CHEP 06

Europe/Zurich
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
Description
Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics
    • 08:00 09:30
      Registration
    • 09:30 10:30
      Plenary: Plenary 1 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India

      Plenary Session

      • 09:30
        Opening of The Coference 30m
      • 10:00
        Status of the LHC Machine 30m
        Speaker: Dr Jos Engelen (CERN)
        Slides
    • 10:30 11:00
      Tea Break 30m
    • 11:00 12:30
      Plenary: Plenary 2 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India

      Plenary Session

      Convener: Wolfgang von Rueden (CERN)
      • 11:00
        State of Readiness of LHC Computing Infrastructure 30m
        Speaker: Dr Jamie Shiers (CERN)
      • 11:30
        State of readiness of LHC Experiment Software 30m
        Speaker: Dr Paris Sphicas (CERN)
        Slides
      • 12:00
        Low Cost Connecivity Initiative in India 30m
        Speaker: Dr Ashok Jhunjhunwala (IIT, Chennai)
        Slides
    • 11:00 18:10
      Poster: Poster 1
      • 11:00
        A case for application-aware grid services. 20m
        In 2005, the DZero Data Reconstruction project processed 250 tera-bytes of data on the Grid, using 1,600 CPU-years of computing cycles in 6 months. The large computational task required a high-level of refinement of the SAM-Grid system, the integrated data, job, and information management infrastructure of the RunII experiments at Fermilab. The success of the project was in part due to the ability of the SAM-Grid to adapt to the local configuration of the resources and services at the participating sites. A key aspect of such adaptation was coordinating the resource usage in order to optimize the typical access patterns of the DZero reprocessing application. Examples of such optimizations include database access, data storage access, and worker nodes allocation and utilization. A popular approach to implement resource coordination on the grid is developing services that understand application requirements and preferences in terms of abstract quantities e.g. required CPU cycles or data access pattern characteristics. On the other hand, as of today, it is still difficult to implement real-life resource optimizations using such level of abstraction. First, this approach assumes maximum knowledge of the resource/service interfaces from the users and the applications. Second, it requires a high level of maturity for the grid interfaces. To overcome these difficulties, the SAM-Grid provides resource optimization implementing application-aware grid services. For a known application, such services can act in concert maximizing the efficiency of the resource usage. This paper describes what optimizations the SAM-Grid framework had to provide to serve the DZero reconstruction and montecarlo production. It also shows how application-aware grid services fulfill the task.
        Speaker: Garzoglio Gabriele (FERMI NATIONAL ACCELERATOR LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        A Computational and Data Scheduling Architecture for HEP Applications 20m
        This paper discusses an architectural approach to enhance job scheduling in data intensive applications in HEP computing. First, a brief introduction to the current grid system based on LCG/gLite is given, current bottlenecks are identified and possible extensions to the system are described. We will propose an extended scheduling architecture, which adds a scheduling framework on top of existing compute and storage elements. Goal is an improved and better coordination between data management and workload management. This includes more precise planning and prediction of file availability prior to job allocation to compute elements, as well as better integration of local job and data scheduling to improve response times and through-put. Subsequently, the underlying components are presented, where for the design of the computing element standard grid components are used. The storage element is based on the dCache software package that supports a scalable storage and data access solution, which is enhanced in a way that it can interact with scheduling services. For broader acceptance of the scheduling solution in Grid communities beyond High Energy Physics, an outlook is given on how the scheduling framework can be adapted to other application scenarios like e.g. the climate community. The project is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science as part of the national e-science initiative D-Grid and is jointly carried out by IRF-IT of University of Dortmund and DESY.
        Speaker: Mr Lars Schley (University Dortmund, IRF-IT, Germany)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        A Diskless Solution for LCG Middleware 20m
        The INFN-GRID project allows experimenting and testing many different and innovative solutions in the GRID environment. In this research ad development it is important to find the most useful solutions for simplified the managment and access to the resources. In the VIRGO laboratory in Napoli we have tested a non standard implementation based on LCG 2.6.0 by using a diskless solution in order to simplify the site administration. We have also used a shared file system, thus simplifying the submission of MPI jobs to the grid. Finally we tested the use of a custom kernel with the OpenMosix patch in order to enable the dynamic load balancing.
        Speaker: Dr Silvio Pardi (DIPARTIMENTO DI MATEMATICA ED APPLICAZIONI "R.CACCIOPPOLI")
        Paper
      • 11:00
        A Gauge Model of Data Acquisition 7h 10m
        Traditionally, in the pre-LHC muti-purpose high-energy experiements the diversification of their physics programs has been largely decoupled from the process of the data-taking - physics groups could only influence the selection criteria of recorded events according to predefined trigger menus. In particular, the physics-oriented choice of subdetector data and the implementation of refined event selection methods have been made in the offline analysis. The departure point of the Gauge Model of the Data Acquisition is that such a scheme cannot be continously extended to the LHC environment, without significant sacrifices in the scope and in the quality of the experimental program. The model is contructed in close analogy to the construction of the gauge models in particles physics and is based upon the dynamic event-by-event, steering of the format and content of the detector raw data, dynamic configuration of the High-Level-Trigger selection algorithms and Physics-goal-oriented slices of processor farms. In this tals I shall present the advantages and drawbacks and of such a model of the data taking architecture for the physics program of the LHC collider.
        Speaker: Mieczyslaw Krasny (LPNHE, Uviversity Paris)
      • 11:00
        A General Jet Tagging Environment for the ATLAS Detector Reconstruction Software 20m
        The design of a general jet tagging algorithm for the ATLAS detector reconstruction software is presented. For many physics analyses, reliable and efficient flavour identification, 'tagging', of jets is vital in the process of reconstructing the physics content of the event. To allow for a broad range of identification methods emphasis is put on the flexibility of the framework. A guiding design principles of the jet tagging software is a strong focus on modularity and defined interfaces using the advantages of the new ATLAS Event Data Model and object oriented C++. The benefit for the developer is modularity of the design in terms of expandability of the tagging software with additional and modified algorithms. The user profits from common interfaces to all algorithms and also from a simple jet tagging configuration. The usage of different methods, re-doing the tagging procedure with a modified setup and combining the results from various methods during the analysis. The ATLAS b-tagging algorithms have been migrated into this new jet tagging environment and the concrete implementation is used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed design.
        Speaker: Mr Andreas Wildauer (UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        A Monitoring Subscription Language in the Framework of Distributed System 20m
        The Grid technology is attracting a lot of interest, involving hundreds of researchers and software engineers around the world. The characteristics of Grid demand the developing of suitable monitoring system able to obtain the significant information in order to make management decision and control system behaviour. In this paper we are going to analyse a formal declarative interpreted language for the description of monitoring events. An user expresses his interest in verifying of certain events, for example he is interested in the occurring of subsequent composite events : e1:= ‘workload for ten minutes > K’, after e2:=’number of active Machine
        Speaker: Dr Rosa palmiero (INFN and University of Naples)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Advances in Fabric Management by the CERN-BARC collaboration 20m
        The collaboration between BARC and CERN is driving a series of enhancements to ELFms [1], the fabric management tool-suite developed with support from the HEP community under CERN's coordination. ELFms components are used in production at CERN and a large number of other HEP sites for automatically installing, configuring and monitoring hundreds of clusters comprising of thousands of nodes. Developers at BARC and CERN are working together to improve security, functionality and scalability in the light of feedback from site administrators. In a distributed Grid computing environment with thousands of users accessing thousands of nodes, reliable status and exception information is critical at each site and across the grid. It is therefore important to ensure the integrity, authenticity and privacy of information collected by the fabric monitoring system. A new layer has been added to Lemon, the ELFms monitoring system, to enable the secure transport of monitoring data between monitoring agents and servers by using a modular plug-in architecture that supports RSA/DSA keys and X509 certificates. In addition, the flexibility and robustness of Lemon has been further enhanced by the introduction of a modular configuration structure, the integration of exceptions with the alarm system and the development of fault tolerant components that enable automatic recovery from exceptions. To address operational scalability issues, CCTracker, a web-based visualization tool, is being developed. It provides both physical and logical views of a large Computer Centre and enables authorized users to locate objects and perform high-level operations across sets of objects. Operations staff will be able to view and plan elements of the physical infrastructure and initiate hardware management workflows such as mass machine migrations or installations. Service Managers will be able to easily manipulate clusters or sets of nodes, modifying settings, rolling out software-updates and initiating high-level state changes. [1] http://cern.ch/elfms
        Speaker: Mr William Tomlin (CERN)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        An Identity Server Portal for Global Accelerator and Detector Networks 20m
        The next generations of large colliders and their experiments will have the advantage that groups from all over the world will participate with their competence to meet the challenges of the future. Therefore it’s necessary to become even more global than in the past, giving members the option of remote access to most controlling parts of this facilities. The experience in the past has shown that a number of problems result from the existing variety of computer systems and their graphical user interfaces which are incompatible to other systems and the possible options to reach them from outside the experimental area. A group at Trieste and DESY is working inside the GANMVL (Global Accelerator Network Multipurpose Virtual Laboratory) project to solve this problem, finding a simple way for the consumer to have remote access with single sign-on personalisation and admission to several systems. We determine problems arising in the implementation of user friendly interfaces, in achieving a look and feel close to the real hardware and in handling software. Also in the future it should be possible to have access simply via any internet browser, without any knowledge about the computer operating systems inside the large facilities. Only one login procedure should be necessary to have access to every integrated system. The current project status shall be outlined.
        Speaker: Mr Sven Karstensen (DESY Hamburg)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        An XML-based configuration and management system for the gLite middleware 20m
        gLite is the next generation middleware for grid computing. Born from the collaborative efforts of more than 80 people in 12 different academic and industrial research centers as part of the EGEE Project, gLite provides a bleeding-edge, best- of-breed framework for building grid applications tapping into the power of distributed computing and storage resources across the Internet. Currently, gLite is composed of more than 25 different services, implemented in different languages, using different technologies and all coming with individual configuration needs. In addition gLite can be run in multiple operational scenarios and supports presently hundreds of configuration options. Past experience has shown that configuration and management are one of the biggest challenges of such a system. In order to ease configuration and deployment of such a complex system, we have developed a configuration model that offers the users and administrators of gLite a homogeneous, easy to use, extensible and flexible system across all services, yet fitting the needs of the different services and providing the necessary security. It includes an XML-encoded common configuration storage format across all services with pre-configured configuration templates guiding the user in the proper selection of the configuration scenarios. This includes validation of the stored configuration information and tools to manipulate the information and automatically produce documentation or transform the information so that it can be used by high-level system management tools. The services can obtain the configuration information either from local storage or from a central configuration service using standard grid security based on certificates and VO memberships and roles. After a discussion of the environment and challenges, the paper will present a detailed description of the developed solutions together with a discussion of the problems and future developments.
        Speaker: Dr Joachim Flammer (CERN)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Application of Maximum Likelihood Method for the computation of Spin Density Matrix Elements of Vector Meson Production at HERMES. 20m
        HERMES experiment at DESY has performed extensive measurements on diffractive production of light vector mesons (rho^0, omega, phi) in the intermediate energy region. Spin density matrix elements (SDMEs) were determined for exclusive diffractive rho^0 and phi mesons and compared with results of high energy experiments. Several methods for the extraction of SDMEs have been applied on the same data sample. A comparision between those methods is given. Maximum Likelihood method was choosed for the final computation of two sets of 23 SDMEs on hydrogen and deuterium HERMES data. These results yield more insight in the vector meson production mechanisms at HERMES kinematics and in the helicity transfer in diffractive vector meson production, which allows to see new results on the s-channel helicity violation and an indication on the contribution of unnatural parity exchange amplitudes.
        Speaker: Dr Alexander Borissov (University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 11:00
