# European Nuclear Physics Conference 2022 (EuNPC 2022)

Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación (University of Santiago de Compostela)

### Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación

#### University of Santiago de Compostela

Campus Norte, Av. de Castelao, s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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Description

EuNPC2022 is the fifth European Nuclear Physics Conference, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the European Physical Society, the Nuclear Physics Group of the  Real Sociedad Española de Física  and  the Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías of Santiago de Compostela University. The conference will take place from October 24th - 28th 2022, and will be held in Santiago de Compostela.

REGISTRATION OPENED

Registration
PRE-REGISTRATION INDICO SYSTEM
Contact
• Monday, October 24
• REGISTRATION AND WELCOME
• Plenary Talks
• 1
Observation of the tetra neutron in the p(p, α) reaction at large momentum transfer

The experimental search for the existence of a tetra neutron state has a long history, and the situation remained unclear until recently, and a possible explanation of our experimental finding is still open. On the theoretical side, large efforts have been undertaken as well recently, with results and predictions scattering over wide range in energy, including the prediction for the non-existence of a bound or resonance state. The experimental challenge is to create an isolated 4-neutron system in the final state, without low-energy final-state interaction with other particlesinvolved in the reaction. We have employed a new experimental approach for the search of a possible tetra neutron, the quasi free ${}^8$He($p$,$p\alpha$)4n reaction at high beam energy. The experiment selected the knockout of the alpha particle at very large momentum transfer, corresponding to 180° $p - \alpha$ scattering in the c.m. frame, separating the charged particles from the neutrons in momentum space.

The experiment has been carried out at the SAMURAI setup located at the RIBF. The scattered charged particles have been detected and momentum analysed, from which the missing mass spectrum has been reconstructed in a wide energy window accepted by the experiment. In case of the absence of any interaction among the neutrons in the final state, a wide distribution centred around 30 MeV relative energy was expected, which reflects the internal relative motion of the neutrons in ${}^8$He. It was indeed found, that the largest fraction of the cross section corresponds to this shape. In addition, a well pronounced resonance-like peak at 2 MeV energy with a width of about 2 MeV has been observed with a larger than 5 sigma significance, providing clear evidence for strong four-neutron correlations in the final state. The results have been published recently in Nature [1]. The experiment and results will be presented and discussed.

[1] M. Duer et al., Nature 606 (2022) 678

Speaker: Thomas Aumann (T)
• 10:15 AM
Coffee Break
• Plenary Talks
• 2
High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy of Exotic nuclei.

The AGATA (Advanced GAmma Tracking Array) $\gamma$-ray array [1] has been celebrating its first ten years of data taking all over Europe. Thanks to its unprecedented position and energy resolution combined with state-of-the-art complementary instrumentation, AGATA has allowed to pave the way towards high precision spectroscopy measurements in exotic nuclei, thus providing a wealth of structural information far away from the stability line

Recently, the array has made its comeback to the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL, Italy), where it is expected to be used both with stable and post-accelerated radioactive beam produced by the SPES facility. The first campaign of AGATA at LNL started in Spring 2022 [2] with stable beams and AGATA coupled to the PRISMA large acceptance spectrometer and additional charged particle detectors. In this talk, a review on the achievements in nuclear structure physics and future physics campaigns with the $\gamma$-ray tracking AGATA will be presented.

[1] A. Akkoyun et al., NIM A 668, 26 (2012).

[2] J.J. Valiente Dobon et al, In preparation

Speaker: Alain Goasduff (INFN - LNL)
• 3
Present and future accelerators for nuclear physics

Accelerators for nuclear physics research span a wide parameter range in beam energy and intensity. We provide an overview of the existing and planned accelerators, design considerations, performance limitations and technology developments that enable future machines.

Speaker: Wolfram Fischer (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
• 4
Status and Perspectives of Silicon Detectors

A review of the present status of silicon tracking and vertexing systems and their future developements will be presented. We will show themodern detectors used in present day experiments both in nuclear and elementary particle physics, and the achieved results. Then show the near-future systems which are now being designed, built, or commissioned. And in conclusion an outlook on the future developments for next-generation silicon detectors will be presented.

