracker will be presented,together with the results of the alignment and calibration and tracking-verexing performance of such a unique detector.

        Speaker: Alessandro Di Cicco (Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, Rome, Italy and INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, Rome, Italy)
      • 71
        A new Transition Radiation detector based on GEM technology

        Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD) has the attractive features of being able to separate particles by their gamma factor. The classical TRDs are based on Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) or straw tubes, filled with Xenon based gas mixture to efficiently absorb transition radiation photons. While it works for experiments with relatively low particle multiplicity, the performance of MWPC-TRD in experiments with luminosity of order $10^{34} cm^2s^{-1} $ and above, is significantly deteriorated due to the high particle multiplicity and hence the channel occupancy. Replacing MWPC or straw tubes with a high granularity Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) like GEM, could improve the performance of TRD. In addition, GEM technology allows to combine a high precision tracker with TRD identificator. This report presents a new TRD development based on GEM technology for the future Electron Ion Collider (EIC). First beam test was performed at Jefferson Lab (Hall-D) using 3-6 GeV electrons. GEM-TRD module has been exposed to electrons with fiber radiator and without. The first results of test beam measurements and comparison with Geant4 Monte Carlo will be presented.

        Speaker: Sergey Furletov (Jefferson Lab)
      • 72
        Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Thin Gap Chambers and their electronics for the HL-LHC phase

        The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC will be increased by almost an order of magnitude
        with respect to the design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program for the
        High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Many upgrades are foreseen for the thin gap chambers
        (TGC) of the ATLAS Muon System. A Phase-I upgrade project is the replacement of the
        present first station in the forward regions with the New Small Wheels (NSWs). Along with
        Micromegas, the NSWs are equipped with 8 layers of small-strip thin gap chambers (sTGC)
        arranged in multilayers of two quadruplets, for a total active surface of more than 2500
        m$^2$. The spatial resolution has to be better than 100 μm per sTGC plane to allow the
        trigger track segments to be reconstructed with an angular resolution of 1 mrad. At Phase-II,
        the TGC at larger radius from the beam line than the NSW will also be replaced with triplet
        chambers with finer granularity. Another Phase-II upgrade project is the replacement of the
        TGC trigger and readout electronics. The first prototype of the frontend board has been
        developed and tested at the CERN SPS with functions required for the HL-LHC including
        data transfer of 256 channels at 16 Gbps. The new trigger algorithm has been validated with
        data, and was found to reduce the event rate by 30% while increasing the efficiency by a few
        percent. The design, performance and status of the ATLAS TGC upgrade projects will be
        discussed, along with results from tests of the chambers or prototypes with beams.

        Speaker: Chav Chhiv Chau (Carleton University (CA))
      • 73
        Novel Resistive-Plate WELL sampling elements for (S)DHCAL

        Digital and Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeters (S)DHCAL were suggested for future Colliders as part of the particle-flow concept. Though studied mostly with RPC-based techniques, studies have shown that MPGD-based sampling elements could outperform. An attractive, industry-produced, robust, particle-tracking detector for large-area coverage, e.g. in (S)DHCAL, could be the novel single-stage Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL). It is a single-sided THGEM coupled to the segmented readout electrode through a sheet of large bulk resistivity. Past laboratory and accelerator studies were performed in moderate-size RPWELL prototypes in Ne- and Ar-based gas mixtures. These demonstrated large dynamic range (from single electrons to thousand-times MIPS), stable operation under high gains (> 105) also in hadronic beams; MIP detection efficiency>98% was reached at <1.2 pad multiplicity. We will present recent studies carried out with 6.5 mm thick (incl. electronics) 50x50 cm2 RPWELL-based sampling elements, equipped with a Semi Digital readout electronics based on the MICROROC chip. They were performed at the CERN-SPS with 150 GeV muons and high-rate pions. Results will be shown on detection efficiency, pad multiplicity, gain and efficiency uniformity and detector stability. We will further present the preliminary performance of an RPWELL-based (S)DHCAL small prototype exposed to low-energy electrons at CERN-PS. Other applications in noble-liquid and UV detectors will be discussed.

        Speaker: Dr Shikma Bressler (Weizmann Institute of Science (IL))
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Markus Friedl (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 74
        The ATLAS ITk Strip Detector System for the Phase-II LHC Upgrade

        The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is currently preparing for a major upgrade of the Inner Tracking for the Phase-II LHC operation, scheduled to start in 2026. The radiation damage at the maximum integrated luminosity of 4000/fb implies integrated hadron fluencies over 2x10^16 neq/cm2 requiring a completed replacement of the existing Inner Detector. An all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) is under development with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, targeting an ITk Strip Detector system consisting of four barrel layers in the centre and forward regions composed of six disks at each end, is described in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR). With the recent final approval of the ITk strip TDR by the CERN Research Board, the pre-production readiness phase has started at the institutes involved. In this contribution we present the design of the ITk Strip Detector, and outline the current status of R&D and prototyping on various detector components, with a particular emphasis on the radiation-hard sensors, ASICs and front-end electronics under development. We will also discuss the status of preparations and the plans for the forth-coming pre-production and production phase.

        Speaker: John Stakely Keller (Carleton University (CA))
      • 75
        Commissioning of the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

        The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider of KEK (Japan) will accumulate $e^+e^-$ collision data at an unprecedented instantaneous luminosity of $8\times 10^{35}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$, about 40 times larger than its predecessor experiment. The Belle II vertex detector consists of two layers of DEPFET based pixels (PXD) and four layers of double sided silicon strip detectors (SVD). The SVD sensors are assembled into oblong modules called the ladders, which are arranged cylindrically around the beam direction. Most of the ladders have a kinked shape giving the SVD its characteristic lantern structure.

        From April to July 2018 a reduced scale version of the SVD was installed in Belle II and has collected $e^+e^-$ collision data during an initial commissioning run of SuperKEKB. From July to September 2018 the completed SVD was operated outside of the experiment and cosmic ray muon data has been accumulated. The full vertex detector, SVD with the pixel detector, will be finally installed in Belle II by the end of this year and SuperKEKB operation with the full experiment in place will restart in spring 2019. In this talk we summarize the studies performed with the first data sets and the results obtained on the performance of the device.

        Speaker: Giulia Casarosa (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
      • 76
        A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter system: detector concept, description and R&D and first beam test results

        The increase of the particle flux (pile-up) at the HL-LHC with luminosities of L ≃ 7.5 × 10^34 cm−2 s-1 will have a severe impact on the ATLAS detector reconstruction and trigger performance. The end-cap and forward region where the liquid Argon calorimeter has coarser granularity and the inner tracker has poorer momentum resolution will be particularly affected. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the LAr end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation and for luminosity measurement.
        It will cover the pseudo-rapidity range from 2.4 to 4.0. Two Silicon sensors double sided layers will provide precision timing information for MIPs with a resolution better than 30 ps per track in order to assign each particle to the correct vertex. Readout cells have a size of 1.3 mm × 1.3 mm, leading to a highly granular detector with 3 millions of channels. Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGAD) technology has been chosen as it provides enough gain to reach the large signal over noise ratio needed.

        The requirements and overall specifications of the HGTD will be presented as well as the technical proposal. LGAD R&D campaigns are carried out to study the sensors, the related ASICs, and the radiation hardness. Laboratory and test beam results will be presented.

        Speaker: Bengt Lund-Jensen (KTH Royal Institute of Technology (SE))
      • 77
        The Gigatracker, the silicon beam tracker for the NA62 experiment at CERN.

        The Gigatracker is the NA62 beam tracker. It is made of three $63.1 mm \times 29.3 mm$ stations of $300 \mu m \times 300 \mu m $hybrid silicon pixel detectors installed in vacuum ($\sim10^{-6} mbar$).
        The beam particles, flowing at 750 MHz, are traced in 4-dimensions by means of time-stamping pixels with a design resolution of $200 ps$. This performance has to be maintained despite the beam irradiation amounting to a yearly fluence of $2 \times 10^{14}~1\,\rm{MeV~eq.~n /cm^{2}}$.
        The detector material minimization is paramount, as the detector faces the full beam. The station material budget is reduced to $0.5\% X_0$ by using (HEP world first) microchannels cooling.
        We will describe the detector design and performances during the NA62 runs.