        ARGO-YBJ experimental data transfer and processing : experience with the Computer Farm and evolution of the computing model to a GRID approach. 20m
        The data taking of ARGO-YBJ experiment in Tibet is operational with 54 RPC clusters installed and is moving rapidly to more than 100 clusters configuration. The paper describes the processing of this phase experimental data , based on a local computer farm. The software developed for the data management, job submission and information retrieval is described together to the performance aspects. The evolution of the ARGO computing model using the possibility to transfer the experimental data via network and to integrate it in the GRID environment with the definition of an ARGO Virtual organization andword-wide resources is also presented.
        Speaker: Dr Cristian Stanescu (Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare - Sezione Roma III)
      • 11:00
        BaBar SPGrid - Putting BaBar's Simulation Production on The Grid 20m
        For the BaBar Computing Group We describe enhancements to the BaBar Experiment's distributed Monte Carlo generation system to make use of European and North American GRID resources and present the results with regard to BaBar's latest cycle of Monte-Carlo production. We compare job success rates and manageability issues between GRID and non-GRID production and present an investigation into the efficiency costs of different methods of making input data, in the form of files and database information, available to the job in a distributed environment.
        Speakers: Dr Alessandra Forti (Univ.of Milano Faculty of Art), Dr Chris Brew (CCLRC - RAL)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Building a Federated Tier2 Center to support Physics Analysis and MC Production for multiple LHC Experiments 20m
        The IT Group at DESY is involved in a variety of projects ranging from Analysis of High Energy Physics Data at the HERA Collider and Synchrotron Radiation facilities to cutting edge computer science experiments focused on grid computing. In support of these activities members of the IT group have developed and deployed a local computational facility which comprises many service nodes, computational clusters and large scale disk and tape storage services. The resources contribute collectively or individually to a variety of production and development activities such as the main analysis center for the presently running HERA experiments, a German Tier2 center for the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and research on grid computing for the EGEE and D-Grid projects. Installing and operating a great variety of services required to run a sizable Tier2 center as a federated facility is a major challenge. The anticipated computing and storage capacity for the start of LHC data taking is O(2000)kSI2K and O(700)TB disk. Given local constraints and particular expertise at the sites the DESY IT Group and the Physics Group at RWTH Aachen, both having their facilities in two distinct locations that are about 500km apart, are in the process of building such a center for CMS. The anticipated conceptual design is based on a network-centric architecture allowing the installation and operation of selected services where they fit most optimally the boundary conditions as they do exist at either institution. While the group at RWTH is having their focus on LHC physics, interfacing to data processing at a fairly high level, a considerable amount of expertise on processing of petabyte scale physics data in a highly distributed environment exists at DESY. In this paper we describe the architecture, the distribution of the services, the anticipated operational model and finally the advantages and disadvantages of using such a scheme to manage a large scale federated facility.
        Speaker: Dr Michael Ernst (DESY)
      • 11:00
        CLAS Experimental Control System 20m
        Software agent based control system is implemented to control experiments running on the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. Within the CLAS experiments DAQ, trigger, detector and beam line control systems are both logically and physically separated, and are implemented independently using a common software infrastructure. CLAS experimental control system (ECS) was designed, using earlier developed FIPA agent based control framework, to glue the data production subsystems into the uniform control environment. The object models of the experiments are described using the developed Control Oriented Ontology Language (COOL), allowing detailed specification of the experimental objects such as their states, actions and associated conditions. Experiment objects are assigned Java agents, grouped into the control domains, operating in the open and distributed, multi-agent environment. Every agent domain, representing experiment subsystem, can operate independently, yet can summarize information for the above level domains or expand actions to the lower levels.
        Speaker: Vardan Gyurjyan (JEFFERSON LAB)
      • 11:00
        CMD-3 Detector Computing Environment Overview 20m
        CMD-3 is the general purpose cryogenic magnetic detector for VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider, which is being commissioned at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia). The main aspects of physical program of the experiment are study of known and search for new vector mesons, study of the ppbar a nnbar production cross sections in the vicinity of the threshold and search for exotic hadrons in the region of center-of-mass energy below 2 GeV. The essential upgrade of CMD-2 detector (designed for VEPP-2M collider at BINP) farm and distributed data storage management software is required to satisfy new detector needs and scheduled to perform in near future. The contribution gives the general overview of the computing environment to be used for the RAW data staging and processing, Monte Carlo generation and handling the various user analysis jobs. It includes the description of the CMD-3 Offline Farm with the dedicated Quattor package based deployment facilities, high level detector specific job submission interface on top of the TORQUE batch system and the adaptive Journaling Virtual File System (JVFS) dealing with the distributed data storage shared among the farm nodes. JVFS functionality involves the sophisticated replica management mechanisms and virtual file system optimization services for a single dedicated batch processing cluster. Though the listed products were initially proposed to be used within the CMD-3 project only, they can be easily adopted to the computing environment of any small and medium scale HEP experiment.
        Speaker: Mr Alexei Sibidanov (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        CMD-3 Detector Offline Software Development 20m
        CMD-3 is the general purpose cryogenic magnetic detector for VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider, which is being commissioned at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia). The main aspects of physical program of the experiment are study of known and search for new vector mesons, study of the ppbar a nnbar production cross sections in the vicinity of the threshold and search for exotic hadrons in the region of center-of-mass energy below 2 GeV. The essential upgrade of CMD-2 detector (designed for VEPP-2M collider at BINP) farm and distributed data storage management software is required to satisfy new detector needs and scheduled to perform in near future. In this talk I will present the general design overview and status of implementation of CMD-3 offline software for reconstruction, simulation and visualization. Software design standards for this project are object oriented programming techniques, C++ as a main language, Geant4 as an only simulation tool, Geant4 based detector geometry description, WIRED and HepRep based visualization, CLHEP library based primary generators and Linux as a main platform. The dedicated software development framework (Cmd3Fwk) was implemented in order to be the basic software integration solution and the persistency manager. The key features of the framework are modularity, dynamic data processing chain generation according to the XML modules configuration and on-demand data request mechanisms.
        Speaker: Mr Alexander Zaytsev (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP))
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Cmd3Fwk Software Development Framework 20m
        CMD-3 is the general purpose cryogenic magnetic detector for VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider, which is being commissioned at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia). The main aspects of physical program of the experiment are study of known and search for new vector mesons, study of the ppbar a nnbar production cross sections in the vicinity of the threshold and search for exotic hadrons in the region of center-of-mass energy below 2 GeV. The dedicated CMD-3 Software Development Framework (Cmd3Fwk) was implemented in order to be the basic software integration solution and the persistency manager for the detector reconstruction, MC simulation and the third level trigger subsystem. Software design standards for the project are object oriented programming techniques, C++ as a main language, GRID environment compatibility and Linux as a main platform. Recently, the core components of the Cmd3Fwk was moved to the separate detector independent software package (MetaFramework) with the aim to enable its usage outside the scope of the CMD-3 project. The key features of the MetaFramework are modularity, dynamic data processing chain generation according to the XML modules configuration and on-demand data request mechanisms. It also provides command line and graphical user interfaces for building XML configurations and running the data processing jobs. The MetaFramework is a powerful tool which can be used for development of the specialized adaptive data processing tools for various applications, for instance, for building small and medium scale HEP experiment specific data processing frameworks. The contribution gives the overview of the design features for both the Cmd3Fwk and the MetaFramework projects.
        Speaker: Mr Sergey Pirogov (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        cMsg - A General Framework for Deploying Publish/Subscribe Interprocess Communication Systems 20m
        cMsg is a highly extensible open-source framework within which one can deploy multiple underlying interprocess communication systems. It is powerful enough to support asyncronous publish/subscribe communications as well as synchronous peer-to-peer communications. It further includes a proxy system whereby client requests are transported to a remote server that actually connects to the underlying communication package, thus allowing e.g. vxWorks clients to interact with a communication system that does not support vxWorks directly. Finally, cMsg includes a complete full-featured publish/subscribe communication package. cMsg runs on Linux, various flavors of Unix, and vxWorks, and includes C, C++, and Java API's.
        Speaker: Mr Elliott Wolin (Jefferson Lab)
      • 11:00
        Computation of Nearly Exact 3D Electrostatic Field in Multiwire Chambers 20m
        The three dimensional electrostatic field configuration in a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) has been simulated using an efficient boundary element method (BEM) solver set up to solve an integral equation of the first kind. To compute the charge densities over the bounding surfaces representing the system for known potentials, the nearly exact formulation of BEM has been implemented such that the discretisation of the integral equation leads to a set of linear algebraic equations. Since the solver uses exact analytic integral of Green function [1,2] to compute the electrostatic potential for a general charge distribution satisfying Poisson's equation, extremely precise results have been obtained despite the use of relatively coarse discretization. The surfaces of anode wires and cathode planes in the MWPC have been segmented in small cylindrical and rectangular elements, carrying uniform unknown surface charges distributed over the elements. The capacity coefficient matrix for such a charge distribution has been set up using the exact expressions of the new formulation. Finally, the surface charge densities have been computed by satisfying the boundary conditions, i.e., potentials at the centroid of the elements known from the given potential configuration. We have used a lower upper (LU) decomposition routine incorporating Crout's method of partial pivoting to solve the set of algebraic equations. From the computed surface charge densities, the potential or electric field at any point in the computational domain can be obtained by superposition of the contribution of the charge densities on the boundary elements. Using the solver, we have performed a detailed study of the three dimensional field configuration throughout the volume of the device. The solutions have been validated by successfully comparing the computed field with analytical results available for two-dimensional MWPCs. Significant deviations from this ideal mid-plane field have been observed towards the edges of the detector. We have also studied the influence of the edge configuration of the detector on these deviations. Utilizing the high precision and three-dimensional capability of this solver, a study has been carried out on the nature of the electrostatic forces acting on the anode wires and its variation with the change in the wire position. Significant positional variations have been observed which can have impact on future design and construction of MWPCs. References [1] N.Majumdar, S.Mukhopadhyay, Computation of Electrostatic Field near Three-Dimensional Corners and Edges, accepted for presentation in the International Conference on Computational and Experimental on Engineering and Sciences (ICCES05) to be held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (Chennai) from Dec 01 to 06, 2005. [2] S.Mukhopadhyay, N.Majumdar, Development of a BEM Solver using Exact Expressions for Computing the Influence of Singularity Distributions accepted for presentation in ICCES05.
        Speaker: Dr Nayana Majumdar (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics)
      • 11:00
        Conditions database and calibration software framework for ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers 20m
        The size and complexity of LHC experiments raise unprecedented challenges not only in terms of detector design, construction and operation, but also in terms of software models and data persistency. One of the more challenging tasks is the calibration of the 375000 Monitored Drift Tubes, that will be used as precision tracking detectors in the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment. An accurate knowledge of the space-time relation is needed to reach the design average resolution of 80 microns. The MDT calibration software has been designed to extract the space-time relation from the data themselves, through the so-called auto-calibration procedure, to store and retrieve the relevant information from the conditions database, and to properly apply it to calibrate the hits to be used by the reconstruction algorithms, taking into account corrections for known effects like temperature and magnetic field. We review the design of the MDT calibration software for ATLAS and present performance results obtained with detailed GEANT4-based simulation and real data from the recent combined test beam. We discuss the implementation of the conditions database for MDT calibration data in the framework proposed by the LHC Computing Grid (LCG). Finally, we present early results from detector commissioning with cosmic ray events and plans for the ATLAS Computing System Commissioning test in 2006.
        Speaker: Dr Monica Verducci (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN))