Speaker: Alberto Cervelli (Universita e INFN, Bologna (IT))
• 5
Development of novel detector concepts for nuclear physics with rare isotope beams at FRIB

Since their invention in the 1930s, particle accelerator science has led to major discoveries and advancements in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. Progress in accelerator-based experimental physics has always been linked to improvement of detector technology. Rare isotope (RI) beam facilities are now important tools for nuclear physics. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), located on the campus of the Michigan State University, is a new world-leading user facility for the study of RIs using the in-flight fragmentation method. The unprecedented potential discovery of a modern rare isotope beam facility, such as FRIB, can only be realized by implementing state-of-the-art experimental equipment capable of studying these isotopes at a high beam rate and high performance.
In this work, I report the development of a few innovative detector concepts for tracking and particle identification (PID) of heavy-ions. In particular, I will describe the development of new micro-pattern gaseous detector (MPGD) structures capable of stable, high-gain operation at low-pressure, applied as either position-sensitive readout for Time-Projection-Chamber in active-target mode (AT-TPC), or for drift chambers at the focal-plane of large-acceptance spectrometer.
In addition, I will present the progress on design and construction of advanced, innovative instrumentation for highly accurate and efficient identification of the atomic number (Z) of nuclei transmitted to the focal plane of high-resolution spectrographs. The detector concept is based on event-by-event Energy-Loss measurement in a multi-segmented Optical Scintillator System (ELOSS), by recording the scintillation light released by a charged particle along its track. We discuss the optimization of the optical readout configuration based on DUV-sensitive PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), the expected performance of the novel detector concept, and the overall impact on radiation-detection physics and technology applied to the field of experimental nuclear physics with rare-isotope beams.

Speaker: Dr Marco Cortesi (Facility for Rare Isotope Beams)
• 1:00 PM
Lunch Break
• Lise Meitner Project
• Social Activity
• Tuesday, October 25
• Plenary Talks
• 6
Cosmic laboratories for nuclear physics

In 2017, a multimessenger era started with the first gravitational wave detection from the merger of two neutron stars (GW170817) and the rich electromagnetic follow-up. The most exciting electromagnetic counterpart was the kilonova. This provides an answer to the long-standing question of how and where heavy elements are produced in the universe. The neutron-rich material ejected during the neutron star merger (NSM) undergoes an r-process (rapid neutron capture process) that produces heavy elements and a kilonova. Moreover, observations of abundances from the oldest stars reveal an additional r-process contribution of a rare and fast event, which could be core-collapse supernovae (CCSN) with strong magnetic fields, so called magneto-rotational supernovae (MR-SN). Now we can use NSM and CCSN as cosmic laboratories to test nuclear physics under extreme conditions and to understand the origin and history of heavy elements. We combine hydrodynamic simulations of NSM and MR-SN including state-of-the-art microphysics, with nucleosynthesis calculations involving extreme neutron-rich nuclei, and forefront observations of stellar abundances in the Milky Way and in orbiting dwarf galaxies. This opens up a new frontier to use the freshly synthesized elements to benchmark simulations against observations. The nucleosynthesis depends on astrophysical conditions (e.g., mass of the neutron stars) and on the microphysics included (equation of state and neutrino interactions). Therefore, comparing calculated abundances based on simulations to observations of the oldest stars and future kilonovae will lead to ground-breaking discoveries for CCSN, NSM, the extreme physics involved, and the origin of heavy elements.

Speaker: Almudena Arcones
• 7
Proton capture on stored radioactive ions

By combining two unique facilities at GSI (Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research),
the fragment separator (FRS) and the experimental storage ring (ESR), the first direct measurement of a proton capture reaction of a stored radioactive isotope has been accomplished. The combination of sharp ion energy, ultra-thin internal gas target, and the ability to adjust energy of the beam in the ring enables precise, energy-differentiated measurements of the (p,𝛾)-cross-sections. Our new results provide a sensitive method for measuring (p,𝛾) and (p,n) reactions relevant for nucleosynthesis processes in supernovae, which are among the most violent explosions in the universe and are not yet well understood.

The cross section of the 118Te(p,𝛾) reaction was measured at energies of astrophysical interest. The heavy ions were stored with energies of 6 MeV/nucleon and 7 MeV/nucleon and interacted with a hydrogen jet target. The produced 119I ions were detected with double-sided silicon strip detectors. The radiative recombination process of the fully stripped 118Te ions and electrons from the hydrogen target was used as a luminosity monitor.