        Speaker: Luca Federici (CERN)
    • Poster Session A

      Posters displayed on a board with an even number

    • Gas Detectors EI9


      Convener: Ariella Cattai (CERN)
      • 78
        Performance studies of RPC detectors with new environmentally friendly gas mixtures in presence of LHC-like radiation background

        Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detectors are widely used at the CERN LHC experiments as muon trigger thanks to their excellent time resolution. They are operated with a Freon-based gas mixture containing C2H2F4 and SF6, both greenhouse gases (GHG) with a very high global warming potential (GWP). The search of new environmentally friendly gas mixtures is necessary to reduce GHG emissions and costs as well as to optimize RPC performance.
        Several recently available gases with low GWP have been identified as possible replacements for C2H2F4 and SF6. More than 60 environmentally friendly gas mixtures have been investigated on 2 mm single-gap RPCs. The RPC detectors have been tested in laboratory conditions and at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), which provides a high energy muon beam combined with an intense gamma source allowing to simulate the background expected at HL-LHC.
        RPCs performance have been studied at different gamma rates with the new environmentally friendly gases by measuring efficiency, streamer probability, rate capability, induced charge, cluster size and time resolution. A complete overview of the results obtained at GIF++ will be presented. To finalize the studies, the RPCs are now operated under gas recirculation with the selected new gas mixture and exposed to the intense gamma radiation of GIF++ for evaluating possible long-term aging effects, gas damage due to radiation and compatibility of LHC gas system with new gases.

        Speaker: Beatrice Mandelli (CERN)
      • 79
        Optical readout of gaseous detectors: new developments and perspectives

        Scintillation light detection by imaging sensors presents a versatile and intuitive readout modality for gaseous radiation detectors. Based on visible scintillation light emission from gas mixtures such as Ar/CF4, optical readout provides images with high spatial resolution.
        We present novel readout approaches including ultra-fast imaging for beam monitoring in addition to studies of optically read out detector concepts demonstrating suitability for a number of applications ranging from X-ray radiography and fluorescence to 3D track reconstruction in an optically read out Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based on Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs). Furthermore, optical readout of Micromegas on a transparent substrate was shown to be well-suited for X-ray imaging and single X-ray photon detection.
        A novel readout approach combining optical and electronic readout for 3D track reconstruction based on transparent anodes was developed to allow reconstruction of intricate track trajectories. Furthermore, beam monitoring capabilities of optically read out GEM-based low material budget detectors were tested in a clinical proton beam facility.

        Ultra-fast CMOS imaging sensors capable of frames rates of tens of thousands of frames per second enable high speed X-ray fluoroscopy and real-time beam monitoring at megapixel resolution. At reduced resolution, a million frames per second acquisition rates were used for 3D track reconstruction from image sequences recorded in a TPC.

        Speaker: Dr Florian Maximilian Brunbauer (CERN, Vienna University of Technology (AT))
      • 80
        The gaseous QUAD pixel detector

        We have developed a gaseous pixel detector based on four Timepix3 chips that can serve as a building block for a large detector plane. To provide the required gas amplification a fine grid has been deposited on the chip surface by wafer postprocessing (GridPix technology). The precisely aligned grid holes and chip pixels having a pitch of 55 µm and the high time resolution of 1.56 ns of the Timepix3 chip enable the reconstruction of each individual ionization electron where the accuracy is dominated by diffusion. The QUAD is designed to have minimum electrical field inhomogenities and distortions, achieving a tracking precision in the pixel plane with systematics of better than 10 microns. Due to the high efficiency to detect the ionization electrons a precise measurement of the energy loss dE/dx can be performed.
        The QUAD detector has all services located under the detection surface. In this way multiple QUADs can be simply put together to create a detection surface of arbitrary dimensions. A possible application is in the readout modules of a large TPC.
        In the presentation we show details about the construction of the QUAD and the results from a recent test beam experiment performed at the ELSA electron beam in Bonn where a silicon telescope was used to provide accurate tracking.

        Speakers: Dr Peter Kluit (Nikhef), Peter Kluit (Nikhef National institute for subatomic physics (NL)), Mr Ruud Kluit (Nikhef (NL))
    • Medical Applications EI8


      Convener: Etiennette Auffray Hillemanns (CERN)
      • 81
        PETALO: Time-of-Flight PET with liquid xenon

        Liquid xenon has several attractive features, which make it suitable for applications to nuclear medicine, such as high scintillation yield and fast scintillation decay time. Moreover, being a continuous medium with a uniform response, liquid xenon allows one to avoid most of the geometrical distortions of conventional detectors based on scintillating crystals. In this paper, we describe how these properties have motivated the development of a novel concept for positron emission tomography scanners with Time-Of-Flight measurement, which combines a liquid xenon scintillating volume and silicon photomultipliers for the readout. A first Monte Carlo investigation has pointed out that this technology would provide an excellent intrinsic time resolution, down to 70 ps, which makes it possible to measure the Time-Of-Flight with high efficiency. Also, the transparency of liquid xenon to UV and blue wavelengths opens the possibility of exploiting both scintillation and Cherenkov light for a high-sensitivity positron emission tomography scanner with Time-Of-Flight capabilities. Monte Carlo simulations point to a time resolution of 30-50 ps obtained using Cherenkov light. A first prototype is being built to demonstrate the high energy, spatial and time resolution of this concept, using a ring of 30 cm of internal diameter and a depth of 3 cm instrumented with VUV--sensitive silicon photomultipliers.

        Speaker: Ms Carmen Romo Luque
      • 82
        Innovative $\gamma$ detector filled with high-density liquid for brain PET imaging

        CaLIPSO is an innovative $\gamma$ detector designed for high precision cerebral PET imaging. For the first time, liquid trimethylbismuth is used as sensitive medium. The detector operates as a time-projection chamber and detects both Cherenkov light and charge signal. Indeed, each 511-keV photon releases a single primary electron that triggers a Cherenkov radiation and ionizes the medium. As trimethylbismuth has never been studied before, we measured its free ion yield that represents the number of electron-ion pairs released by the primary electron. To do so, we developed a low-noise measuring system to determine the weak current induced by a $^{60}$Co source in the liquid with an accuracy better than 5 fA for a strong electric field up to 7 kV/cm. We used tetramethylsilane as benchmark liquid to validate the apparatus and we measured a zero-field free ion yield of $0.53 \pm 0.03$ in agreement with measurements in literature. However, we found a zero-field free ion yield of $0.083 \pm 0.003$ for trimethylbismuth, which is a factor 7 lower than the typical values for similar dielectric liquids. Quantum chemistry computations on heavy atoms tend to demonstrate the high ability of trimethylbismuth to capture electrons, which could explain this weak value. This recombination mechanism marks a new step in understanding charge transport in liquid detectors.

        Speaker: Morgane Farradèche (IRFU / CEA Saclay, France)
      • 83
        Novel charged particles monitor of light ions PT treatments: results of preliminary tests using a RANDO® phantom

        In Particle Therapy, the use of C, He and O ions as beam particles is being pursued to fully profit from their interaction with matter resulting into an improved efficacy in killing the cancer cells. An accurate on-line control of the dose release spatial distribution, currently missing in clinical practice, is required to ensure that the healthy tissues surrounding the tumor are spared, preventing undesired damages caused by, for example, morphological changes occurred in the patient during the treatment with respect to the initial CT scan. Charged secondary particles, produced by the projectile fragmentation in the collisions with the patient tissues, represent a valid option for light ions treatments monitoring since they are also emitted at large angles with respect to the beam direction and they can be detected with high efficiency in a nearly background free environment. The Dose Profiler detector, based on 8 pairs of orthogonal layers ($19.2\times 19.2\;cm^2$) composed by squared plastic scintillating fibres, allows the online charged fragments reconstruction and backtracking at the clinical high rates ($\sim$100 kHz). Preliminary tests performed on the DP, using the ${}^{12}$C ion beams of the CNAO treatment centre and an anthropomorphic phantom as a target, will be reviewed in this contribution. The results implications in view of a first clinical trial, scheduled to start at the CNAO in 2019, will be discussed in the framework of the upcoming clinical routine test.