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Connecting WLCG Tier-2 centers to GridKa 20m
        GridKa, the German Tier-1 center in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), supports all four LHC experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb as well as currently some non-LHC high energy physics experiments. Several German and European Tier-2 sites will be connected to GridKa as their Tier-1. We present technical and organizational aspects pertaining the connection and support of the Tier-2s sites. The experiments' computing models and use cases are analyzed in order to design and dimension the storage systems and network infrastructure at GridKa in such a way that the expected data streams can be written and delivered at all times during Service Challenge 4 and the LHC service. The current and planned layout of these systems is described. First results of data transfer tests between GridKa and the Tier-2 sites are shown.
        Speaker: Dr Andreas Heiss (FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM KARLSRUHE)
        Paper
        Paper sources
        Poster
      • 11:00
        CREAM: A simple, Grid-accessible, Job Management System for local Computational Resources 20m
        Efficient and robust system for accessing computational resources and managing job operations is a key component of any Grid framework designed to support large distributed computing environment. CREAM (Computing Resource Execution And Management) is a simple, minimal system designed to provide efficient processing of a large number of requests for computation on managed resources. Requests are accepted from distributed clients via a web-service based interface. The CREAM architecture is designed to be a robust, scalable and fault tolerant service of a Grid middleware. In this paper we describe the CREAM architecture and the provided functionality. We also discuss how CREAM is integrated within the EGEE gLite middleware in general, and with the gLite Workload Management System in particular.
        Speaker: Moreno Marzolla (INFN Padova)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Distributed Analysis Experiences within D-GRID 20m
        The German LHC computing resources are built on the Tier 1 center at Gridka in Karlsruhe and several planned Tier 2 centers. These facilities provide us with a testbed on which we can evaluate current distributed analysis tools. Various aspects of the analysis of simulated data using LCG middleware and local batch systems have been tested and evaluated. Here we present our experiences with the deployment, maintenance and operation of the tools.
        Speaker: Dr Johannes Elmsheuser (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat München)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        DOSAR: A Distributed Organization for Scientific and Academic Research 20m
        Hadron Collider experiments in progress at Fermilab’s Tevatron and under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will record many petabytes of data in pursuing the goals of understanding nature and searching for the origin of mass. Computing resources required to analyze these data far exceed the capabilities of any one institution. The computing grid has long been recognized as a solution to this and other problems. The success of the grid solution will crucially depend on having high-speed network connections, the ability to use general-purpose computer facilities, and the existence of robust software tools. A consortium of universities in the US, Brazil, Mexico and India are developing a fully realized grid that will test this technology. These institutions are members of the DØ experiment at the Tevatron and the ATLAS or CMS experiments at the LHC, and form the Distributed Organization for Scientific and Academic Research (DOSAR). DOSAR is a federated grid organization encompassing numerous institutional grids. While founded for HEP research DOSAR forms the nucleus of grid infrastructure organization on the constituent campuses. DOSAR's strategy is to promote multi-disciplinary use of grids on campus and among the institutions involved in the consortium. DOSAR enables researchers and educators at the federated institutions to access grid resources outside the HEP context and is a catalyst in establishing state-wide grid structures. DOSAR is an operational grid which is a Virtual Organization (VO) in the Open Science Grid (OSG). In this talk, we will describe the architecture of the DOSAR VO, the use and functionality of the grid, and the experience of operating the grid for simulation, reprocessing and analysis of data from the DØ experiment. A software system for large-scale grid processing will be described. Our experience with high-speed intercontinental network connections will also be discussed.
        Speaker: Prof. Patrick Skubic (University of Oklahoma)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Evaluation of Virtual Machines for HEP Grids 20m
        The heterogeneity of resources in computational grids, such as the Canadian GridX1, makes application deployment a difficult task. Virtual machine environments promise to simplify this task by homogenizing the execution environment across the grid. One such environment, Xen, has been demonstrated to be a highly performing virtual machine monitor. In this work, we evaluate the applicability of Xen to scientific computational grids. We verify the functionality and performance of Xen, focusing on the execution of software relevant to the LHC community. A variety of production deployment strategies are developed and tested. In particular, we compare the execution of job-specific and generic VM images on grids of conventional Linux clusters as well as virtual clusters.
        Speaker: Dr Ashok Agarwal (Univeristy of Victoria)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Experiences with operating SamGrid at the GermanGrid centre "GridKa" for CDF 20m
        The German Grid computing centre "GridKa" offers large computing and storing facilities to the Tevatron and LHC experiments, as well as BaBar and Compass. It has been the first large scale CDF cluster to adopt and use the FermiGrid software "SAM" to enable users to perform data-intensive analyses. The system has been operated on production level for about 2 years. We review the challenges and gains of a cluster shared by many experiments and the operation of the SamGrid software in this context. Special focus will be given to the integration of the university based cluster (EKPPLus) at the University of Karlsruhe, as well needs and use-cases of users who wish to integrate the software into their existing analyses.
        Speakers: Dr Thomas Kuhr (UNIVERSITY OF KARLSRUHE, GERMANY), Mr Ulrich Kerzel (UNIVERSITY OF KARLSRUHE, GERMANY)
        Paper
        Poster
        Proceedigs-TGZ
        Proceedings
      • 11:00
        Feasibility of Data Acquisition Middleware based on Robot technology 20m
        Recent Information Technology (IT) grows quickly and it is not so easy for us to adopt the software from IT into data acquisition (DAQ) because the software from the IT sometimes depends on OSs,languages and communication protocols. The dependency is not convenient to construct data acquisition software and then an experimental group makes their own DAQ software according to their own requirement. In robot technology field which needs a real-time system and is an embedded filed, they also have same problems and then try making Robot Technology Middleware (RTM) because they developed their own software and there was no common framework to make the robot as software point of view. The robot technology has similar functionality to the data acquisition for physics experiments. We studied the data acquisition based on the robot technology and then discussed the data acquisition middleware.
        Speaker: Dr Yoshiji Yasu (KEK)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        First step in C# and mono 20m
        We want to do a short communication to present our first experience in C# and mono within an OpenScientist context. Mainly attempt to integrate Inventor within a C# context then within the native GUI API coming with C#. We want to point out too the perspectives, for example within AIDA.
        Speaker: Mr Laurent GARNIER (LAL-IN2P3-CNRS)
      • 11:00
        Geant4 Muon Digitization in the ATHENA Framework 20m
        The Muon Digitization is the simulation of the Raw Data Objects (RDO), or the electronic output, of the Muon Spectrometer. It has been recently completely re-written to run within the Athena framework and to interface with the Geant4 Muon Spectrometer detector simulation. The digitization process consists of two steps: in the first step, the output of the detector simulation, henceforth referred to as Muon Hits, is converted to muon digits, i.e., intermediate objects that can be fed into the reconstruction. In the second step, the muon digits are converted into RDO, the transient representation of raw the data byte stream. We will describe the detailed implementation of the first step of the muon digitization, where the detector simulation output is "digitized" into muon digits. We will describe the fundamentals of the Muon Digitization algorithms, outlining the global structure of the Muon Digitization, with some emphasis on the simulation of piled-up events. We will also describe the details of the digitization validation against the Monte Carlo information.
        Speaker: Daniela Rebuzzi (Istituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare (INFN))
      • 11:00
        Grid Deployment Experiences: The Evolution of the LCG information system. 20m
        Since CHEP2005, the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) has grown from 30 sites to over 160 sites and this has increased the load on the informations system. This paper describes the recent changes to information system that were necessary to keep pace with the expanding grid. The performance of the a key component, the Berkley Database Information Index (BDII), is given special attention. During deployment it was found that the idea of Virtual Organization (VO) BDIIs was not sufficient and how this lead to the development of the Freedom of Choice for Resources (FCR) mechanism to enable VOs to have more control over their production. Other improvements are also mentioned including the work to upgrade the Glue to version 1.2 and plan for Glue version 2.
        Speaker: Mr Laurence Field (CERN)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Grid Deployment Experiences: The evaluation and initial deployment of R-GMA for production quality monitoring. 20m
        This paper describes the introduction of Relation Grid Monitoring Architecture (R-GMA) into the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) as a production quality monitoring system and how, after an initial period of production hardening, it performed during the LCG Service Challenges. The results from the initial evaluation and performance tests are presented as well as the process of integrating R-GMA into the Site Functional Tests (SFT). The first real end to end application using R-GMA for monitoring file transfers is described in detail, and how this was used for the LHC Service Challenge. The job monitoring application, which handles approximately 24K state messages per day, is also described along with the initial feedback from the users. Metrics were used to record the performance of R-GMA in these applications. These metrics are presented along with a detailed analysis. The paper finally summarizes the experiences from this period and suggests some direction for the future.
        Speaker: Mr Laurence Field (CERN)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Integration of an AFS-based Sun Grid Engine site in a LCG grid 20m
        The LHC's Computing Grid (LCG) middleware interfaces at each site with local computing resources provided by a batch system. However, currently only the PBS/Torque, LSF and Condor resource management systems are supported out of the box in the middleware distribution. Therefore many computing centers serving scientific needs other than HEP, which in many cases use other batch systems like Sun's Grid Engine (SGE), are not integrated into the Grid. Binding a site running on the SGE batch system is possible thanks to The London e-Science Centre's Globus JobManager and Information Reporter components. However when using AFS instead of plain NFS as shared filesystem some other issues arise. In collaboration with the Max Planck Institute for Physics (Munich), and as part of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe's involvement in the MAGIC Grid project, we set up an LCG interface to Munich's Sun Grid Engine batch system. This SGE-based cluster is currently at a remote location (Garching's Computing Center) and a secure jobsubmission is achieved relying upon the usage of the AFS filesystem. This allows an established "non-grid" computing center to offer its resources via the Grid without any changes in the running infrastructure.
        Speaker: Dr Ariel Garcia (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Integration of graphviz within OnX 20m
        We want to do a short communication of a job done at LAL about integrating the graphviz library within the OnX environment. graphviz is a well known library good at visualizing a scene containing boxes connected by lines. The strength of this library is in the routing algorithms that permit to connect boxes. For example, graphviz is used by Doxygen to produce class diagrams. We want to present an attempt at integrating directly the graphvis graphics in our context (OnX and OpenScientist). By "direct", we mean by not passing by intermediate image files but by using the native library directly.
        Speaker: Mr Laurent GARNIER (LAL-IN2P3-CNRS)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Interface between data handling system (SAM) and CDF experiment software 20m
        CDF has recently changed its data handling system from the DFC (Data File Catalogue) system to the SAM (Sequential Access to Metadata) system. This change was done as a preparation for distributed computing because SAM can handle distributed computing and provides mechanisms which enable it to work together with GRID systems. Experience shows that the usage of a new data handling system increases rapidly if it incorporates as many use cases from the old system as possible and has an interface which is similar to the old system. This is also true for the transition of the DFC system to the SAM system. The CDF Analysis Input and Output Modules are the preferred interfaces to access input data and direct output data in a standard analysis job. The Input Module invokes the data handling system in order to manage the data delivery to the job and to handle exceptions if problems with the data handling are experienced. The change of the data handling system has been done in such a way that it is nearly transparent to the user but still gives the user the choice which system to use. During the transition to the SAM data handling system methods have been tested to give reliable access to the data in case that the underlying storage mechanism (DCache) is failing. Another big issue of the interface is recovery of jobs which have failed. At FNAL most of the analysis jobs are running at the CAF (Central Analysis Farm). The CAF is basically a batch system, but has been expanded for example with the features of authentication. Therefore it is possible to distribute the computing for CDF with so-called DCAF systems (Decentralized CAF systems). The CAF system provides at the beginning and the end of the job interfaces to SAM, so it can be used to automatically recover jobs which failed. The Input Module is able to provide the necessary interfaces to the CAF to make the recovery possible. To implement this mechanism is good step in the direction of reliable jobs on the GRID.
        Speaker: Valeria Bartsch (FERMILAB / University College London)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        L-STORE: A FLEXIBLE LOGISTICAL STORAGE FRAMEOWRK FOR DISTRIBUTED, SCALABLE AND SECURE ACCESS TO LARGE-SCALE DATA 20m