These measurements follow a proof-of-principle experiment which was performed in 2016 to validate the method on the stable isotope 124Xe [1].
An overview of the experimental method and preliminary results from the ongoing analysis will be presented.

[1] J. Glorius et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 092701 (2019)

Speaker: Sophia Florence Dellmann (Goethe University Frankfurt)
• 8
Nuclear Astrophysics at the Low-Energy Frontiers: Updates from underground laboratories

Nuclear fusion reactions are the heart of nuclear astrophysics: they sensitively influence the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the earliest stages of the Universe and in all the objects formed thereafter; control the associated energy generation and neutrino luminosity; influence the evolution of stars. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) is an experimental approach for the study of nuclear fusion reactions based on an underground accelerator laboratory.
The LUNA Collaboration has been directly measuring cross sections of nuclear processes belonging to Hydrogen, Helium burning and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis relevant in several astrophysical scenarios with unprecedented sensitivity, due to the huge background suppression available in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratories. In this talk, after a general introduction, the latest LUNA results and ongoing measurements will be presented.
Future researches will be carried out in the framework of the new LUNA-MV experiment as well as in several other underground laboratories. I will give an update with the status of new laboratories as well as future plans.

Speaker: Francesca Cavanna (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sezione di Torino)
• 10:15 AM
Coffee Break
• Plenary Talks
• 9

The spectrum of hadrons is composed of bound states of quarks and gluons. The distinctive property of confinement in strong interactions, which are described by Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), prevents quarks and gluons from appearing as free particles. A new generation of dedicated experiments in hadron physics has been proposed with the aim of uncovering properties of strong interactions and specifically the mysteries of confinement. Some of these experiments are already in operation and several more are planned for the near future in the main EU laboratories (CERN, Mainz, Bonn, GSI) and abroad (JLab/US, BESIII/China, JPARC/Japan, Belle/Japan). In this contribution, I will report the latest experimental results in hadron spectroscopy and plans for the future.

Speaker: Marco Andrea Battaglieri (INFN e Universita Genova (IT))
• 10
Unraveling the internal structure of the nucleon at Jefferson Lab and the future EIC

Understanding Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) at large distances remains one of the main outstanding problems of nuclear physics. Investigating the internal structure of hadrons probes QCD in the non-perturbative domain and can help unravel the spatial extensions of nature's building blocks. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) is the easiest reaction that accesses the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. GPDs offer the exciting possibility of mapping the 3-D internal structure of protons and neutrons by providing a transverse image of the constituents as a function of their longitudinal momentum. A vigorous experimental program is currently pursued at Jefferson Lab (JLab) to study GPDs through DVCS. New results recently published will be shown and discussed. We will give with an outlook on the Upgrade of JLab to 12 GeV, which will allow the full exploration of the valence quark structure of nucleons and nuclei and promises the extraction of full tomographic images. We will conclude discussing the future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), which will complete this program by studying the gluon content of nucleons and nuclei.

Speaker: Carlos MUNOZ CAMACHO (IJCLab-Orsay (CNRS/IN2P3, France))
• 11
Hadron spectroscopy from lattice QCD: progress and prospects

The status of lattice hadron spectroscopy will be discussed. In recent years there has been significant progress in calculations of the properties of exotic and conventional hadronic resonances and an overview of the challenges as well as the prospects for future studies will be presented.

Speaker: Sinead Ryan (Trinity College Dublin)
• NuPECC
• 12
NuPECC Long Range Plan 2024 for Nuclear Physics in Europe