        Speaker: Giacomo Traini (Sapienza Universita' di Roma)
    • Photon Detectors EI7


      Convener: Prof. Robert Klanner (University of Hamburg)
      • 84
        SciFi – Upgrading LHCb with a Scintillating Fibre Tracker

        LHCb will undergo a major upgrade during the LHC long shutdown in 2019/2020 to cope with increased instantaneous luminosities and to implement a trigger-less 40 MHz readout. The current inner and outer tracking detectors will be replaced by a single homogeneous detector based on plastic scintillating fibres (SciFi). The SciFi tracker covers an area of 340 m2 by using more than 10,000 km of scintillating fibre with 250 μm diameter, enabling a spatial resolution of better than 100 μm for charged particles. Six-layer fibre mats of 2.4 m length are assembled to form individual detector modules (0.5 × 4.8 m 2) consisting of 8 mats each. Linear arrays of Silicon Photomultipliers cooled to -40°C are placed at the fibre ends. The readout of 524k channels occurs through custom-designed front-end electronics.
        The LHCb requirements and environment impose stringent demands on the performance of the fibres. A R&D program aiming at the development of very fast and efficient scintillating fibres, based on a novel type of luminophores (NOL), has been launched in parallel to the SciFi production. The performance of the prototype NOL fibres is competitive, in particular the decay time constant is close to 1 ns, i.e. about 50% shorter than the best standard fibre.
        The talk will give a brief overview of the SciFi detector design, production and performance of various components and status of the detector assembly. Furthermore, we will report on the latest results of the NOL fibre development.

        Speaker: Lukas Gruber (CERN)
      • 85
        The Mu3e Scintillating Fiber Timing Detector

        The Mu3e experiment will search for the rare neutrinoless lepton flavor
        violating mu+ -> e+e+e- decay and it aims at reaching an ultimate sensitivity
        of 10^-16 on this branching ratio. The experiment will be performed at PSI
        using the most intense continuous surface muon beam in the world (presently
        ~1x10^8 mu/s). In order to reach this sensitivity all backgrounds must be
        rejected below this level. The Mu3e detector is based on thin monolithic
        active silicon pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) for very precise tracking in conjunction
        with scintillating fibers and tiles coupled to Si-PMs for accurate timing
        measurements and is designed to operate at very high intensities.

        To suppress all forms of combinatorial background a very thin (thickness < 0.2%
        of radiation length) Scintillating Fiber (SciFi) detector with few 100 ps time
        resolution, efficiency in excess of 96%, and spatial resolution of ~100 um has
        been developed. Moreover the SciFi detector will help to determine the charge
        of the recurling tracks in the central region of the apparatus. The SciFi arrays
        are coupled at both ends to Si-PM arrays and are read out with a dedicated mixed
        mode ASIC, the MuTRiG.

        We will report in detail the development of the SciFi detector, from the
        scintillating fiber through the Si-PM array photo-sensors up to the front end
        electronics and the data acquisition. We will discuss the performance of the
        SciFi detector prototypes as observed in our studies.

        Speaker: Prof. Alessandro Bravar (University of Geneva)
      • 86
        Construction, operation and performance of the novel MPGD-based photon detectors of COMPASS RICH-1

        The RICH-1 Detector of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS has been upgraded in 2016: four new Photon Detectors, based on MPGD technology and covering an active area of 1.4 square meters replace the previously used photon detectors (MWPCs with CsI photocathodes). The new detector architecture consists in a hybrid MPGD combination: two layers of THGEMs, the first of which also acts as a reflective photocathode (its top face is coated with a CsI film) are coupled to a bulk Micromegas on a pad segmented anode; the signals are read-out via capacitive coupling by analog F-E based on the APV25 chip. All aspects of the COMPASS RICH-1 Photon Detectors upgrade are presented. The design, the engineering aspects, the mass production and the quality assessment of the MPGD components are recalled. The assembling and the validation tests of the detectors are described. The operating conditions and the on-line monitoring of the detector response are illustrated. The characterization of the novel photon detectors is presented in detail. With a typical gain approaching 20000, a signal formation time of 100 ns, a single photon angular resolution of 1.8 mrad and about 10 detected photons per ring at saturation the novel MPGD-based detectors of single photons of COMPASS RICH-1 meet the required specifications and open the way for interesting future applications.

        Speaker: Yuxiang Zhao (Universita e INFN Trieste (IT))
    • 12:45 PM
      Lunch Break
    • Astroparticle Detectors EI9


      Convener: Hiro Tajima
      • 87
        The MEV project: an innovative high-resolution telescope for Muography of Etna Volcano

        The MEV project started in 2016 the construction of an innovative muon tracking telescope expressly designed for the muography of the Etna Volcano, in particular one of the active craters in its summit area. The telescope is a tracker based on extruded scintillating bars with WLS fibers and featuring an innovative read-out architecture. It is composed of 3×1 m2 XY planes; the angular resolution does not exceeds 0.4 msr and the total angular aperture is about ±45°. A special effort concerned the design of mechanics and electronics in order to meet the requirements of a detector capable to work in a hostile environment such as the top of a tall volcano, at a far distance from any facility. The telescope was powered by solar panels in order to make it completely independent from external power source. The whole electronic chain was custom designed for this application in order to reduce the power consumption, which is about 20 W, including the wireless data transmission system. The test phase started in January 2017 and ended successfully at the end of July 2017. An extinct volcanic crater (the Monti Rossi, in the village of Nicolosi, about 15 km from Catania) was the target of the measurement, of which was acquired the first muographic image with a promising quality. Then, the telescope was moved to the summit zone of the Etna Volcano, with the aim of imaging the active North-East crater.

        Speaker: Dr Giuseppe Gallo (University of Catania - Department of Physics and Astronomy - INFN, LNS Catania)
      • 88
        GAPS: a balloon-borne cosmic-ray antimatter experiment

        Novel theories beyond the Standard Model predict dark matter candidates that could provide a significant enhancement of the antideuteron and antiproton flux, in particular at low energies. The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is the first antimatter search experiment designed specifically for low-energy cosmic ray antideuterons and antiprotons.
        GAPS identifies antideuterons and antiprotons using a technique based on exotic atom capture and decay. This novel detection technique allows GAPS to have unprecedented sensitivity in the low energy range (<0.25 GeV/n) for antiprotons and antideuterons. The apparatus consists of 10 planes of lithium-drifted Si (Si(Li)) detectors, surrounded on all sides by a plastic scintillator time-of-flight.
        GAPS is designed to carry out its science program using long-duration balloon flights in Antarctica and is currently scheduled by NASA for its first flight in late 2020.
        This presentation will describe the design, status, and discovery potential of the GAPS scientific program.