        Storing and accessing large volumes of data across geographically separated locations or cutting across labs and universities in a transparent, reliable fashion is a difficult problem. There is urgency to this problem with the commissioning of the LHC around the corner (2007). The primary difficulties that need to be over come in order to address this problem are policy driven secure access, mirroring and striping of data for reliable storage, scalability, and interoperability between diverse storage elements. This paper presents a flexible storage framework called L-Store (logistical storage) to address these issues. L-Store is conceptually designed using software agent technology and the Internet Backplane Protocol. The software agents provide scalability as the L-Store components can be distributed over multiple machines. L-Store provides rich functionalities in the form of certificate based authentication, mirroring and striping of data (fault tolerance), policy based data management, and transparent peer-to-peer interoperability of backend storage media. Keeping in mind the scenario where different Tiers and virtual organizations can have different types of storage elements (SE), L-Store is designed to have a common storage resource manager (SRM) compliant interface such that any SRM compliant SE can share data with an L-Store system. L-Store is agnostic to the underlying hardware and can be installed on simple personal computers having a disk cache to a full fledged hierarchical storage system (with tapes and disk backups).
        Speaker: Dr Surya Pathak (Vanderbilt University)
      • 11:00
        L-TEST: A FRAMEWORK FOR SIMPLIFIED TESTING OF DISTRIBUTED HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTER SUB-SYSTEMS 20m
        Introducing changes to a working high-performance computing environment is typically both necessary and risky. Testing these changes can be highly manpower intensive. L-TEST supplies a framework that allows the testing of complex distributed systems with reduced configuration. It reduces setting up a test to implementing the specific tasks for that test. L-TEST handles three jobs that must be performed for any distributed test; task communication to move tasks to execution nodes, generation of reproducible stochastic distributions of tasks, and collection of test results. Tasks are communicated via a dynamic and configurable set of storage systems, these storage systems can be reused for result collection, or a parallel set of systems may be set up for this results. The task generation framework supplies a basic set of stochastic generators along with framework code for calling these generators. The full workload of tasks is generated by aggregating multiple generator instances, in order to allow complex configuration of tasks. Although L-TEST does not restrict the tester to the following cases, this paper identifies several use cases that are of particular interest. The development of the L-STORE distributed file-system required testing for both correctness and performance. This paper describes how L-TEST was used to test both. Reads and write performance data, and integrity data were reported to separate communicators and analyzed separately. The performance configuration of L-TEST was also utilized, almost unchanged, to test a parallel file-system introduced to the ACCRE parallel cluster. In addition to testing the performance and integrity of file-systems, we describe how L-TEST can test the effect of planned changes on several characteristics of a cluster supercomputer; these include network bandwidth and latency and the task scheduling system for submission of jobs to the cluster.
        Speaker: Mr Laurence Dawson (Vanderbilt University)
      • 11:00
        Large scale data movement on the GRID 20m
        During last few years ATLAS has ran a serie of Data Challenges producing simulated data used to understand the detector performace. Altogether more than 100 terabytes of useful data are now spread over few dozens of storage elements on the GRID. With the emergence of Tier1 centers and constant restructuring of storage elements there is a need to consolidate the data placement in a more optimal way. We have organised and exercised the ATLAS wide data consolidation using the ATLAS distributed data management system (DQ2). Experience with the massive data movement on the GRID will be reported.
        Speaker: Dr Pavel Nevski (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
      • 11:00
        Large scale, grid-enabled, distributed disk storage systems at the Brookhaven National Lab RHIC/ATLAS Computing Facility 20m
        The Brookhaven RHIC/ATLAS Computing Facility serves as both the tier-0 computing center for RHIC and the tier-1 computing center for ATLAS in the United States. The increasing challenge of providing local and grid-based access to very large datasets in a reliable, cost-efficient and high-performance manner, is being addressed by a large-scale deployment of dCache, the distributed disk caching system developed by DESY/FNAL. Currently in production for the PHENIX and ATLAS experiments, dCache is employing the same worker nodes utilized by the RHIC and ATLAS analysis clusters, making use of the large amount of low-cost, locally-mounted disk space available on the computing farm. Within the hybrid storage/computing model, the worker nodes function simultaneously as file servers and compute elements, providing for a cost-effective, high throughput data storage system. dCache also serves as a caching front-end to the HPSS Mass Storage System, where access to the data on tape is provided through an integrated optimizing layer that was developed at BNL. BNL's dCache functions as SRM-based Storage Element in the context of OSG and LCG. It has been serving on a production scale at BNL since November 2004, exhibiting quality performance through a number of Service Challenges and US ATLAS production runs. This presentation will cover the design and usage of this system, including performance metrics and scalability considerations as the facility expands toward an expected petabyte scale deployment in 2007.
        Speakers: Dr Ofer Rind (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Ms Zhenping Liu (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Lattice QCD Clusters at Fermilab 20m
        As part of the DOE SciDAC "National Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Computing" and DOE LQCD Projects, Fermilab builds and operates production clusters for lattice QCD simulations for the US community. We currently operate two clusters: a 128-node Pentium 4E Myrinet cluster, and a 520-node Pentium 640 Infiniband cluster. We discuss the operation of these systems and examine their performance in detail. We will also discuss the 1000-processor Infiniband cluster planned for Summer 2006.
        Speaker: Dr Donald Holmgren (FERMILAB)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Lavoisier: A Data Aggregation and Unification Service 20m
        It is broadly admitted that grid technologies have to deal with heterogeneity in both computational and storage resources. In the context of grid operations, heterogeneity is also a major concern, especially for worldwide grid projects as LCG and EGEE. Indeed, the usage of various technologies, protocols and data formats induces complexity. As learned from our experience on participating to the collaborative development of a tool set for LCG/EGEE operations, this complexity increases the risk of unreliable code, lack of reactivity and a extremely low level of reusability. To reduce these risks, we need an extensible tool for reliably aggregating heterogeneous data sources, for executing cross data sources queries and for exposing the collected information for several usages. In this paper we present "Lavoisier", an extensible service for providing an unified view of data collected from multiple heterogeneous data sources. This service transforms the collected data and represents it as XML documents: this allows for transparently and efficiently executing XSL queries on them. The service also exposes the data through standard protocols and interfaces (WSRF). In addition, its efficiency can be optimized by tuning the provided cache mechanisms, according to both the characteristics and the usage profile of the data coming out of each source (access frequency, amount of data, latency, ...). The consistency of the exposed data can be ensured by specifying dependencies between the cached data. We also present some cases where Lavoisier has proven effective, like the usage that is now done by the "LCG/EGEE CIC portal" a central tool for the operations of the LCG/EGEE grid infrastructure. We see how in this particular case, Lavoisier allowed the portal developers to reduce its code complexity while increasing the number of offered features and provided the possibility to serve the collected data to other operations tools.
        Speaker: Mr Sylvain Reynaud (IN2P3/CNRS)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        LcgCAF - The CDF portal to the gLite Middleware 20m
        The increasing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider will soon cause the computing requirements for data analysis and MC production to grow larger than the dedicated CPU resources that will be available. In order to meet future demands, CDF is investing in shared, Grid, resources. A significant fraction of opportunistic Grid resources will be available to CDF before LHC era starts and CDF could greatly benefit from using them. CDF is therefore reorganizing its computing model to be integrated with the new Grid model. LcgCAF builds upon the gLite Middleware in order to establish a standard CDF environment transparent to the end-users. LcgCAF is a suite of software entities that handle authentication/security, job submission and monitoring and data handling tasks. CDF authentication and security are entirely based on the Kerberos 5 system, so we needed to develop a kerberos certificate renewing service based on GSI certificates, to guarantee job output transfer to CDF disk servers. An enqueuing and status monitoring functionality was introduced to make the CAF submission latencies independent of the gLite Work Load Management System ones. The CDF batch monitoring is presently based on information from the GridIce monitoring and the LCG Logging and Bookkeeping systems. Interactive monitoring is based on the Clarens Web Services Framework. The beta version of LcgCAF is already deployed and is able to run CDF jobs on most INFN-Grid sites.
        Speaker: Dr Armando Fella (INFN, Pisa)
      • 11:00
        LHCb Data Replication during SC3 20m
        LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog. Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.
        Speaker: Mr Andrew Cameron Smith (CERN, University of Edinburgh)
        Minutes
        Paper
        Poster
        tex file
      • 11:00
        Lightweight deployment of the SAM grid data handling system to new experiments. 20m
        The SAM data handling system has been deployed successfully by the Fermilab D0 and CDF experiments, managing Petabytes of data and millions of files in a Grid working environment. D0 and CDF have large computing support staffs, have always managed their data using file catalog systems, and have participated strongly in the development of the SAM product. But we think that SAM's long term viability requires a much wider deployment to variety of future customers, with minimal support and training cost and without customization of the SAM software. The recent production deployment of SAM to the Minos experiment has been a good first step in this direction. Minos is a smaller experiment, with under 30 terabytes of data in about 600,000 files, and no history of using a file catalog. We will discuss the Minos deployment and its short time scale, how it has provided useful new capabilities to Minos, and where we have room for improvement. The acceptance of SAM by Minos has depended critically on several new capabilities of SAM, including the C++ API, the frozen client software, and SAM Web Services. We will discuss lessons learned, will speculate on future deployments, and will invite feedback from the audience in this regard.
        Speaker: Arthur Kreymer (FERMILAB)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Managing gLite with Quattor: Implementation and Deployment Experience 20m
        gLite is the next generation middleware for grid computing. Born from the collaborative efforts of more than 80 people in 12 different academic and industrial research centers as part of the EGEE Project, gLite provides a bleeding-edge, best-of-breed framework for building grid applications tapping into the power of distributed computing and storage resources across the Internet. Currently, gLite is composed of more than 25 different services, implemented in different languages, using different technologies and all coming with individual configuration needs. In addition gLite can be run in multiple operational scenarios and supports presently hundreds of configuration options. Past experience has shown that configuration and management are one of the biggest challenges of such a system. As part of the investigations of ways of configuring, deploying and managing gLite, the Quattor system was tested as a candidate for large-scale installations. This presentation will discuss how the functionality provided by Quattor has been experimentally applied in the context of the internal gLite testbed management. Different aspects are described ranging from the Quattor server installation itself to the population of the Software Repository and the definition of the Configuration Database. The paper also shows how the required information can be generated automatically from the gLite configuration files and build dependencies lists in order to allow seamless integration of gLite within the Quattor system. The most challenging part, the service lifecycle management, has also been addressed. A Quattor NCM component has been developed to transform the Quattor data structures into gLite configuration files and to act on the gLite configuration scripts to reconfigure the service as information change. The future steps and possible areas of improvements are described.
        Speaker: Mr Marian ZUREK (CERN, ETICS)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Monitoring and Accounting within the ATLAS Production System 20m
        The presented monitoring framework builds on the experience gained during the ATLAS Data Challenge 2 and Rome physics workshop productions. During these previous productions several independent monitoring tools were created. Although these tools were created to some degree in isolation they provided a good degree of complementary functionality and are taken as a basis for the current framework. One of the main design goals of the current framework is to abstract the monitoring away from the central database of jobs, thus reducing the impact which the monitoring has on the production itself. Furthermore, the framework is aimed towards providing a common monitoring environment which may be seen as a high level source of information covering the 3 grid flavours used for ATLAS productions. The functionality of the framework is described with attention being paid to design considerations and implementation. The experience gained during the project is presented along with an outlook towards future developments.
        Speaker: Dr john kennedy (ATLAS)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Multiple Virtual Databases to support multiple VOs in R-GMA 20m