The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) [1] hosted by the European Science Foundation represents today a large nuclear physics community from 22 countries, 3 ESFRI (European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures) nuclear physics infrastructures and ECT* (European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas), as well as from 4 associated members and 9 observers.
The Committee, as one of its major activity, organises a consultation of the community leading to the definition and publication of a Long Range Plan (LRP) of European nuclear physics. To this aim, NuPECC has in the past produced five LRPs: in November 1991, December 1997, April 2004, December 2010 and November 2017 [2]. The LRP identifies opportunities and priorities for nuclear science in Europe and provides national funding agencies, ESFRI and the European Commission with a framework for coordinated advances in nuclear science in Europe. It serves also as a reference document for the strategic plans for nuclear physics in the European countries.
NuPECC published in February 2022 an assessment of the implementation of the LRP 2017 [1] which summarises achievements in nuclear science and techniques resulting from the LRP recommendations.
At its recent meeting in May 2022, NuPECC took the decision to launch the process of creating a new Long Range Plan for Nuclear Physics in Europe, identifying opportunities and priorities for nuclear science in Europe, with the aim of publishing the document in 2024[3]. With the intention of strengthening the bottom-up approach that has always played an important role in its LRPs, NuPECC has opened recently a call for inputs to the next LRP in form of short (5 page) documents describing the view of collaborations, experiments, or communities on the key topics for the next 10 years to be included in the upcoming LRP. The committee also solicits new ideas going beyond the topics considered in the LRP2017 or/and exploring synergies with the particle physics and astroparticle physics communities and considering new developments such as gravitational waves and multi-messenger astronomy. Contributions related to novel applications in cross disciplinary fields are also welcome. Nuclear Physics is a cross-continent field of science and European scientists strongly participate in the research activities outside of Europe. Inputs reflecting these activities are warmly welcome, too. The call for inputs will be open until 1 October 2022. Details concerning the submission procedure and the format of inputs can be found at the submission Web page [4].
The Steering Committee of the LRP2024, supervising the whole process, and all NuPECC members encourage active participation of the whole community in the elaboration of an ambitious and achievable strategic plan for the future of European nuclear physics.
References
[1] http : //nupecc.org .
[2] http : //nupecc.org/pub/lrp17/lrp2017.pdf .
[3] http : //nupecc.org/?display = lrp2024/main .
[4] https : //indico.ph.tum.de/event/7050/ .

Speaker: Prof. Marek Lewitowicz (GANIL/NuPECC)
• 1:00 PM
Lunch Break
• Parallel sessions
• 4:45 PM
Coffee Break
• Parallel sessions
• Social Activity
• Wednesday, October 26
• EPS Young Minds Project: Roundtable
• 10:15 AM
Coffee Break
• EPS Young Minds Project: Workshop
• 12:30 PM
Lunch Break
• Plenary Talks
• 13
Status of the search for cosmic-ray origins: a multimessenger view

The quest for finding the origins of cosmic rays has been going on for many decades. Cosmic rays as charged particles react to cosmic magnetic fields and therefore travel in diffusive motion through the Universe. Their imprint on Earth therefore has little information on their original direction so that finding the sources of cosmic rays is a major challenge and the question of their origins one of the leading questions in physics and astrophysics. To solve this riddle, a multimessenger approach is used. Cosmic-ray interactions in the sources lead to the production of particle showers, from which gamma-rays and neutrinos are observable on Earth. As these travel on straight paths through the Universe, these messengers can be used to further unravel the cosmic-ray origins. One messenger alone is never enough - high-energy photons are also produced by electrons via bremsstrahlung or inverse Compton scattering. High-energy neutrinos are very difficult to detect. Nevertheless, the newest generation of detectors, concerning cosmic rays themselves, high-energy gamma-rays, and neutrinos, are so advanced now that it is possible to combine the different pieces of information to deduce first evidence of where cosmic rays come from.

In this talk, the current state of the art will be reviewed from this multimessenger perspective. In particular, it will be shown how theoretical results are combined with multimessenger data in order to pinpoint the sources of cosmic rays.

Speaker: Julia Tjus
• 14
Neutrino oscillation anomalies

I give an overview of the several anomalies appearing in neutrino oscillation experiments. I will briefly discuss the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies and the recent results from the MicroBooNE experiment before turning, in the main part of the talk, to the reactor antineutrino anomaly and the Gallium anomaly. I will discuss these two anomalies in some detail and, in particular, compare their explanation due to neutrino oscillations in presence of a light sterile neutrino among each other and also with the bounds from the analyses of reactor spectral ratio data, β-decay data, and solar neutrino data.

Speaker: Christoph Andreas Ternes (INFN, Sezione di Torino)
• Parallel sessions
• 5:00 PM
Coffee Break
• Parallel sessions
• Thursday, October 27
• Plenary Talks
• 15
Constraints on the nuclear Equation of State from heavy ion reaction dynamics

Recent results connected to nuclear collision dynamics, from low up to intermediate energies, will be reviewed.
Direct reactions can carry important information on yet unknown aspects of the nuclear effective interaction, relating to the excitation of isospin and spin-isospin modes.
Dissipative heavy ion reactions offer the unique opportunity to probe the complex nuclear many-body dynamics and to explore, in laboratory experiments, transient states of nuclear matter under several conditions of density, temperature and charge asymmetry. Transport models are an essential tool to undertake the latter investigations and make a connection between the nuclear effective interaction and sensitive observables of experimental interest.
In this talks, I mainly focus on the description of a selection of reaction mechanisms, also considering comparisons of predictions of different approaches. This analysis can help understanding the impact of the interplay between mean-field and correlation effects, as well as of in-medium effects, on reaction observables, which is an essential point also for extracting information on the features of the nuclear effective interaction and on the nuclear Equation of State.