        Speaker: Giuseppe Osteria (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
      • 89
        GRAPES-3 Detector System

        The Gamma Ray Astronomy at Pev Energies phase-3 (GRAPES-3), experiment located in beautiful slopes of Nilgiris hills ,Ooty, India, consist of world class indigenously developed detector system. The core elements of the experiment are plastic scintillator (Sc) detector and proportional counter (PRC). A large array of 400 Sc detectors each having sensitive area of 1m2 are spread in field with inter-detector separation of 8m covering an effective area of 25000m2 [1]. The design of these detectors are unique for a high energy cosmic ray experiment with extended dynamic range and wavelength shifting (WLS) fiber readout.The 3712 sealed PRC’s each made of 6001010cm hollow mild steel square tube are used as muon detector. These PRC’s are arranged in a grid of 4-layers with each layer having 58 PRC’s covering a total area of 560m2 making it as the most sensitive tracking muon telescope[2].The near maintenance free detector system is very rugged with failure rate of less than 2%. The signal processing for both Sc and PRC’s are done with indigenously developed front end and back end electronics modules.The recent discovery of Transient Weakening of Earth’s Magnetic Shield Probed by a Cosmic Ray Burst[3] using GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope at Ooty has demonstrated that a unique instrument can make a major discovery.
        [1] S K Gupta et al Nucl Phys A 540 (2005) 311–323
        [2] Y Hayashi et al Nucl Phys A 545 (2005) 643–657
        [3] P K Mohanty et al Phys Rev Lett 117, 171101 (2016)

        Speaker: Mr Atul Jain (GRAPES-3)
      • 90
        The LHAASO Experiment

        The Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) plans to build a hybrid extensive air shower (EAS) array with an area of about 1 km2 at an altitude of 4410 m a.s.l. in Sichuan province, China, aiming for very high energy gamma ray astronomy and cosmic ray physics around the spectrum knees. With an extensive air shower array covering an area of 1.3 km2 equipped with >40,000 m2 muon detectors and a 78,000 m2 water Cherenkov detector array, a sensitivity of about 1% Crab unit to gamma ray sources is achieved. Thus LHAASO will survey the entire northern sky for gamma ray sources with a full duty cycle and high sensitivity. The spectra of all sources in its field of view will be measured simultaneously over a wide energy range from 300 GeV to 1 PeV. This measurement will offer a great opportunity for identifying cosmic ray origins among the sources. The LHAASO is also equipped with 12 Cherenkov/fluorescence telescopes, so it will serve as an effective detector for energy spectrum measurements of different mass groups of cosmic rays.

        Speaker: Huihai He (Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS)
    • Medical Applications EI8


      Convener: Etiennette Auffray Hillemanns (CERN)
      • 91
        Evaluation of a novel photon-counting CT system using a 16-channel MPPC array for multicolor 3-D imaging

        X-ray computed tomography (CT) is widely used in diagnostic imaging of the interior of the human body; however, the radiation dose of conventional CT typically amounts to 10 mSv. Under such environments, X-ray photons are severely piled-up; therefore, the CT images are monochromatic and various artifacts are present due to beam hardening effects. In contrast, photon counting CT (PC-CT) offers a low dose and multicolor CT system. At present, PC-CT systems based on CdZnTe devices are widely studied. This system is yet far from being an established clinical technique, owing to the high-cost and complexity of huge number of read out channels; the pixel size of CdZnTe must be as small as ~0.1-0.2 mm to withstand high counting rate due to the slow mobility of electron-hole pairs. In this paper, we propose a cost-effective, novel PC-CT system consisting of 16-ch multipixel photon counter (MPPC) coupled with a high-speed scintillator array. As a proof of concept, we show 3-D color images of a lighter phantom taken in a sufficiently low-dose environment. Material identification is possible by setting multiple energy windows. Next, we applied our PC-CT system for K-edge imaging, which can improve blood-tissue contrast using a specific contrast agent. By setting appropriate energy windows, our PC-CT system accurately reconstructed absolute concentration of iodine and gadolinium. Finally, we discuss the prospects and possible future clinical applications of the developed PC-CT system.

        Speaker: Mr Takuya Maruhashi (Waseda University)
      • 92
        Single layer Compton detectors for measurement of polarization correlations of annihilation quanta

        Measurement of gamma ray polarization can provide valuable insight in different areas of physics research: nuclear, particle and astrophysics. Also, since the polarizations of gamma quanta from positron annihilation are perpendicular, there have been studies to use these polarization correlations in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The polarization of gammas can be determined from Compton scattering. We have set up two compact, position and energy-sensitive Compton scattering detectors in coincidence mode. Each consists of a single-layer array of Lutetium Fine Silicate scintillation pixels (3x3x20 mm3) in a 4x4 matrix read out on one side by SiPM array with matching elements size. Signals from all elements are acquired and processed by fast pulse digitizers. The coincidence time resolution of typically <0.5 ns (FWHM) allows a clear identification of coincident events, while the energy resolution of 11% (at 511 keV) and the detector granularity allow the reconstruction of the polar and the azimuthal scattering angles. We will present the evidence of the observed polarization correlations of the gamma quanta from positron annihilation and discuss the possible applications of this feature in PET and other experiments where measurement of gamma polarization is of interest. A system of such single-layer Compton detectors would significantly reduce the number of electronic channels compared to typical two layer (scatter-absorber) systems used for Compton scattering detection.

        Speaker: Prof. Mihael Makek (Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (HR))
      • 93
        First fragmentation measurements with the ΔE-TOF detector of the FOOT experiment

        The FOOT experiment was designed to identify the fragments produced in the human body during hadrontherapy and to measure their production cross-section. The ΔE-TOF detector of the FOOT apparatus estimates the atomic number Z and velocity β of the fragments by measuring the energy deposited (ΔE) in two layers of orthogonal plastic scintillator bars and the time-of-flight (TOF) with respect to a trigger detector. The detector performances have been already evaluated in a previous study at the CNAO hadrontherapy center of Pavia, obtaining 50 ps time resolution and 6% energy resolution, for 100-400 MeV/u carbon ions. In this work, the results of the first fragment identification measurements performed at CNAO are presented. A plastic target was irradiated with carbon ions of 330 MeV/u. Two plastic scintillator bars coupled to silicon photomultipliers were placed at a ~8° angle with respect to the beam line to remove the primary beam component and measure fragments interactions only. Events that triggered both bars were recorded with a WaveDAQ-based electronics. The energy deposited in the two bars and the TOF between them were measured. The atomic number of the detected fragments was determined, indicating that particles with Z=1 and Z=2 were detected at a ~8° angle. Currently, we are reproducing the experimental set-up with Monte Carlo simulations, and a preliminary comparison confirms these results.

        Speaker: Aafke Kraan
      • 94
        Verification of Monolithic CMOS Pixel Sensor Chip with Ion Beams for Application in proton Computed Tomography

        proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is an emerging imaging modality useful in treatment of cancer using protons and heavy ions. The pCT collaboration in Bergen is building a prototype Digital Tracking Calorimeter (DTC) for proton therapy application. The DTC is a 41 layers of Si-Al sandwich structure where CMOS pixel sensors are used as the active element and aluminum is the absorbing material. The pixel sensor used was developed for upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System at the Large Hadron Collider, CERN. The pixel sensor is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) consisting of almost half-million pixels each of the size of 29.24 x 26.88 µm².

        In the pCT context two ion-beam test experiments were performed. The first experiment was carried out to test dependence of the cluster size on the beam position. For this a micro-beam of 10 MeV Helium-4 was used and a few pixels of the chip were scanned. The test results show that the cluster size changes with the beam position. The second experiment was carried out to study the cluster sizes for different beam energies and to obtain the tracking efficiency for Proton and He4 ions going through a stack of three chips. In the presentation, early results of both the ion-beam test experiment of MAPS will be reported.

        Speaker: Dr Ganesh Tambave (University of Bergen (NO))
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Thomas Bergauer (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 95
        Silicon Detectors for the LHC Phase-II Upgrade and Beyond – RD50 Status Report

        The inner tracking layers of all LHC experiments were designed and developed to cope with the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the LHC Phase-II Upgrade foreseen for 2026, the particle densities and radiation levels will increase by roughly an order of magnitude compared to the present LHC conditions. Therefore, the inner tracking layers will need to be replaced. The new inner tracking layers, which will all be based on silicon detectors, must be significantly more radiation hard.
        Within the RD50 Collaboration, a large R&D program has been underway for more than a decade across experimental boundaries to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation tolerance for HL-LHC trackers. Key areas of detectors R&D include HV CMOS sensors, detectors made in the 3D technology and Low Gain Avalanche Detectors (LGADs). We will present the state of the R&D in several silicon detector domains, in particular 3D and LGAD detectors. We will also comment on the options for detector choices experiments beyond the LHC, using the FCC as an example.