        R-GMA is a relational implementation of the GGF's Grid Monitoring Architecture (GMA). In some respects it can be seen as a virtual database (VDB), supporting the publishing and retrieval of time-stamped tuples. The scope of an R-GMA installation is defined by its schema and registry. The schema holds the table definitions and, in future, the authorization rules. The registry holds a list of the available producers and consumers. At present, while it is possible to have multiple installations, a user can only use one at a time and hence cannot access tables in another installation. We plan to introduce multiple VDBs, where each VDB is defined by its own registry and schema. In this paper we explain the basic idea of R-GMA, why we need multiple VDBs to support multiple VOs, and how we will implement them. We also discuss the possible need to create some VDBs not related to end-user VOs. We also explain why we do not plan to provide a catalogue of VDBs as a part of R-GMA.
        Speaker: Mr A.J. Wilson (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Non-Java Web Service hosting for Grids 20m
        GridSite provides a Web Service hosting framework for services written as native executables (eg in C/C++) or scripting languages (such as Perl and Python.) These languages are of particular relevance to HEP applications, which typically have large investments of code and expertise in C++ and scripting languages. We describe the Grid-based authentication and authorization environment that GridSite provides, removing the need for services to manipulate Grid credentials (such as X.509, GSI and VOMS) themselves. We explain how the GRACE model (GridSite - Apache - CGI - Executables) allows Unix-account sandboxing of services, and allows sites to provide hosting of multiple services provided by third-parties (such as HEP experimental collaborations) on the same server. Finally, we propose scenarios which combine GridSite's authorization model with service sandboxing to allow remote deployment of services.
        Speaker: Dr Andrew McNab (UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Numerical simulation of the beam dynamics in storage rings with electron cooling 20m
        BETACOOL program developed by JINR electron cooling group is a kit of algorithms based on common format of input and output files. The program is oriented to simulation of the ion beam dynamics in a storage ring in presence of cooling and heating effects. The version presented in this report includes three basic algorithms: simulation of r.m.s. parameters of the ion distribution function evolution in time, simulation of the distribution function evolution using Monte-Carlo method and tracking algorithm based on molecular dynamics technique. General processes to be investigated with the program are intrabeam scattering in the ion beam, electron cooling, interaction with residual gas and internal target.
        Speaker: Dr Grigory Trubnikov (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Operating a Tier1 centre as part of a grid environment 20m
        Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is one of the largest science and engineering research institutions in Europe. The resource centre GridKa as part of this science centre is building up a Tier 1 centre for the LHC project. Embedded in the European grid initiative EGEE, GridKa also manages the ROC (regional operation centre) for the German Swiss region. The management structure of the ROC and its integration into the regional operation is explained. By discussing existing and future tools for operating and monitoring the grid, the development of a robust grid infrastructure in the German Swiss region will be shown. Experience in operating the grid from the view of a Tier 1 centre and as a regional operation centre is summarized with respect to integration of grid tools in the German Swiss federation. In addition the progress to build a stable grid infrastructure in our region of about 13 resource centres is pointed out taking into account the new support structures. The start of the support workflow can be a user specific problem as well as a problem detected by regularly performed general site functional tests. Different views of the regional grid structure will be highlighted.
        Speaker: Dr Sven Hermann (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Operation and Management of a Heterogeneous Large-Scale, Multi-Purpose Computer Cluster at Brookhaven National Lab 20m
        The operation and management of a heterogeneous large-scale, multi-purpose computer cluster is a complex task given the competing nature of requests for resources by a large, world-wide user base. Besides providing the bulk of the computational resources to experiments at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), this large cluster is part of the U.S. Tier 1 Computing Center for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, and it provides support to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project. A description of the existing and planned upgrades in infrastructure, hardware and software architecture that allow efficient usage of computing and distributed storage resources by a geographically diverse user base will be given, followed by a description of near and medium-term computing trends that will play a role in the future growth and direction of this computer cluster.
        Speaker: Dr Tony Chan (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LAB)
      • 11:00
        Overview of STAR Online Control Systems and Experiment Status Information 20m
        For any large experiment with multiple sub-systems and their respective experts spread throughout the world, real-time and near-real-time information accessible to a wide audience is critical to efficiency and success. Large and varied amounts of information about the current and past state of facilities and detector systems are necessary, both for current running, and for eventual data analysis. As an example, the STAR Control Room's internal interactions and presentation of information to the external “offline” world will be described in brief. Conceptual network layout, types of information exchanged and methods of information dissemination will be presented. Focus will not be on the flow of physics data per se, but on the information about the status and control of the experimental systems in the course of acquiring the physics data.
        Speaker: Mr Wayne BETTS (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Prototype of the Swiss ATLAS Computing Infrastructure 20m
        The Swiss ATLAS Computing prototype consists of clusters of PCs located at the universities of Bern and Geneva (Tier 3) and at the Swiss National Supercomputing Centre (CSCS) in Manno (Tier 2). In terms of software, the prototype includes ATLAS off-line releases as well as middleware for running the ATLAS off-line in a distributed way. Both batch and interactive use cases are supported. The batch use case is covered by a country wide batch system, the interactive use case is covered by a parallel execution system running on single clusters. The prototype serves the dual purpose of providing resources to the ATLAS production system and providing Swiss researchers with resources for individual studies of both simulated data and data from the ATLAS test beam. In this article the solutions used for achieving this are presented. Initial experience with the system is also described.
        Speaker: Dr Szymon Gadomski (UNIVERSITY OF BERN, LABORATORY FOR HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Public Resource Computing and Geant4 20m
        Projects like SETI@home use computing resources donated by the general public for scientific purposes. Many of these projects are based on the BOINC (Berkeley Open Interface for Network Computing) software framework that makes it easier to set up new public resource computing projects. BOINC is used at CERN for the LHC@home project where more than 10000 home users donate time of their CPUs to run the Sixtrack application. The LHC@home project has recently delivered the computing power of about three Teraflops, which makes it interesting also for other applications that could accept the constraints imposed by the BOINC model that requires simple, relatively small, CPU bound programs that can run on a sandbox. Once these constraints are met, BOINC allows thousands of different instances of the programs to run in parallel. The use of Geant4 in a public resource computing project has also been studied at CERN. After contacts with developers we found that BOINC could be useful to run the GEANT4 release testing process that was found to be a good case study to explore what we could do for more complex HEP simulations. This is a simple test beam set-up to compare physics results produced by different program versions which allows validating new versions. Therefore we ported the GEANT4 release testing software to the BOINC environment both in Windows and Linux and set up a BOINC server to demonstrate a production environment. The benefits and limitations of BOINC based projects for running Geant4 are presented.
        Speaker: Dr Jukka Klem (Helsinki Institute of Physics HIP)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        Recent User Interface Developments in ROOT 20m
        Providing all components and designing good user interfaces requires from developers to know and apply some basic principles. The different parts of the ROOT GUIs should fit and complete each other. They must form a window via which users see the capability of the software system and understand how to use them. If well-designed, the user interface adds quality and inspires confidence and trust of the users. Its main goal is to help them to have an easier time getting their jobs accomplished. In this poster, we present the relationship between two main user interface projects in this direction: the ROOT object editors and the style manager.
        Speaker: Mr Fons Rademakers (CERN)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Reconstruction and calibration strategies for the LHCb RICH detector 20m
        The LHCb experiment will make high precision studies of CP violation and other rare phenomena in B meson decays. Particle identification, in the momentum range from ~2-100 GeV/c, is essential for this physics programme, and will be provided by two Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. The experiment will use several levels of trigger to reduce the 10MHz rate of visible interactions to the 2kHz that will be stored. The final level of the trigger has access to information from all sub-detectors. The standard offline RICH reconstruction involves solving a quartic equation that describes the RICH optics for each hit in the RICH detector, then using a global likelihood minimization, combining the information from both RICH detectors along with tracking information, to determine the best particle hypotheses. This approach performs well but is vulnerable to background from rings without associated tracks. In addition, the time needed to run the algorithm is of the order of 100 ms per event which is to be compared with the time of order 10 ms available to run the entire final level trigger. Alternative RICH reconstruction algorithms are being investigated that complement the standard procedure. First, algorithms of greater robustness, less reliant on the tracking information, are being developed, using techniques such as Hough transforms and Metropolis Hastings Markov chains. Secondly, simplified algorithms with execution times of order 3 ms, suitable for use in the online trigger are being evaluated. Finally, optimal performance requires a calibration procedure that will enable the performance of the pattern recognition to be measured from the experimental data. This paper describes the the performance of the different RICH reconstruction algorithms studied and reports on the strategy for RICH calibration in LHCb.
        Speakers: Cristina Lazzeroni (University of Cambridge), Dr Raluca-Anca Muresan (Oxford University)
        paper PDF file
        tar of TEX and EPS files
      • 11:00
        Resilient dCache: Replicating Files for Integrity and Availability. 20m
        dCache is a distributed storage system currently used to store and deliver data on a petabyte scale in several large HEP experiments. Initially dCache was designed as a disk front-end for robotic tape storage file systems. Lately, dCache systems have been increased in scale by several orders of magnitude and considered for deployment in US-CMS T2 centers lacking expensive tape robots. This necessitated storing data for extended periods of time on disk-only storage systems, in many cases using very inexpensive commodity (non-RAID) disk devices purchased specifically for storage or opportunistically exploiting spare disk space in computing farms. Hundreds of Terabytes of storage may be added for little additional cost. The large number of nodes in computing clusters and the lesser reliability of commodity disks and computers leads to a higher likelihood for individual files to become lost or unavailable in normal operations. Resilient dCache is a new top level dCache service created to address these reliability and file availability issues by keeping several replicas of each logical file on elements of different dCache disk hardware. The Resilience Manager automatically keeps the number of copies in the system within a specified range when files are stored in or removed from dCache, or disk pool nodes are found to have crashed, been removed from, or added to the system. The Resilience Manager maintains a local file replica catalog and disk pool configuration in Postgres DB. The paper describes the design of dCache Resilience Manager and experience in the production deployment and operations in US-CMS T1 and T2 centers. We use the configuration "all pools are resilient" in US-CMS T2 centers to store generated data before they are stored in T1 center. The US-CMS T1 center has some pools in the single dCache system configured as resilient, while the other pools are tape-backed or volatile. Such a configuration simplifies the administration of the system and data exchange. We attribute the increase in amount of data delivered to compute nodes from dCache US-CMS T1 center (0.2 PB/day in October 2005) to the data stored in resilient pools.
        Speaker: Mr Timur Perelmutov (FNAL)
      • 11:00
        ROOT 2D graphics visualisation techniques 20m
        ROOT 2D graphics offers a wide set of data representation and visualisation techniques. Over the years, responding to user comments and requests, these have been improved and enriched. The current system is very flexible and can easily be tuned to meet user imagination. We present a patchwork demonstrating the wide variety of output which can be produced.
        Speaker: Rene Brun (CERN)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        ROOT 3D graphics overview and examples 20m
        Overview and examples of: -Common viewer architecture (TVirtualViewer3D interface and TBuffer3D shape hierarchy) used by all 3D viewers. -Significant features in the OpenGL viewer - in pad embedding, render styles, composite (CSG/Boolean) shapes and clipping.
        Speaker: Rene Brun (CERN)
        Poster
      • 11:00
        ROOT/CINT/Reflex integration 20m
        Reflex is a package, which enhances C++ with reflection capabilities. It was developed in the LCG Applications Area at CERN and recently it was decided that it will be tightly integrated with the ROOT analysis framework and especially with the CINT interpreter. This strategy will unify the dictionary systems of ROOT/CINT and Reflex into a common one. The advantages of this move for ROOT/CINT will be better coherence to the C++ standard, less memory consumption of dictionary information and easier maintenance. This poster will focus on the evolutionary steps to be taken for this integration like the unification of data structures of CINT and Reflex while staying backwards compatible to user code. It will also discuss modifications for the generation of reflection information within ROOT, which is done via the rootcint program. Source code examples and class diagrams will give a look and feel of the Reflex package itself.
        Speaker: Dr Stefan Roiser (CERN)
      • 11:00
        Sailing the petabyte sea: navigational infrastructure in the ATLAS event store 20m