Speaker: Dr Maria Colonna
• 16
Self-consistent mean field studies of multi-quasiparticle excitations with the Gogny force

There are two fundamental kinds of excitation modes in the atomic nucleus: collective and single-particle excitations. So far, most of the theoretical effort has focused on the study of the former and the latter has been mostly treated by using the quasiparticle spectrum of neighboring nuclei [1] or the equal-filling approximation [2]. However, these approaches explicitly neglect time-odd fields that can modify in a substantial way the properties of excited states. In order to take them into account, the Hartree- Fock- Bogoliubov (HFB) method with full blocking has to be introduced. The implementation has to be flexible enough as to allow for one-quasiparticle excitations (odd and odd-odd nuclei), two quasiparticle excitations (built on top of both even and odd systems), four quasiparticle excitations (as to study high K isomers), etc. Also, a careful handling of the orthogonality of the different states has to be made in order to obtain an excitation spectrum containing more than one state per quantum number.

In order to study those multiquasiparticle excitations a computer code has been developed to solve in an efficient way the HFB equation with full blocking in the case of the Gogny force [3]. It preserves axial symmetry so that K is a good quantum number. Parity is allowed to break but it turns out that most of the solutions only have a slight breaking of reflection symmetry and therefore the parity quantum number can also be used to characterize the states. The code includes the possibility to impose orthogonality constraints to previously computed states. The results obtained show differences with respect to simpler calculations [1,2] that can amount to a few hundred keV in excitation energy, showing the importance of the time-odd fields and the self-consistency of the HFB+Blocking method. Also the quenching of pairing correlations is very strong in the HFB+Blocking method representing a source for the reduction of the excitation energy as compared to simpler calculations.

Using the HFB+Blocking method along with the finite range, density dependent Gogny force, we have carried out calculations of high-K two and four- quasiparticle isomeric states in even-even and odd-A nuclei. The quite good agreement with experimental data for excitation energies shows the suitability and predictive power of the Gogny force in the study of this kind of physics.

One of the most important consequences of blocking is the severe quenching of pairing correlations. This effect points to an increasing relevance of dynamics pairing in those affected excitations. To gain some understanding on this effect, we have analyzed the sensitivity of the results to the amount of pairing correlations by using larger pairing strengths. The results will also be discussed.

REFERENCES
[1] T. Duguet, P. Bonche, P.-H. Heenen, and J. Meyer, Phys. Rev. C 65, 014310 (2001)
[2] S. Perez-Martin and L. M. Robledo, Phys. Rev. C 78, 014304 (2008)
[3] L. M. Robledo, R. Bernard, and G. F. Bertsch, Phys. Rev. C 86, 064313 (2012)

• 17
Nuclear fission at storage rings

Nuclear fission is a rich laboratory for studying structural, dynamical and statistical properties of nuclei. It is also highly relevant for understanding the origin of heavy elements in stars. In addition, fission is a powerful source of energy and therefore also very important for industry and society.

One of the most important fission quantities is the fission barrier as it defines the fission probability. The most direct way (and often the only way) to obtain fission barriers is to measure the fission probability as a function of the excitation energy of nuclei formed by transfer and inelastic scattering reactions. In [1] we have shown that the measurement of the fission probability together with the probabilities for the de-excitation channels that compete with fission (i.e. gamma or neutron emission) sets strong constraints to the description of the de-excitation process and can lead to a significant reduction of the uncertainty of the fission barrier parameters. However, the measurement of gamma- or neutron-emission probabilities in standard experiments is very difficult due to the very low detection efficiencies for gamma rays and low-energy neutrons. Moreover, so far decay probabilities have only been measured for nuclei close to the valley of stability due to the difficulty to produce and handle radioactive targets.