        Speakers: Tomasz Szumlak (AGH University of Science and Technology (PL)), on behalf of the RD50 Collaboration
      • 96
        High resolution three dimensional characterization of irradiated silicon detectors using a Two Photon Absorption-TCT

        The Transient Current Technique (TCT) has been instrumental in the characterization of silicon radiation detectors over the last 20 years. Using visible or infrared lasers, excess carriers can be produced continuously along the beam propagation direction, the penetration depth of the light determining the length of the trail of charges. No spatial resolution is therefore obtained along this direction. However, a new technique called Two Photon Absorption-TCT (TPA-TCT) allows to produce charge carriers in a confined three dimensional volume.

        TPA-TCT was successfully tested in non-irradiated diodes. For this conference we present results on diodes irradiated to various fluences between 1e13 and 1e16 neq/cm2. We show that radiation induced crystal defects lead to a linear increasing single photon absorption (SPA) of the 1.3 µm photons used for TPA, thus compromising the method for highly irradiated sensors. However this contamination can be suppressed because the SPA process is independent of the position of the focus of the laser inside the detector. Thus, the resolution along beam propagation direction can be retrieved back by taking a single measurement with the focus outside of the detector and then subtracting this contribution from the total induced current. TPA-TCT is therefore a powerful three dimensional technique that can also be successfully applied to irradiated detectors. TPA-TCT shows for instance the formation of double junction in diodes and LGADs.

        Speaker: Marcos Fernandez Garcia (Universidad de Cantabria (ES))
      • 97
        Measurements and Simulations of Surface Radiation Damage Effects on IFX and HPK Test Structures

        Radiation damage effects at High Luminosity LHC expected fluences (2×1016 n/cm2 1 MeV) and total ionising doses (TID) (1 Grad) will impose very stringent constraints in terms of radiation resistance of solid-state detectors. The complex physical phenomena related to radiation damage effects can be addressed by means of TCAD tools aiming at evaluate the most suitable technological options to be adopted for the fabrication of radiation-resistant, long-term operating detectors. In particular, surface damage effects can be investigated with TCAD tools in order to study their macroscopic, device-level effects, e.g. the inter-electrode isolation and charge collection properties of different design options. Aiming at the generality of the approach, in this work, we address the effects of surface damage on detectors fabricated on p-type substrates by two different foundries. Actually, starting from standard test structure measurements the interface trap state density (NIT) and the oxide charge (QOX) can be extracted and used as input parameters to the simulation tools. Moreover, a detailed TCAD parametric analysis has been carried out, aiming at evaluating the effects of oxide charge density and interface trap density variation with the dose. The good agreement between simulation results and measurements would support the use of the model as a predictive tool to optimize the design and the operation of novel solid-state detectors in the HL-LHC scenario.

        Speaker: Francesco Moscatelli (Universita e INFN, Perugia (IT))
      • 98
        Bulk engineering for enhanced lateral drift sensors

        Future experiments in particle physics foresee few-micrometer single-point position resolution in their vertex detectors, motivated by e.g. b/light-quark-tagging capabilities. Silicon is today's material of choice for high-precision detectors and offers a high grade of engineering possibilities. Instead of scaling down pitch sizes, which comes at a high price for an increased number of channels, our new sensor concept seeks to improve the position resolution by increasing the lateral size of the charge distribution already during the drift in the sensor material. To this end, it is necessary to carefully engineer the electric field in the bulk of this so-called enhanced lateral drift (ELAD) sensor. This is achieved by implants deep inside the bulk which allows for a modification of the charge carriers' drift paths.

        In order to engineer the sensor bulk, we chose to combine epitaxial growth with ion beam implantation in an alternating approach. Test samples are analysed with spreading resistance profiling (SRP) and electrochemical capacitance-voltage (ECV) profiling and are compared to TCAD optimisation studies.

        Results of the ECV and SRP measurements are presented and discussed. The feasibility of bulk engineering through the combination of epitaxial growth and ion beam implantation is discussed. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of ELAD sensors, which make use of bulk engineering, in comparison to conventional planar hybrids based on test beam simulation studies.

        Speaker: Hendrik Jansen (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DE))
    • Poster Session B

      Posters displayed on a board with an odd number

    • Medical Applications EI8


      Convener: Hiro Tajima
      • 99
        Development of a novel neutron tracker for the characterisation of secondary neutrons emitted in Particle Therapy.

        The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project addresses the technical challenges posed by a neutron tracker detector: high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision. The project main goal is to develop a tracking device capable of fully reconstruct the four-momentum of the ultra-fast secondary neutrons produced in Particle Therapy treatments via double elastic scattering interactions.
        The tracker - $10\times10\times20\ cm^3$ - is made by a matrix of thin squared scintillating fibres ($250\ \mu m$) arranged in layers orthogonally oriented. A tailored readout silicon sensor based - SBAM (SPAD-Based Acquisition readout for MONDO experiment) - matched to the MONDO needs of single photon detection capability, high spatial resolution and compactness - has been developed in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK).
        A small detector prototype ($4\times4\times4.8\ cm^3$) has been built and tested with a sensor prototype, $\textit{SPADnet-I}$, in order to experimentally evaluate the light output expected and consequently optimise the final readout.
        The simulation characterisation of the detector response with monochromatic neutrons in the [20-300] MeV will be presented together with the expected performances of MONDO as neutron beam monitor.
        The preliminary measurements at electron and proton beams of the prototype with the SPAD array readout and the first SBAM chip test results will be reported.

        Speaker: Eliana Gioscio ( Centro Fermi, Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche "E. Fermi", Roma, Italy)
      • 100
        Improving the CTR of a PET module using the DOI

        In a PET scanner, the probability of early stage detection of cancer is increased by high spatial resolution and sensitivity. Depth Of Interaction (DOI) is an important quantity both in small PET scanners and also in whole-body PET machines.
        The module we developed is a pixellated scintillator of LYSO crystals with single side readout and allows light recirculation thanks to a light and a guide reflector on the side of the matrix opposite to the photodetector. The DOI information is extracted from the ratio between the light seen by the single SiPM channel coupled to the crystal hit and all the light collected by the photodetector.
        To improve the timing performances of the module, the idea is to use the DOI information to correct for the time jitter caused by the various point of interaction of the gamma photons along the main axis of the crystal pixel. This correlation between the DOI and time of arrival of the optical photons can be exploited and the CTR is therefore corrected by properly combining the information of the multiple timestamps read out by a 4x4 SiPM array in order to obtain a more precise estimation of the time of interaction.
        Using a small tagging crystal in coincidence with our matrix and a Na22 source, the CTR of the module was shown to improve beyond 200 ps FWHM after the correction; this was demonstrated for pixellated modules of different size and with different levels of depolishing of the lateral faces of the scintillators.

        Speaker: Andrea Polesel (Università degli Studi e INFN Milano (IT))
      • 101
        Imaging with ion beams at MedAustron

        MedAustron is an Austrian cancer treatment center for proton and carbon therapy. For clinical use protons are accelerated up to 250 MeV, whereas carbon ions will be available up to 400 MeV/u. The facility also features a unique beam line exclusively for non-clinical research. This research beam line will be commissioned for even higher proton energies of up to 800 MeV.

        In this contribution, development efforts towards an ion beam computed tomography system suitable for clinical use at MedAustron will be discussed, as well as general possibilities for performing beam tests at MedAustron.

        Results from first test beams using silicon strip detectors in a tracking telescope as required in a proton computed tomography system will be presented. Additionally, findings from Geant4 simulations to optimize the set-up will be discussed along with first approaches to image reconstruction.