        ATLAS has deployed an inter-object association infrastructure that allows the experiment to track at the object level what data have been written and where, and to assign both object-level and process-level labels to identify data objects for later retrieval. This infrastructure provides the foundation for opportunistic run-time navigation to upstream data, and in principle supports both dynamic determination of what data objects are reachable, and controlled-scope retrieval. This infrastructure is complementary to the coarser-grained bookkeeping and provenance management system used to identify which datasets were input to the production of which derived datasets, adding the capability to determine and locate the objects used to produce specific derived objects. It also simplifies the task of populating an event-level metadata system capable of returning references to events at any stage of processing. The tension between what the infrastructure can demonstrably support at site-level scales--it is already extensively utilized by ATLAS physicists--and what is expected to be constrained by policy in light of anticipated distributed storage resource limitations--is also discussed.
        Speaker: Dr David Malon (ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        SAMGrid Peer-to-Peer Information Service 20m
        SAMGrid presently relies on the centralized database for providing several services vital for the system operation. These services are all encapsulated in the SAMGrid Database Server, and include access to file metadata and replica catalogs, dataset and processing bookkeeping, as well as the runtime support for the SAMGrid station services. Access to the centralized database and DB Servers represents a single point of failure in the system and limits its scalability. In order to address this issue, we have created a prototype of a peer-to-peer information service that allows the system to operate during times when access to the central DB is not available for any reason (e.g., network failures, scheduled downtimes, etc.), as well as to improve the system performance during times of extremely high system load when the central DB access is slow and/or has a high failure rate. Our prototype uses Distributed Hash Tables to create a fault tolerant and self-healing service. We believe that this is the first peer-to-peer information service designed to become a part of an in-use grid system. We describe here the prototype architecture and its existing and planned functionality, as well as show how it can be integrated into the SAMGrid system. We also present a study of performance of our new service under different circumstances. Our results strongly demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the proposed architecture.
        Speaker: Dr Sinisa Veseli (Fermilab)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        SAMGrid Web Services 20m
        SAMGrid is a distributed (CORBA-based) HEP data handling system presently used by three running experiments at Fermilab: D0, CDF and MINOS. User access to the SAMGrid services is provided via Python and C++ client APIs, which handle the low-level CORBA calls. Although the use of SAMGrid API's is fairly straightforward and very well documented, in practice SAMGrid users are facing numerous installation and configuration issues. SAMGrid Web Services have been designed to allow easy access to the system by using standard web service technologies and protocols (SOAP/XML, HTTP). In addition to hiding from users complexity of the system, these services eliminate the need for the proprietary CORBA-based clients, and also significantly simplify client installation and configuration. We present here the arhitecture and design of the SAMGrid Web Services, and describe the functionality that they currently offer. In particular, we discuss various dataset and cataloging services, as well as cover in more details the techniques used for delivering data files to end users. We also discuss service testing and performance measurements, deployment plans, as well as plans for future development.
        Speaker: Dr Sinisa Veseli (Fermilab)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Schema Evolution and the ATLAS Event Store 20m
        The ATLAS event data model will almost certainly change over time. ATLAS must retain the ability to read both old and new data after such a change, regulate the introduction of such changes, minimize the need to run massive data conversion jobs when such changes are introduced, and maintain the machinery to support such data conversions when they are unavoidable. In database literature, such changes to the layout of persistent datastructures are known as schema evolution. Possible schema changes range from simple alterations (e.g., adding a new data member) through complex redesign of a class to multi-class refactoring of the data model. ATLAS uses POOL/ROOT as its principal event storage technology and benefits from ROOT automatic schema evolution. For more complex changes, manual schema evolution is implemented. The architecture of the Gaudi/Athena framework separates the transient and persistent worlds by a "conversion" layer. We take advantage of this separation to allow transformations from stored persistent shapes to an evolving transient class. ROOT custom streamers may be used to allow migration to an intermediate state representation model.
        Speaker: Dr Marcin Nowak (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        ScotGrid and the LCG. 20m
        ScotGrid is a distributed Tier-2 computing centre formed as a collaboration between the Universities of Durham, Edinburgh and Glasgow, as part of the UK's national particle physics grid, GridPP. This paper describes ScotGrid's current resources by institute and how these were configured to enable participation in the LCG service challenges. In addition, we outline future development plans for ScotGrid hardware resources and plans for the optimisation of the ScotGrid networking infrastructure. Such improvements are necessary to enhance the quality of service that we provide to Grid users. Keywords: ScotGrid, Tier-2, GridPP, LCG.
        Speaker: Dr Philip Clark (University of Edinburgh)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Software management for the alignment system of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer 20m
        The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment aims at reconstructing very high energy muon tracks (up to 1 TeV) with a transverse momentum resolution better than 10 %. For this purpose a resolution of 50 micrometer on the sagitta of tracks has to be achieved. Each muon track is measured with three wire chambers stations placed inside an air core toroid magnet (the chambers seat around the interaction point in three layers and 16 sectors). In particular, the contribution to the sagitta due to the limited knowledge of the chamber positions and deformations should not exceed 30 micrometer. Therefore a network of optical survey monitors, called alignment system is being installed. This network is made up of six different alignment types: i) the IN-PLANE alignment measures chamber internal deformation; the PRAXIAL system is composed of two parts: ii) the PROXIMITY part which gives the position of one chamber with respect to the neighbouring one and iii) the AXIAL part controls the “saloon door” effect of chambers relative position within a layer, iv) the PROJECTIVE system gives the chamber position within a triplet; v) the REFERENCE system is used to link a sector of chambers to the neighbouring sector; vi) the CCC system connects large chambers to small chambers since the lasts are not individually aligned. In this paper we will describe the software managing the complete system from calibration of individual sensors to implementation of the whole system including some test beam results.
        Speaker: Dr Valerie GAUTARD (CEA-SACLAY)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        STAR Vertex reconstruction algorithms in the presence of abundant pileup. 20m
        One of the world's largest time projection chambers (TPC) has been used at STAR for reconstruction of collisions at luminosities yielding thousands of piled-up background tracks resulting from few hundreds pp minBias background events or several heavy ion background events, respectively. The combination of TPC tracks and trigger detector data used for tagging of tracks are sufficient to disentangle the primary vertex and primary tracks from the pileup. In this paper we will focus on techniques for vertex reconstruction. A luminosity driven evolution of vertex finder algorithms at STAR will be sketched. We will make distinction between multiple primary vertices from the trigger bunch crossing (bXing) and reconstructing vertices associated with minimum bias collisions from early/late bXings. The vertex finder algorithm based on likelihood measures will be presented. We will compare it with a chi square-minima method (Minuit). Fine-tuning criteria for weighting the matching of TPC to fast detector data, taking into account efficiency, purity, trigger dependence, stability of calibrations, and benefits of external beam line constraints, will be discussed. The performance of the algorithm for real and simulated STAR pp data (including pileup) will be assessed. Extension of the algorithm for reconstruction vertex in CuCu and heavier ions collisions will be discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Jan BALEWSKI (Indiana University Cyclotron Facility)
      • 11:00
        The Calorimeter Event Data Model for the ATLAS Experiment at LHC 20m
        The event data model for the ATLAS calorimeters in the reconstruction software is described, starting from the raw data to the analysis domain calorimeter data. The data model includes important features like compression strategies with insignificant loss of signal precision, flexible and configurable data content for high level reconstruction objects, and backward navigation from the analysis data at the highest extraction level to the full event data. The most important underlying strategies will be discussed in this talk.
        Speaker: Walter Lampl (Department of Physics, University of Arizona)
        Paper
      • 11:00
        The Evolving Role of Monitoring in a Large-Scale Computing Facility 7h 10m
        Monitoring a large-scale computing facility is evolving from a passive to a more active role in the LHC era, from monitoring the health, availability and performance of the facility to taking a more active and automated role in restoring availability, updating software and becoming a meta-scheduler for batch systems. This talk will discuss the experiences of the RHIC and ATLAS U.S. Tier 1 Computing Facility at Brookhaven National Lab in evaluating different monitoring software packages and how monitoring is being used to improve efficiency and to integrate the facility with the Grid environment. A monitoring model to link geographically dispersed, regional computer facilities which can be used to improve efficiency and throughput will be presented as well.
        Speaker: Dr Tony Chan (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LAB)
      • 11:00
        The Readout Crate in BESIII DAQ framework 20m
        The BESIII “readout” is meant an interface between DAQ framework and FEEs. As a part of DAQ system, the readout plays a very important role in the process of data acquisition. The principle functionality of Readout Crate is to receive, repack, buffer and forward the data coming from FEEs to Readout PC. The implementation is based on commercial components: VMEbus PowerPC based single board computer; the VxWorks real-time operation system.The design and implementation of the functionality of Readout Crate will be presented in this paper. Keywords: BESIII, DAQ, Readout, VMEbus, VxWorks
        Speaker: Mr GUANGKUN LEI (IHEP)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        The SAM-Grid / LCG interoperability system: a bridge between two Grids 20m
        The SAM-Grid system is an integrated data, job, and information management infrastructure. The SAM-Grid addresses the distributed computing needs of the experiments of RunII at Fermilab. The system typically relies on SAM-Grid services deployed at the remote facilities in order to manage the computing resources. Such deployment requires special agreements with each resource provider and it is a labor intensive process. On the other hand, the DZero VO has also access to computing resources through the LCG infrastructure. In this context, resource sharing agreements and the deployment of standard middleware are negotiated within the framework of the EGEE project. The SAM-Grid / LCG interoperability project was started to let DZero users retain the user-friendlyness of the SAM-Grid interface, allowing, at the same time, access to the LCG pool of resources. This "bridging" between grids is beneficial for both the SAM-Grid and LCG, since it minimizes the deployment efforts of the SAM-Grid team and exercises the LCG computing infrastructure with data intensive production applications of a running experiment. The interoperability system is centered around job "forwarding" nodes, which receive jobs prepared by the SAM-Grid and submit them to LCG. This paper discusses the architecture of the system and how it addresses inherent issues of service accessibility and scalability. The paper also presents the operational and support challenges that arise to operate the system in production.
        Speaker: Garzoglio Gabriele (FERMI NATIONAL ACCELERATOR LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        Transparently Distributing CDF Software with Parrot 20m
        The CDF software model was developed with dedicated resources in mind. One of the main assumptions is to have a large set of executables, shared libraries and configuration files on a shared file system. As CDF is moving toward a Grid model, this assumption is limiting the general physics analysis to only a small set of CDF friendly sites with the appropriate file system installed. In order to exploit as many Grid resources as possible, we have looked at ways to lift this limit. Given the amount of users and existing applications, it is impractical to force the users to change their way of work and stop relying on the CDF software distribution. Instead, we are developing a solution that uses Parrot to transparently access CDF software remotely. Parrot is a user level tool that allows any executable or script to access remote files as if they were on a local file system. No special privileges are required to install or use Parrot, so it can easily be deployed on a Grid. Parrot supports several I/O protocols including HTTP, FTP, RFIO, and other protocols common in grid computing. Using HTTP and standard caching mechanisms, this allows applications to access a single copy of the CDF software distribution from anywhere in the world. In the talk we will present our experience with the use of Parrot, including the problems we experienced and how we solved them.
        Speaker: Dr Igor Sfiligoi (INFN Frascati)
        Paper
        Poster
      • 11:00
        VGM visualization within OnX 20m
        We want to do a short communication of a job done at LAL to visualize, within the OnX interactive environment, HEP geometries accessed through the VGM abstract interfaces. VGM and OnX had been presented at the Interlaken CHEP'04.
        Speaker: Mr Laurent GARNIER (LAL-IN2P3-CNRS)
      • 11:00
        VLSI Implementation of Greedy based Distributed Routing Schemes for Ad Hoc NetWorks 20m
        We describe a VLSI implementation based on FPGA of a new greedy algorithm for approximating minimum set covering in ad hoc wireless network applications. The implementation makes the algorithm suitable for embedded and real-time architectures.
        Speaker: Dr paolo branchini (INFN)
        Paper
        Poster
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 15:30
      Computing Facilities and Networking: CFN-1 D405