The NECTAR (NuclEar reaCTions At storage Rings) project aims to circumvent these problems by performing measurements in inverse kinematics at storage rings. The inversion of the kinematics makes possible the study of short-lived nuclei and the detection of the beam-like residues produced after neutron and gamma-ray emission with high efficiencies. The long-standing issues related to the interaction of a heavy ion beam and a thick target can be solved by using a storage ring. Indeed, in a storage ring, heavy, radioactive ions revolve at high frequency passing repeatedly through an electron cooler, which will greatly improve the beam quality and restore it after each passage of the beam through the internal gas-jet serving as ultra-thin, windowless target. This way, excitation energy and decay probabilities can be measured with unrivaled accuracy.

In this contribution, I will present the NECTAR project whose aim is to measure for the first time simultaneously fission, neutron and gamma-ray emission probabilities at the storage rings of the GSI/FAIR facility. I will also present the first results of the proof of principle experiment, which we have performed in June 2022 at the ESR storage ring of GSI/FAIR. Finally, I will discuss the short- and long-term perspectives for the study of fission at storage rings.

[1] R. Pérez Sánchez, B. Jurado et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 125 (2020) 122502

Acknowledgment: This work has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC-Advanced grant NECTAR, grant agreement No 884715).

Speaker: Beatriz JURADO APRUZZESE (LP2I Bordeaux)
• 10:15 AM
Coffee Break
• Plenary Talks
• 18
An overview of recent results from heavy-ion experiments

One of the major areas of high-energy physics is the study of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. At high temperatures and/or high net-baryon densities, a state of strongly-interacting matter, the quark–gluon plasma (QGP), in which quarks and gluons are no longer confined in hadrons, is formed. This state of matter existed just a few microseconds after the Big Bang and might exist in the core of neutron stars. The study of the properties of the QGP as well as the nature of the transition from the ordinary hadron gas phase to the QGP allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the strong nuclear force, described by quantum chromodynamics. Heavy-ion collisions at varying beam energies provide us access to large regions of the phase diagram of strongly-interacting matter. In this overview, a selection of recent results from heavy-ion experiments at the LHC, RHIC and lower energies will be discussed.

Speaker: Yvonne Chiara Pachmayer (Ruprecht Karls Universitaet Heidelberg (DE))
• 19
Upgrades and perspectives of heavy-ion experiments

Experiments based on ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions are pursued in several facilities. At CERN, all large experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) participate in the heavy-ion programme and also plan corresponding upgrades. Further experiments are carried out and planned at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). At RHIC, data taking with sPHENIX will commence shortly. At FAIR, the CMB collaboration prepares a detector for installation at the SIS-100 accelerator. In this presentation, we will review the plans for the upgrades and the perspectives for heavy-ion physics at different stages.

Speaker: Jochen Klein (CERN)
• 20
A new experiment to measure Parity violation in trapped chiral molecular ions

The weak interaction is predicted to give rise to slightly different structures for left and right-handed chiral molecules, contrary the common conception that enantiomers are perfect mirror images. The consequences range from the nulling of the tunnelling rate in chiral molecules to a possible seed of homo-chirality in the chemistry of life. We are building a new experiment aimed at observing parity violation (PV) in molecules for the first time. We will use charged chiral molecules which can be easily trapped and have unique pathways to prepare internally cold molecules. Toward our goal we have developed a novel method to differentially extract the PV signature from a racemic sample, overcoming the need to synthesize samples of a single handedness to be measured separately. The differential nature of the scheme enables common-mode noise rejection for signal of interest, optimizing the precision and minimizing susceptibility to systematic shifts.
This experiment may turn into a platform to test fundamental physics and search for beyond Standard Model physics.

[1] Itay Erez, Eliana Ruth Wallach and Yuval Shagam arXiv:2206.03699 (2022)

Speaker: Yuval Shagam (Technion)
• 1:00 PM
Lunch Break
• Parallel sessions
• 4:45 PM
Coffee Break
• Parallel sessions
• Social Activity
• Friday, October 28
• Plenary Talks
• 21
NUCLEAR PHYSICS CAPABILIESTIES OF THE IFMIF-DONES NEUTRON SOURCE

The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility – Demo Oriented Neutron Source (IFMIF-DONES) is a research infrastructure for irradiation the materials to be used in a fusion reactor. The facility would provide a unique neutron source of energy spectrum and flux level representative of those expected for the first wall containing future fusion reactors. Its construction is close to be started in the proposed site at the Escúzar Metropolitan Park (located 18 km southwest from Granada city).
Its unique characteristics are also well adapted for the development of a number of different types of other experiments relevant for nuclear physics and other scientific topics.
This paper will present an overview of the implementation, engineering design and main irradiation characteristics of the facility as well as a review of the different possible experimental applications of interest for nuclear physics that has been identified.