        Speaker: Mr Alexander Burker (Atominstitut, TU Wien)
      • 102
        Development of the thin TOF-PET scanner based on fast monolithic silicon pixel sensors

        The Thin-TOF PET (TT-PET) project aims at the construction of a small-animal PET scanner based on silicon monolithic pixel sensors with 30 ps time resolution for 511 keV photons, equivalent to 100 ps time resolution for minimum ionizing particles. The high time resolution of the pixel sensor allows for precise time of flight measurement of the two photons and a significant improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed images. The TT-PET scanner will also have sensitivity for photon depth of interaction, thus improving the spatial resolution across its whole field of view. The detectors, developed for this application, are monolithic silicon pixel sensors in SiGe BiCMOS technology. The prototype chip, comprising a 3 $\times$ 10 pixel matrix and a 50 ps binning TDC, has been recently tested at the CERN SPS beam test facility. The detector shows an efficiency greater than 99% and a time resolution for minimum ionizing particles of approximately 130 ps for 500 $\times$ 500µm$^2$ pixels with 600 fF capacitance.

        Speaker: Daiki Hayakawa (Universite de Geneve (CH))
    • Semiconductor Detectors EI7


      Convener: Christoph Schwanda (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 103
        Measurement results of the MALTA monolithic pixel detector

        MALTA is a full scale monolithic pixel detector implemented in ToweJazz 180nm CMOS technology. The small pixel electrode allowed for the implementation of a fast, low noise and low power front-end, which is sensitive to the charge released by ionizing radiation in a 20-25 um deep depleted region. The novel asynchronous matrix architecture is designed to ensure low power consumption and high rate capability. Such features make MALTA a possible candidate for the outer layer of ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) upgrade.
        Unirradiated MALTA sensors, as well as chips irradiated with neutrons and X-rays, have been extensively tested in laboratory measurements and with high energy particle beams. This contribution will discuss the results of this measurements campaign and will address the further improvements that are being implemented in the next versions of the chip.

        Speaker: Enrico Junior Schioppa (CERN)
      • 104
        Radiation characterization of two large and fully depleted CMOS pixel matrices fabricated in 150 nm and 180 nm technologies

        Two different design concepts of the depleted monolithic CMOS active sensor (DMAPS) are realized in the large scale pixel matrixes, named LF-Monopix and TJ-Monopix. They are realized in so-called large and small electrode design in a pixel. In the large electrode DMAPS, a high bias voltage of 300 V is applied to the highly resistive wafer without damaging the readout electronics. Full depletion of the sensor was observed at 20 V and at 120 V for 100 µm or 200 µm thinned wafer, respectively. In contrast, the small fill factor DMAPS has analog front end circuit that achieves low noise (19 e-) and low power (110 mW/cm$^2$) thanks to its small detector capacitance. The sensing volume is modified 25 µm p-epi layer, and it is also fully depleted. Both of prototypes are fully monolithic DMAPS equipped with a fast readout in column drain architecture. To investigate the radiation hardness of both pixel matrixes, they are irradiated with neutrons and protons up to the fluence of 1×10$^15$n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$. Results of electrical and beam tests performed on un-irradiated and irradiated chips will be shown in this presentation.

        Speaker: Toko Hirono (University of Bonn (DE))
      • 105
        Towards wafer-scale monolithic CMOS integrated pixel detectors for X-ray photon counting

        A new semiconductor process is being developed for manufacturing monolithic CMOS pixel detectors. The technology is based on direct bonding of 200 mm CMOS wafers to an absorber in a low-temperature, oxide-free, covalent wafer bonding process. It is applicable to any material such as Si, GaAs and epitaxial SiGe. The latter are realized by means of space-filling arrays of SiGe crystals which can be grown up to at least 100 µm by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process on patterned Si substrates. The absorber enables ~ 100% detector fill factor, direct conversion of X-rays, and charge collection at the CMOS readout pixels.
        To demonstrate the technology, a chip was designed in 150 nm CMOS process featuring 240 x 300 pixels of 100 µm pitch. Each analog pixel has a charge sensitive amplifier, leakage current compensation and a shaper. On the digital side, two threshold-programmable discriminators feed the output to 12-bit asynchronous counters. The counters can work in parallel, or in cascade-mode by using the second counter as register for simultaneous acquisition/ reading. A data acquisition system was developed to readout the front-end board hosting the CMOS chip. The board integrates an FPGA for hardware control and software processing, it handles the image acquisition protocols and assembles data frames to a computer.
        In this conference, we shall discuss the first experimental tests and X-ray characterization measurements obtained on the novel kind of detector.

        Speaker: Jorge Neves (G-ray Medical)
      • 106
        Radiation hard active pixel sensor with 25µm x 50µm pixel size designed for capacitive readout with RD53 ASIC

        We will present a sensor chip for a capacitively coupled particle detector (CCPD). CCPDs have been proposed for several experiments and it has been demonstrated that the signals from the sensor to the readout chip can be transmitted when the chips are glued. However, it is still not proven whether gluing can be done fast on a large number of devices. Therefore, we are investigating a new concept. The readout chip and the sensor chip are mechanically connected with a small number of large bump bonds. The signals from pixels are still transmitted capacitively. No glue is used. The benefit of this concept is that a conventional flip chip technique can be used to build the detector. Since the bumps can be large, an industrial bumping process can be used which assures low cost. The sensor chip is based on HVCMOS structure. A special design is used to ensure large output signals that are needed because the gap between the sensor and the readout chip is large. The pixel size is 25μm x 50μm and the transmitting electrode pitch is 50μm x 50μm. Therefore for the readout of the sensor, a standard HL-LHC readout chip developed by RD53 collaboration can be used. The CCPD sensor chip has been produced. Measurement results and design details will be presented in this contribution.

        Speaker: Hui Zhang (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT))
    • SiPM EI9


      Convener: Manfred Jeitler (Austrian Academy of Sciences (AT))
      • 107
        SiPM single photon time resolution measured via bi-luminescence

        We present results on measurements of the single photon time resolution on silicon photomultipliers using bi-luminescence. When a silicon photomultipler is biased passed breakdown, each avalanche produces a number of photons as electron-hole pairs recombine. If these photons enter a neighboring cell and trigger an additional avalanche, the process is referred to as optical cross-talk. We refer to bi-luminescence as the process in which one or more of these spontaneously emitted photons escape the device and triggers an avalanche in a different device. Thus, measuring the time difference between the avalanche of the emitter and the absorber results in a measurement of the single photon time resolution each device. For the emitter and absorber, we use identical type SiPMs biased to the same over voltage. The time difference between coincident events in each SiPM gives rise to a double peaked structure, with each peak being fitted with a convolution of a gaussian and exponential distribution, corresponding to the single photon time resolution and afterpulse components, respectively. Measurements are carried out for a range of temperatures to measure the activation energy of the afterpulse component. The extracted single photon time resolution is compared to literature values on comparable devices.

        Speaker: Dr Christopher Betancourt (University of Zurich)
      • 108
        Analysis methods for highly radiation-damaged SiPMs

        Measurements and analysis methods are presented with the aim to determine the SiPM performance after irradiation by neutrons to fluences between 10^9 and 5x10^14 neq/cm^2. SiPMs with 4384 pixels of 15x15 µm2 produced by KETEK are used.
        Following measurements and analyses will be presented to determine the fluence dependence of the SiPM parameters given in the list.
        1. Y–f from which the pixel capacitance, quenching capacitance and quenching resistance are determined.
        2. C–Vreverse for determining the doping profile and the electric field.
        3. Idark–Vforward for determining the quenching resistance.
        4. Idark–Vreverse for determining the breakdown voltage and estimating the dark-count rate (DCR), the pixel occupancy and saturation effects at high DCR values.
        5. Iphoto-Vreverse for determining the breakdown voltage and the reduction of the photo-detection-efficiency (pde).
        6. Transient_dark–Vreverse from the rms-spread of the Transient_dark integrrated over different time intervals the SiPM pulse decay time, the DCR and saturation effects due to high DCR are determined.
        7. Transient_light–Vreverse from the mean and rms-spread of the Transient_light integrated over different time intervals, the SiPM gain and the pde are determined.
        The assumptions and limitations of the analyses and ways how to minimise the loss of pde for a given radiation fluence, will be presented. If a parameter can be determined in several ways, the differences will be discussed.