      D405

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        DNS load balancing and failover mechanism at CERN 20m
        Availability approaching 100% and response time converging to 0 are two factors that users expect of any system they interact with. Even if the real importance of these factors is a function of the size and nature of the project, todays users are rarely tolerant of performance issues with system of any size. Commercial solutions for load balancing and failover are plentiful. Citrix NetScaler, Foundry ServerIron series, Coyote Point Systems Equalizer and Cisco Catalyst SLB switches, to name just a few, all offer industry standard approaches to these problems. Their solutions are optimized for standard protocol services such as HTTP, FTP or SSH but it remains difficult to extend them for other kinds of application. In addition to this, the granularity of their failover mechanisms are per node and not per application daemon, as is often required. Moreover, the pricing of these devices for small projects is uneconomical. This paper describes the design and implementation of the DNS load balancing and failover mechanism currently used at CERN. Our system is based around SNMP, which is used as the transport layer for state information about the server nodes. A central decision making service collates this information and selects the best candidate(s) for the service. IP addresses of the chosen nodes are updated in DNS using the DynDNS mechanism. The load balancing feature of our system is used for variety of standard protocols (including HTTP, SSH, (Grid)FTP, SRM) while the (easily extendable) failover mechanism adds support for applications like CVS and databases. The scale, in terms of the number of nodes, of the supported services ranges from a couple (2-4), up to around 100. The best known services using this mechanism at CERN are LXPLUS and CASTORGRID. This paper also explains the advantages and disadvantages of our system, and advice is given about when it is appropriate to be used. Last, but not least, given the fact that all components of our system are build around freely available open source products, our solution should be especially interesting in low resource locations.
        Speaker: Mr Vladimir Bahyl (CERN IT-FIO)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        Using TSM to create a high-performance tape connection 20m
        At GridKa an initial capacity of 1.5 PB online and 2 PB background storage is needed for the LHC start in 2007. Afterwards the capacity is expected to grow almost exponentially. No computing site will be able to keep this amount of data in online storage, hence a highly accessible tape connection is needed. This paper describes a high-performance connection of the online storage to an IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) environment. The performance of a system does not only depend on the hardware, but also on the architecture of the application. The scenario we are describing distributes its files over a large number of file servers, storing their data with the help of a proxy node to tape. Each file server can restore the data independent on the file server which has stored the data originally. Furthermore with the LAN free connection to the tape drives the data transfers bypass the TSM server which otherwise would be a bottleneck. The system is completely transparent to the user.
        Speaker: Dr Doris Ressmann (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe)
        Paper
        Paper sources
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Cluster architecture for java web hosting at CERN 20m
        Over the last years, we have experienced a growing demand for hosting java web applications. At the same time, it has been difficult to find an off-the-shelf solution that would enable load balancing, easy administration and a high level of isolation between applications hosted within a J2EE server. The architecture developed and used in production at CERN is based on a linux cluster. A piece of software developed at CERN, JPSManager, enables easy management of the service by following the self-management paradigm. JPSManager also enables quick recovery in case of hardware failure. The isolation between different clients of the service is implemented using multiple instances of Apache Tomcat, but the architecture is open and a different J2EE server can be incorporated if necessary. This paper describes this architecture in detail and analyses its advantages and limitations. Examples of HEP related applications, which make use of this architecture, are also given.
        Speaker: Michal Kwiatek (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        dCache, the Upgrade 20m
        For the last two years, the dCache/SRM Storage Element has been successfully integrated into the LCG framework and is in heavy production at several dozens of sites, spanning a range from single host installations up to those with some hundreds of tera bytes of disk space, delivering more than 50 TByes per day to clients. Based on the permanent feedback from our users and the detailed reports given by representatives of large dCache sites during our workshop at DESY end of August 2005, the dCache team has been identified important areas of improvement. With this presentation I would like to discuss some of those changes in more detail. This includes a more sophisticated handling of the various supported tape back-ends, the introduction of multiple I/O queues per pool with different properties to account for the divers behaviors of the different I/O protocols and the possibility to have one dCache instance spread over more than one physical site. Moreover I will touch on changes in the name-space management as short and long term perspective to keep up with future requirements. In terms of dissemination I will report on our initiative to make dCache a widely scalable storage element by introducing dCache, the Book, plans for improved packaging and more convenient source code license terms. Finally I would like to cover the dCache part of the german e-science project, d-Grid, which will allow for improved scheduling of tape to disk restore operations as well as advanced job scheduling by providing extended information exchange between storage elements and Job Scheduler.
        Speaker: Dr Patrick Fuhrmann (DESY)
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Distributed Data Analysis: DDA-1 D406

      D406

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        DIAL: Distributed Interactive Analysis of Large Datasets 20m
        DIAL is a generic framework for distributed analysis. The heart of the system is a scheduler (also called analysis service) that receives high-level processing requests expressed in terms of an input dataset and a transformation to act on that dataset. The scheduler splits the dataset, applies the transformation to each subdataset to produce a new subdataset, and then merges these to produce the overall output dataset which is made available to the caller. DIAL defines a job interface that makes it possible for schedulers to connect with a wide range of batch and grid workload management systems. It also provides command line, root, python and web clients for job submission that enable users to submit and monitor jobs in a uniform manner. Scaling to very large jobs can be handled with a scheduler that does partial splitting and submits each subjob to another scheduler. I will give the current status of DIAL and discuss its use in the context of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). There we are looking at submission to local batch systems, globus gatekeepers, EGEE/LCG workload management, ATLAS production, and PANDA. The latter is a U.S. ATLAS framework for data production and distributed analysis (thus the name) that may also use DIAL for its internal scheduling.
        Speaker: David Adams (BNL)
        Slides
      • 14:20
        Distributed object monitoring for ROOT analyses with GO4 v3 20m
        The new version 3 of the ROOT based GSI standard analysis framework GO4 (GSI Object Oriented Online Offline) has been released. GO4 provides multithreaded remote communication between analysis process and GUI process, a dynamically configurable analysis framework, and a Qt based GUI with embedded ROOT graphics. In the new version 3 a new internal object manager was developed. Its functionality was separated from the GUI implementation. This improves the GO4 GUI and browser functionality. Browsing and object monitoring from various local and remote data sources is provided by a user transparent proxy architecture. The GO4 communication mechanism between GUI and analysis processes was redesigned. Several distributed viewers may now connect to one analysis. Even a standard CINT session may initiate the Go4 communication environment to control an analysis process with the native ROOT browser. Similarly, standard analysis ROOT macros may be controlled by either a remote Go4 GUI or ROOT browser. Besides Linux, a lightweight binary GO4 v3 distribution (without Qt GUI) for MS WindowsXP is now available. Cross platform connections between GO4 environments are possible.
        Speaker: Dr Jörn Adamczewski (GSI)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        DIRAC Production Manager Tools 20m
        DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management system used for Monte Carlo production, data processing and distributed user analysis. Such a wide variety of applications requires a general approach to the tasks of job definition, configuration and management. In this paper, we present a suite of tools called a Production Console, which is a general framework for job formulation, configuration, replication and management. It is based on Object Oriented technology and designed for use by a collaboration of people with different roles and computing skills. An application is built from a series of simple building blocks – modules, steps and workflow. The Production Console also provides a GUI which is used to formulate a distributed application in the form of platform independent Python code. The system is written in C++ and based on Qt, ensuring portability for a variety of operating systems (currently Linux and Windows versions exist.)
        Speaker: Dr Gennady KUZNETSOV (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot)
        Slides
      • 15:00
        PROOF - The Parallel ROOT Facility 20m
        The Parallel ROOT Facility, PROOF, enables the interactive analysis of distributed data sets in a transparent way. It exploits the inherent parallelism in data of uncorrelated events via a multi-tier architecture that optimizes I/O and CPU utilization in heterogeneous clusters with distributed storage. Being part of the ROOT framework PROOF inherits the benefits of a performant object-oriented storage system and a wealth of statistical and visualization tools. Dedicated PROOF-enabled testbeds are now being deployed at CERN for testing by the LHC experiments. This paper describes the status of PROOF, focusing mainly on the latest developments: enriched API providing transparent browsing and drawing of data structures stored remotely, and full handling of the results of queries, with retrieve and archive functionalities; support for asynchronous (non-blocking) running mode, giving the possibility to submit a set of queries to be processed sequentially in the background; support for disconnect/reconnect-from-any-other-place functionality, allowing the user to temporary leave a session with running queries and reconnect later on to monitor the status and eventually retrieve the results; improved user interface with a powerful GUI allowing full control on the system and handling of the results; support for dynamic cluster configuration using self-discovery techniques to find out the available nodes; optimized response of the system in multi-user environments, like those foreseen in the forthcoming HEP experiments, with an abstract interface to the most common accounting systems. The ongoing developments to increase the robustness and fault tolerance of the system will also be discussed.
        Speaker: Gerardo GANIS (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Distributed Event production and Processing: DEPP-1 AG 80

      AG 80

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        The LCG Service Challenges - Results from the Throughput Tests and Service Deployment 20m
        The LCG Service Challenges are aimed at achieving the goal of a production quality world-wide Grid that meets the requirements of the LHC experiments in terms of functionality and scale. This talk highlights the main goals of the Service Challenge programme, significant milestones as well as the key services that have been validated in production by the 4 LHC experiments. The LCG Service Challenge programme currently involves both the experiments as well as many sites, including the Tier0, all Tier1s as well as a number of key Tier2s, allowing all primary data flows to be demonstrated. The functionality so far achieved addresses all primary offline Use Cases of the experiments except for analysis, the latter being addressed in the final challenge - scheduled to run from April until September 2006 - prior to delivery of the full production Worldwide LHC Computing Service.
        Speaker: Dr Jamie Shiers (CERN)
      • 14:20
        Public Resource Computing at CERN - LHC@home 20m
        Public resource computing uses the computing power of personal computers that belong to the general public. LHC@home is a public-resource computing project based on the BOINC (Berkeley Open Interface for Network Computing) platform. BOINC is an open source software system, developed by the team behind SETI@home, that provides the infrastructure to operate a public-resource computing project and run scientific applications in a distributed way. In LHC@home, the first public-resource computing application has been SixTrack, which simulates particles circulating around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring in order to study the long-term stability of the particle orbits. Other high-energy physics applications are being prepared for LHC@home. Currently the system has about 8000 active users, 12000 active hosts and provides about 3 TFlops sustained processing rate. Motivating users is a very important part of this kind of project, and therefore LHC@home provides an attractive screen saver and a credit based ranking system for the users. Benefits and limitations of the public resource computing approach are explained and the results obtained with LHC@home are presented.
        Speaker: Dr Jukka Klem (Helsinki Institute of Physics HIP)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Massive data processing for the ATLAS Combined Test Beam 20m
        In 2004, a full slice of the ATLAS detector was tested for 6 months in the H8 experimental area of the CERN SPS, in the so-called Combined Test Beam, with beams of muons, pions, electrons and photons in the range 1 to 350 GeV. Approximately 90 million events were collected, corresponding to a data volume of 4.5 terabytes. The importance of this exercise was two-fold: for the first time the whole ATLAS software suite was used on fully combined real data. Besides, a novel production infrastructure was employed for the reconstruction of the real data as well as for a massive production of simulated events. The talk will be focused on the Combined Test Beam production system. The system is comprised of two components for two distinct tasks: reconstruction of real data and production of simulated samples. Large scale real data reconstruction was performed twice in 2005 at CERN. In both cases a sizable sample of about 400 good runs, for a total of about 25 million events, were processed. Also in 2005, the Monte Carlo production was for the first time performed on the grid, with the simulation of about 4 Million events. Reprocessing of real data, as well as Monte Carlo production on the grid, are already planned for the year 2006.
        Speaker: Dr Frederik Orellana (Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Université de Genève)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        Database Access Patterns in ATLAS Computing Model 20m
        In the ATLAS Computing Model widely distributed applications require access to terabytes of data stored in relational databases. In preparation for data taking, the ATLAS experiment at the LHC has run a series of large-scale computational exercises to test and validate multi-tier distributed data grid solutions under development. We present operational experience in ATLAS database services acquired in large-scale computations run on a federation of grids harnessing the power of more than twenty thousand processors. Among the lessons learned is the increase in fluctuations in database server workloads due to the chaotic nature of grid computations. The observed fluctuations in database access patterns are of a general nature and must be addressed through services enabling dynamic and flexibly managed provisioning of database resources. ATLAS is collaborating with the LCG 3D project and the OSG Edge Services Framework activity in the development of such services. ATLAS database services experience relevant to local CERN data taking operations is also presented including the conditions data flow of ATLAS Combined Test Beam operations, prototype Tier 0 scalability tests and event tag database operations.
        Speaker: A. Vaniachine (ANL)
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Event Processing Applications: EPA-1 AG 76