Speaker: Angel Ibarra (IFMIF-DONES España)
• 22
Applications of high energy focused ion beams for elemental and molecular imaging in live sciences: micro-PIXE and MeV-SIMS

By the improvements of the accelerators, ion sources, ion lenses and detectors, high energy focused ion beams are becoming a powerful tool for chemical imaging in life science.

Micro-Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) became a technique of choice for tissue elemental mapping in the cases, where high elemental sensitivity, high lateral resolution and quantitative nature of the elemental analysis need to be combined for the tissue analysis. Quantification of the elemental maps is done with supplementary information obtained by Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM), providing light element composition and tissue thickness. We will present several representing cases of elemental imaging of biological tissue slices [1], including the samples in frozen hydrated state. We will present the capability for a single cell imaging, where elemental inventories of single cells are determined by picogram (10-12 g) resolution [2].

Combining lateral resolution, high elemental sensitivity and inherent concentration quantification capabilities, micro-PIXE is able to determine the stoichiometry of proteins containing metal atoms by ratio between the number of metallic atoms and sulphur atoms in proteins. The pioneering work was done by Garman and Grime [3] on natural proteins. In the work of Malay et al [4], we applied micro-PIXE to determine the number of gold atoms binding together TRAP protein rings into a synthetic protein cage structure featuring reversible self-organization.

Heavy ions with the energies of several MeV (swift ions) interact with the insulating media exclusively through interaction with the target electrons and create a phonon shock wave, which propagates from the ion impact position through the surrounding material and induces highly efficient desorption of entire ionized biomolecules. Based on this physical phenomenon, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with high-energy heavy ions (MeV-SIMS) is emerging as a promising Imaging Mass Spectroscopy (IMS) technique for molecular imaging of biological tissue [5]. Selected cases of molecular imaging by MeV-SIMS will be presented [6].

References:

[1] Pongrac et al, Food Chem. Toxicol. 135, 110974 (2020).
[2] Ogrinc et al, Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 306, 121-124 (2013).
[3] Garman and Grime, Progr. Biphys. Mol. Biol. 89, 173-205 (2005).
[4] Malay et al, Nature 569, 439–443 (2019).
[5] Nakata et al, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 1591-1594 (2008).
[6] Jeromel et al, Plos One 17, e0263338(2022).

Speaker: Primož Pelicon (Jožef Stefan Institute)
• 23
Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating in forensics

Different studies have shown the high potential of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) 14C dating in forensics sciences where high chronological resolution (annual or even sub annual) is mandatory on samples typically younger than one hundred years ca. In this field, radiocarbon dating is based on the detection of the excess of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration induced by aboveground nuclear detonation tests carried out after the second world war. The curve (bomb peak) representing the variation of the 14C atmospheric concentration is well known with high resolution for several locations around the globe both in the Northern and the Southern hemispheres and it is widely used as reference for forensics dating. Indeed, though different studies have shown the potential of the method in different fields (such as in forensics anthropology), important aspects have to be considered and addressed when the method is used in the routine forensics practice. These aspects such as the possible multiple intercepts with the bomb spike curve, possible regional offsets, considerations related to carbon fixation and turnover in living tissues are presented and discussed refereeing to different kind of materials. The achievable uncertainty levels are also discussed as well as the advantages related to the use of advanced statistical tools for data interpretation.
We also report on the outcome of a Work Package (WP4) specifically dedicated to 14C within a CRP-Coordinated Research Program funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency and aimed at enhancing the use of nuclear based techniques in forensics. Within the CRP different intercomparison exercises were designed and run among different AMS laboratories on sample materials relevant in forensics such as bones, ivory, foodstuff, paper, and textiles.
Case studies will be also presented and discussed such as the dating of seized ivory samples, the analysis of human remains, the identification of forgeries in cultural heritage and the identification of missing persons in war scenarios.