        Speaker: Prof. Robert Klanner (University of Hamburg)
      • 109
        Using Quantum Entangled Photons to Measure the Absolute PDE of a Multi-Pixel SiPM Array

        Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a visible pump photon is the generation of two less energetic, quantum entangled photons (QEPs), often in the near infrared (NIR), using a non-linear crystal such as beta barium borate (BBO). Since the detection of one QEP predicates the existence of its entangled twin, QEPs have previously been used to measure the absolute photon detection efficiency (PDE), η(λ), of a detector under test (DUT) by measuring time-coincident events with an additional trigger detector, allowing evaluation of $η_{DUT}$ (λ) without recourse to a calibrated reference detector.
        We propose an extension of this technique to measure η(λ) for pixels on a multi-pixel array where each pixel provides an individual signal output, and we model this using Monte Carlo simulations. By treating all pixels in a multi-pixel array as indistinguishable, we show that the symmetry of the measurement allows the mean η(λ) of the array to be evaluated.
        We describe the QEP absolute PDE measurement technique, and present the first experimental results showing the measurement of η(λ) for a 64-pixel SiPM array utilising a 64-channel waveform digitiser module to provide photon timing and coincidence measurements. We consider the feasibility of using QEPs for η(λ) measurements across the visible spectrum by using higher energy pump photons and considering coincident events in non-symmetric pixels, with the goal of developing an instrument for in-situ absolute PDE calibration.

        Speaker: Dr Jamie Williams (University of Leicester)
      • 110
        The 2 inches VSiPMT industrial prototype

        Photon detection is a key factor to study many physical processes in several areas of fundamental physics research. Focusing the attention on photodetectors for particle astrophysics, we understand that we are very close to new discoveries and new results. In order to push the progress in the study of very high-energy or extremely rare phenomena (e.g. dark matter, proton decay, neutrinos from astrophysical sources) the current and future experiments require additional improvements in linearity, gain, quantum e?fficiency and single photon counting capability. To meet the requirements of these classes of experiments, we propose a new design for a modern hybrid photodetector: the VSiPMT (Vacuum
        Silicon PhotoMultiplier Tube).
        The idea is to replace the classical dynode chain of a PMT with a SiPM, which therefore acts as an electron detector and ampli?er. The aim is to match the large sensitive area of a photocathode with the performances of the SiPM technology. The previous VSiPMT prototypes already showed many attractive features such as low power consumption, weak sensitivity to magnetic fields, excellent photon counting capability and so on.
        We now present the results of the full characterization of the latest and largest version achieved up to now, a 2-inches VSiPMT manufactured by Hamamatsu.

        Speaker: Felicia Carla Tiziana Barbato (INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics)
    • Conference Dinner Palais Ferstel

      Palais Ferstel

    • Plenary 4 EI7


      Convener: Joachim Mnich (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Hamburg and Zeuthen (DE))
      • 111
        CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for High Energy Physics

        CMOS technology, which fueled the rapid growth of the information technology industry in the past 50 years, has also played and continues to play a crucial role in the remarkable development of detectors for High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. The amazing evolution of CMOS transistors in terms of speed, integration and cost decrease, allowed a continuous increase of density, complexity and performance of the front-end and readout circuits for HEP detectors. With the advent of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), where the sensing layer and its readout circuitry are combined in a single silicon device, CMOS became also the technology for a new generation of vertex and tracking detectors. After a brief historical excursus on the development of CMOS APS, their most recent developments and applications in HEP, as well as some examples in other scientific domains, will be presented. Novel developments and prospects for further improvement of these devices in terms of integration scale, timing and radiation hardness will be discussed.

        Speaker: Luciano Musa (CERN)
      • 112
        ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Performance in LHC Run-2 and Electronics Upgrades for next Runs

        Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed by ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudo-rapidity region |η| < 3.2, and for hadronic and forward calorimetry in the region from |η| = 1.5 to |η| = 4.9. In the LHC Run-2 about 150fb-1 of data at a center- of-mass energy of 13 TeV have been recorded. The well calibrated and highly granular LAr Calorimeter reached its design values both in energy measurement as well as in direction resolution.
        Electronics developments are pursued for the trigger readout of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeter towards the Phase-I upgrade scheduled in the LHC shut-down period of 2019- 2020.Trigger signals with higher spatial granularity and higher precision are needed in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates, already at the Level-1 trigger.
        Following new TDAQ buffering requirements and high expected radiation doses in the pileup conditions of the high-luminosity LHC, the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter electronics will be upgraded (Phase-II) to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range. Developments of low-power preamplifiers and shapers to meet these requirements are ongoing in CMOS 130nm. In order to digitize the analogue signals on two gains after shaping, radiation-hard, low-power 40 MHz 14-bit ADCs are developed using a SAR architecture in 65 nm CMOS.
        This contribution will give an overview of the detector operation, changes in the monitoring and data quality procedures, to cope with increased pileup, as well as the achieved performance, including the calibration and stability of the electromagnetic scale, noise level, response uniformity and time resolution. Results of ASIC developments including QA/QC and radiation hardness evaluations, performances of the pre-production boards and results of the system integration tests, progress of QA/QC of final production boards will be presented along with the overall system design for the Phase-I upgrade. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system for the Phase-II upgrade.

        Speaker: Maddie McKay (Southern Methodist University (US))
      • 113
        Performance of the Belle II imaging Time-Of-Propagation (iTOP) detector in first collisions

        The iTOP detector is a novel Cherenkov detector developed for particle identification at Belle II, an upgrade of the previous Belle experiment at KEK. The SuperKEKB accelerator, an upgrade of KEKB, collides electrons and positrons with a design luminosity of 8*10^(35)/(cm^2 s). In order to exploit the high collision rate Belle II has a trigger rate of up to 30 kHz.
        The iTOP detector uses quartz bars as source of Cherenkov photons. The photons are reflected inside the bars until they hit photomultipliers at one end. The spatial distribution and precise arrival times of the detected photons are used to reconstruct the Cherenkov angle. To achieve a good pion-kaon separation the photon arrival times have to be measured with a resolution better than 100 ps. Microchannel plate photomultipliers together with dedicated high-speed electronics for 2.7 GSa/s waveform sampling are used to achieve this timing resolution. The iTOP detector consists of 16 modules with 512 channels each, in total the detector has 8192 channels.
        First collisions were recorded in Spring 2018. A phase of physics operation with a ramp up to full luminosity starts March 2019. In this talk the design of the iTOP detector will be shown and experience and results from initial operation will be discussed together with an outlook on future running conditions.

        Speaker: Martin Bessner (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DE))
    • 10:40 AM
      Coffee Break
    • Plenary 4 EI7


      Convener: Hiro Tajima
      • 114
        CUORE: the first bolometric experiment at the ton scale for the search for neutrino-less double beta decay

        The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the most massive bolometric experiment searching for neutrino-less double beta (0νββ) decay. The detector consists of an array of 988 TeO$_{2}$ crystals (742 kg active mass) arranged in a compact cylindrical structure of 19 towers. The construction of the experiment and, in particular, the installation of the towers in the cryostat was completed under clean room conditions in August 2016, and data taking began in spring 2017. In this talk, we will describe the CUORE experiment, including the cryostat, the front-end electronics, the data acquisition system and the data processing chain, and present the detector performance during the first year of running. We will emphasize the effort made in improving the energy resolution in the $^{130}$Te 0νββ decay of region of interest and the suppression of backgrounds. We also describe the work to lower the energy threshold that will give CUORE the sensitivity to search for other rare events such as dark matter.