Speaker: Prof. Gianluca Quarta (University of Salento)
• 10:15 AM
Coffee Break
• Plenary Talks
• 24
From correlations to universal behavior in few-nucleon systems

Very detailed nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions have been constructed and applied to describe bound and scattering states in few-nucleon systems. They are based on chiral perturbation theory. At the same time the shallow character of the deuteron (S=1) state and the virtual 1S0 states allows for an effective description in which the pion degrees of freedom have been integrated out. This is known as pionless effective field theory. Different types of correlations appear; examples will be shown in the three- and four-nucleon systems and in the evolution of the nuclear levels from the unitary point, a point where the scattering lengths are infinity, to the physical point in which they take the observed value.

Speaker: Alejandro Kievsky (INFN)
• NPD Best PhD
• 25
High-precision measurements in the direct vicinity of the doubly magic 100Sn (N=Z=50) at ISOLDE/CERN

This dissertation award talk will describe the transition of the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at CERN from the well-established Penning-trap mass spectrometry (PTMS) technique, ToF-ICR, to the next-generation PTMS technique, called PI-ICR [PRL 110 (2013) 082501]. Using this revolutionary technique, we achieved the first mass measurements of the neutron-deficient indium isotopes $^{99-101}$In in the direct vicinity of the doubly-magic $^{100}$Sn ($N$=$Z$=50). These results allowed us to resolve a stark discrepancy in the β-decay energy of $^{100}$Sn and thus provided a new atomic mass value of $^{100}$Sn via its direct β-decay into $^{100}$In [Nature Phys. 17, 1099 (2021)].

In this context, I will also present the first hyperfine spectroscopy results of these neutron-deficient indium isotopes, which provided the first experimental evidence for the nuclear deformation toward the doubly-magic $^{100}$Sn.

Speaker: Jonas Karthein (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (US))
• 26
Laser spectroscopy at the frontiers of RIB production

The nuclear electromagnetic moments and changes in the charge radius are sensitive tools to investigate phenomena emerging in short-lived isotopes. These properties, extracted from laser spectroscopy experiments, are often essential to critically examine our understanding of the nuclear structure, and its evolution towards the edges of the nuclear landscape. In this contribution, recent highlights will be presented from the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE and the collinear laser spectroscopy setup at the IGISOL facility, focusing on exploring the sensitivity of the charge radii to changes in the nuclear structure.

New technical developments enabled the CRIS measurement of the neutron-rich $^{52}$K and demonstrated the feasibility of spectroscopy on the isotope $^{34}$Al as well. These results contribute to tackling the questions associated with the proposed magic number at $N$=32 in the calcium region and the island of inversion near $N$=20, respectively. Furthermore, at IGISOL the proton-rich isotopes below Ni ($Z$=28) were explored by performing the first laser spectroscopy of radioactive $^{48,49,51}$Cr and $^{54-55,58}$Co. These results pave the way for measuring the properties of the isospin partners in self-conjugate $^{54}$Co, and $^{53}$Co together with its proton emitter isomer.

Speaker: Agota Koszorus (CERN)
• 27
Observing the shape of nuclei at high-energy colliders

High-energy nuclear collisions are conducted in the world’s largest accelerator facilities to characterize the hot and dense phase of strong-interaction matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Production of QGP droplets began with 197Au+197 collisions at the BNL RHIC in the early 2000's, and was followed in 2010 by 208Pb+208Pb collisions at the CERN LHC.

Thanks to data recently collected in collisions of additional systems, namely, 238U, 129Xe, 96Ru, 96Zr, it has been realized that the final states of heavy-ion collisions are strongly impacted by the collective structure (deformations and radial profiles) of the colliding ions. Nuclear structure manifests, in particular, in the azimuthal momentum anisotropy of the observed particle distributions, which, by virtue of the fluid-like nature of the QGP, directly reflects the deformed shape of the colliding ions at the time of interaction.

I present recent activities that have established high-energy nuclear experiments as a new probe of nuclear structure. I discuss signatures of quadrupole, octupole, and triaxial deformations of nuclei in heavy-ion collisions. I argue that these experiments provide an information about nuclear structure that is fully complementary to that obtained in traditional low-energy experiments, while opening a unique window onto the role played by QCD, i.e., by quarks and gluons, in shaping the collective properties of atomic nuclei.

Speaker: Giuliano Giacalone (Universität Heidelberg)
• 1:00 PM
Lunch Break
• Closing