        Speaker: Bradford Welliver (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
      • 115
        Science and technology of the DARWIN observatory

        DARWIN is a next-generation dark matter and neutrino observatory based on 50 tons of xenon. Its central TPC of 2.6 m diameter and height is operated as dual-phase detector with optimized light and charge read-out. It will allow to search for WIMPs at the GeV-TeV mass scale down to the "neutrino floor" where coherent interactions of astrophysical neutrinos start to dominate the interaction rate. The experiment will also hunt for solar axions, galactic ALPs and sterile neutrinos in the keV mass range. This is complemented by a high-sensitivity search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136 and a high-precision measurement of the solar pp-neutrino flux.
        This requires excellent signal-background discrimination while maintaining an extrordinary low level of background. A key challenge therein is the efficient purification of the LXe target from the radioisotopes Kr-85 and Rn-222 by cryodistillation and other means, as well as identification and suppression of neutron-induced reaction. Finally, an efficient charge read-out requires electron lifetimes in LXe on the ms-scale. The talk describes the physics reach and design of DARWIN, and focuses on ongoing R&D works on background suppression and improvements of the light and charge read-out in the very large TPC.

        Speaker: Prof. Guido Drexlin (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)
      • 116
        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO)

        The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is an experiment under construction in China with the primary goal of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) with reactor anti-neutrinos. The JUNO detector system consists of a central detector, an active veto system and a calibration system. The central detector is a 35 meter diameter transparent acrylic sphere containing a 20 kton liquid scintillator neutrino target. A primary photodetection system consisting of 18 000 large (20'' diameter) dynode and microchannel plate photomultipliers surrounds the central detector. A second interlaced photodetection system is made of 25 000 small (3'' diameter) photomultipliers working in the single photoelectron regime for the reactor antineutrino detection. The detector is designed to achieve an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% @1MeV and an absolute energy scale uncertainty better than 1%. A veto system, consisting of a water Cherenkov detector and a top tracker, is used to to help maximally remove cosmogenic backgrounds. Due to its unprecedented scale and precision, JUNO will be an exceptional multipurpose detector with a rich physics program in neutrino oscillation, geo-neutrinos, astrophysical neutrinos and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model (sterile neutrinos, dark matter, proton decay and others).

        Speaker: Cedric Cerna (CENBG/CNRS)
    • 12:35 PM
      Lunch Break
    • Plenary 5 EI7


      Convener: Manfred Krammer (CERN)
      • 117
        Large Liquid Argon TPCs and the search for CP Violation in the lepton sector with long baseline experiments

        With three-neutrino-families mixing firmly established in recent years, and the relatively large value of theta_13 observed, the race is on to discover CP Violation in neutrino mixing in accelerator-driven long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. NOvA and T2K will continue to provide increasingly precise measurements of the PMNS mixing matrix parameters into the next decade. DUNE will use giant Large TPCs deep underground in South Dakota to detect neutrinos from Fermilab starting early in the second half of the next decade. Hyper-K in Japan intend to use a giant underground water Cerenkov to detect the neutrino beam from J-PARC. Both experiments would resolve the neutrino mass ordering question and achieve excellent CP Violation sensitivity. The kiloton-scale single phase ProtoDUNE (NP04) at the CERN Neutrino Platform has demonstrated the LAr TPC design for the DUNE Far Detector. Construction, operation and performance of this detector will be the main focus of this contribution.

        Speaker: Christos Touramanis (University of Liverpool (GB))
      • 118
        Recent results of the technological prototypes of the CALICE highly granular calorimeters

        The CALICE Collaboration has been conducting R&D for highly granular calorimeters since more than 15 years with an emphasis on detectors for Linear Colliders. This contribution will describe the commissioning, including beam tests, of large scale technological prototypes of a silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter and hadron calorimeters featuring either a gaseous medium or scintillator with SiPM as an active material. Where applicable, raw performances of the calorimeter such as energy resolution and linearity will be presented but also studies exploiting the distinct features of granular calorimeters regarding pattern recognition. Meanwhile, the technology of granular calorimeters has been established, and the principle is part of nearly every design of detectors of energy frontier projects and beyond.
        In addition to a summary of the state of the art of the CALICE prototypes, the contribution will also outline adaptations of the current design to meet the needs of calorimeters for applications beyond linear colliders.

        Speaker: Roman Poeschl (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire (FR))
      • 119
        Performance of Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detectors – LAPPD

        The Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD™) is a microchannel plate (MCP) based planar geometry photodetector featuring single-photon sensitivity, semitransparent bi-alkali photocathode, millimeter spatial and picosecond temporal resolutions and an active area of to 350 square centimeters. The “baseline” LAPPD™ employs a borosilicate float glass hermetic package. Photoelectrons are amplified with a stacked chevron pair of “next generation” large area MCPs produced by applying resistive and emissive Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coatings to glass capillary array (GCA) substrates. Signals are collected on microstrip anodes applied to the bottom plate. We report performance results achieved for fully functional sealed LAPPDs™. These results include electron gains of up to 1E7, low dark noise rates (15-30 Hz/cm2), single photoelectron (PE) timing resolution of 64 picoseconds RMS (electronics limited), and single photoelectron spatial resolution along and across strips of 2.4 mm and 0.8 mm RMS respectively and high (up to 25%) QE uniform bi-alkali photocathodes.

        While not fully optimized, these tiles are usable for applications by early adopters. Optimized LAPPDs can be employed in neutrino experiments (e.g. ANNIE, WATCHMAN, DUNE), particle collider experiments (e.g. EIC), neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments (e.g. THEIA), medical and nuclear non-proliferation applications. We will also discuss future prospects of the project and new developments in LAPPDs.

        Speaker: Dr Alexey Lyashenko (Incom Inc.)
    • 3:40 PM
      Coffee Break
    • Plenary 5 EI7


      Convener: Manfred Krammer (CERN)
      • 120
        EIGER: High frame rate pixel detector for synchrotron and electron microscopy applications

        The hybrid pixel detector EIGER, featuring 75$\times$75 $\mu$m$^2$ pixel size, is a photon counter designed for use at synchrotrons. The chip and the complete readout system were designed at the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. A single chip consists of 256$\times$256 pixels and can acquire data at 22000~frame/s with 4-bit counter depth. In a full module, 4$\times$2 chips are bonded to a single 320 $\mu$m thin Si sensor. The readout electronics of a module has been specifically developed to preserve the high frame rate capability of the chip. Larger modules systems, up to 9 Mpixels, have been built tiling modules together and preserving the high frame rate capability.
        EIGER has been tested also as a detector for electrons both at low energies (8$-$20 keV targeting photo-emission electron microscopy) and higher energies (100$-$300~keV, typical for transmission electron microscopes). The stopping power of electrons varies a lot at these energies and the multiple scattering can be substantial. Up to 20 keV, the Si sensor needs to be optimized to reduce its entrance window, where low energy electrons stop or scatter. For higher energies up to 100 keV, EIGER shows single pixel resolution. At 200 or 300 keV, the multiple scattering of the electron in the sensor spoils the spatial resolution and a cluster of pixels is recorded per electron. However, EIGER is still suitable for diffraction applications at these energies thanks to the high frame rate capability.

        Speaker: Erik Fröjdh (Paul Scherrer Institut)
    • 121
      Award Ceremony EI7


      Speaker: Prof. Robert Klanner (University of Hamburg)
    • Summary EI7


      Convener: Manfred Krammer (CERN)
      • 122
        Instrumentation -- state of the art and a look into the future

        Progress in experimental physics relies often on advances and breakthroughs in instrumentation, leading to substantial gains in measurement accuracy, efficiency and speed, or even opening completely new approaches and methods. At a time when the R&D for the upgrade of the large LHC experiments is still in full swing, the Experimental Physics Department of CERN has proposed a new technological R&D programme from 2020 onwards that will rely on a sustained cooperation with the HEP community. The programme covers the domains detectors, electronics, software and intimately connected domains like mechanics, cooling and experimental magnets.

        This talk will try to highlight new ideas, advances and breakthroughs presented at this conference and, whenever possible and meaningful, put them in relation to the planned R&D programme.

        Speaker: Christian Joram (CERN)
    • 123
      Closing EI7


      Speaker: Manfred Krammer (CERN)