      AG 76

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Geant4 in production: status and developments 18m
        Geant4 has become an established tool, in production for the majority of LHC experiments during the past two years, and in use in many other HEP experiments and for applications in medical, space and other fields. Improvements and extensions to its capabilities continue, while its physics modeling are refined and results are accumulating for its validation for a variety uses. An overview of recent developments in diverse areas of the toolkit is discussed. These include developments that enable coupled propagation of charged particles in multiple geometries, improvements and refinements in EM physics and an overview of the evolution of the physics modelling. The progress in physics performance continues with a validation effort and physics comparisons with data in collaboration with different of experiments and user groups. We review briefly also the progress in the validation suites for Geant4 releases.
        Speaker: Dr John Apostolakis (CERN)
        Slides
      • 14:18
        Update On the Status of the FLUKA Monte Carlo Transport Code 18m
        The FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code is a well-known simulation tool in High Energy Physics. FLUKA is a dynamic tool in the sense that it is being continually updated and improved by the authors. We review the progress achieved since the last CHEP Conference on the physics models, and some recent applications. From the point of view of hadronic physics, most of the effort is still in the field of nucleus--nucleus interactions with special emphasis on energies near threshold below 100 MeV/A. The currently available version of FLUKA already includes the internal capability to simulate inelastic nuclear interactions beginning with lab kinetic energies of 100 MeV/A up the highest accessible energies by means of the DPMJET-3 event generator to handle the interactions for >5 GeV/A and RQMD for energies below that down to ~100 MeV/A. The new developments concern, at high energy, the embedding of the DPMJET-III generator, which represent a major change with respect to the DPMJET-II structure. This will also allow the code to achieve a better consistency between the nucleus-nucleus section with the original FLUKA model for hadron-nucleus collisions. Work is also in progress to implement a third event generator model based on the Master Boltzmann Equation approach, in order to extend the energy capability from 100 MeV/A down to the threshold for these reactions. In addition to these extended physics capabilities, structural changes to the programs input and scoring capabilities are continually being upgraded. In particular we want to mention the upgrades in the geometry packages, now capable to reaching higher levels of abstraction. Work is also proceeding to provide direct import into ROOT of the FLUKA output files for analysis and to deploy a user-friendly GUI input interface. On the application front, FLUKA has been used to extensively evaluate the potential space radiation effects on astronauts for future deep space missions as well as being adapted for use in the simulation of events in the ALICE detector at the LHC.
        Speaker: Lawrence S. Pinsky (University of Houston)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:36
        GEANT4E: Error propagation for track reconstruction inside the GEANT4 framework 18m
        GEANT4e is a package of the GEANT4 Toolkit that allows to propagate a track with its error parameters. It uses the standard GEANT4 code to propagate the track and for the track propagation it makes an helix approximation (with the step controlled by the user) using the same equations as GEANT3/GEANE. We present here a first working prototype of the GEANT4e package and compare its results and performance to the GEANE package.
        Speaker: Mr Pedro Arce (Cent.de Investigac.Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnol. (CIEMAT))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:54
        Recent developments and upgrades to the Geant4 geometry modeler 18m
        The Geometry modeler is a key component of the Geant4 tookit. It has been designed to exploit at the best the features provided by the Geant4 simulation toolkit, allowing the description in a natural way of the geometrical structure of complex detectors, from a few up to the hundreds of thousands of volumes of the LHC experiments, as well as human phantoms for medical applications or devices and spacescraft for simulations in the space environemnt. The established advanced techniques for optimizing tracking in the geometrical model have been recently enhanced and are currently under evolution to address additional use-cases. New geometrical shapes increased the rich set of primitives available, and new tools help users in the process of debugging her/his geometrical setup. The major concepts of the Geant4 geometry modeler will be reviewed, focussing on recent features introduced in the last releases of the Geant4 toolkit.
        Speaker: Dr Gabriele Cosmo (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:12
        Recent upgrates of the standard electromagnetic physics package in Geant4 18m
        The current status and the recent developments of Geant4 "Standard" electromagnetic package are presented. The design iteration of the package carried out for the last two years is completed. It provides model versus process structure of the code. The internal database of elements and materials based on the NIST databases is introduced inside the Geant4 toolkit as well. The focus of recent activities is on upgrade of physics models and on validation of simulation results. The significant revisions were done for ionistion models, for models for transition radiation, and multiple scattering models, which are presented in this work. The acceptance suite evolution is also discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Michel Maire (LAPP)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Grid Middleware and e-Infrastructure Operation: GMEO-1 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        The Open Science Grid 20m
        We report on the status and plans for the Open Science Grid Consortium, an open, shared national distributed facility in the US which supports a multi-discplinary suite of science applications. More than fifty University and Laboratory groups, including 2 in Brazil and 3 in Asia, now have their resources and services accessible to OSG. 16 Virtual Organizations have registered their users to use the infrastructure. The US LHC experiments are depending on the Open Science Grid as the underlying facility in the US as part of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, other astrophysics experiments, and the currently running particle physics experiments are actively engaged in moving their legacy systems to the common infrastructure to support their computing needs and extensions. We present our planned program of work to operate, mature and extend the capacities of the OSG. The activities proposed will sustain effective operation of the facility itself, increase the diversity in the applications supported, help new sites join the infrastructure and expand the scale of the fabric of computing and storage resources.
        Speakers: Frank Wuerthwein (UCSD for the OSG consortium), Ruth Pordes (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL)), Mrs Ruth Pordes (FERMILAB)
        Slides
      • 14:20
        The Integration Testbed of the Open Science Grid 20m
        We describe the purpose, architectural definition, deployment and operational processes for the Integration Testbed (ITB) of the Open Science Grid (OSG). The ITB has been successfully used to integrate a set of functional interfaces and services required for the OSG Deployment. Activity leading to two major deployments of the OSG grid infrastructure. We discuss the methods and logical architecture used to couple resources and effort from participating VO's to build a common test infrastructure that could be used for validation by site administrators, Grid service providers, and application framework developers. Details of service performance, validation tests, and application performance using the deployed Grid infrastructure are also given.
        Speaker: Robert Gardner (University of Chicago)
      • 14:40
        The German HEP-Grid initiative 20m
        The German Ministry for Education and Research announced a 100 million euro German e-science initiative focused on: Grid computing, e-learning and knowledge management. In a first phase started September 2005 the Ministry has made available 17 million euro for D-Grid, which currently comprises six research consortia: five community grids - HEP-Grid (high-energy physics), Astro-Grid(astronomy and astrophysics), Medi-Grid (medical/bioinformatics), C3-Grid(Collaborative Climate Community), In-Grid(engineering applications) - and an integration project, providing the horizontal platform for the vertical community grids. After an overview of the D-Grid initiative, we present the research program and first results of the HEP community grid. Though rather late compared to similar national grid initiatives, HEP-Grid enables us to learn from early developments and to look for gaps we want to focus on in three workpackages: datamanagement, automated user support and interactive analysis, all on the Grid.
        Speaker: Dr Peter Malzacher (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI))
        Slides
      • 15:00
        FermiGrid - Status and Plans 20m
        FermiGrid is a cooperative project across the Fermilab Computing Division and its stakeholders which includes the following 4 key components: Centrally Managed & Supported Common Grid Services, Stakeholder Bilateral Interoperability, Development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab and Exposure of the Permanent Storage System. The initial goals, current status and future plans for FermiGrid will be presented.
        Speaker: Dr Chadwick Keith (Fermilab)
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Online Computing: OC-1 B333

      B333

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        The ALICE Data-Acquisition Software Framework DATE V5 20m
        The data-acquisition software framework DATE for the ALICE experiment at the LHC has evolved over a period of several years. The latest version DATE V5 is geared for deployment during the test and commissioning phase. The DATE software is designed to runs on several hundred machines being installed with Scientific Linux CERN (SLC) to handle the data streams of approximatly 400 optical Detector Data Links (DDLs) from the ALICE sub-detectors and to write full events onto transient/permanent data storage at a rate of up to 1.25 GB/s. DATE V5 consists of a collection of software packages that are responsible for the data flow and its formatting to carry out the readout, the event-building, and the recording. Additional software packages are in charge of the control, the system configuration, the status and error message reporting, the electronic logbook, the data quality and performance monitoring, and the memory management. The interfaces to the Experiment Control System (ECS) and to the High-Level Trigger (HLT) are implemented, whereas the interfaces to the Detector Control System (DCS) and to the Trigger System (TRG) are in design status. This paper will present the software architecture of DATE V5, the practical experience acquired at various detector integration setup, and future extensions.
        Speaker: Klaus SCHOSSMAIER (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        CMS DAQ Event Builder based on Gigabit Ethernet 25m
        The CMS Data Acquisition system is designed to build and filter events originating from approximately 500 data sources from the detector at a maximum Level 1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and with an aggregate throughput of 100 GByte/sec. For this purpose different architectures and switch technologies have been evaluated. Events will be built in two stages: the first stage, the FED Builder, will be based on Myrinet technology and will pre-assemble groups of about 8 data sources. The next stage, the Readout Builder, will perform the building of full events. In the baseline configuration the FED Builders merge events from 8 data sources and forward them to 8 independent Readout Builder slices, each made up of 64 Readout Units. The Readout Units send data to 64 Builder Units that build complete events and send them to PC farms responsible for the High Level Trigger selection. The finalization of the design of the Readout Builder is currently under study in view of the installation and commissioning of the FED Builder and the first slices of the Readout Builder foreseen in early 2007. In this paper we present the prospects of a Readout Builder based on TCP/IP over Gigabit Ethernet. Other Readout Builder architectures that we are considering are also discussed. The results of throughput measurements and scaling performances are outlined as well as the preliminary estimates of the final performances. All these studies have been carried out at our test-bed farms that are made up of a total of 130 dual Xeon PCs interconnected with Myrinet and Gigabit Ethernet networking and switching technologies.
        Speaker: Marco Pieri (University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, USA)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:45
        The architecture and administration of the ATLAS online computing system 20m
        The needs of ATLAS experiment at the upcoming LHC accelerator, CERN, in terms of data transmission rates and processing power require a large cluster of computers (of the order of thousands) administrated and exploited in a coherent and optimal manner. Requirements like stability, robustness and fast recovery in case of failure impose a server-client system architecture with servers distributed in a tree like structure and clients booted from the network. For security reasons, the system should be accessible only through an application gateway and, also to ensure the autonomy of the system, the network services should be provided internally by dedicated machines in synchronization with CERN IT department's central services. The paper describes a small scale implementation of the system architecture that fits the given requirements and constraints. Emphasis will be put on the mechanisms and tools used to net boot the clients via the "Boot With Me" project and to synchronize information within the cluster via the "Nile" tool.
        Speaker: Dr marc dobson (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:05
        The LHCb Online System 25m
        LHCb is one of the four experiments currently under construction at Cern's LHC accelerator. It is a single arm spectrometer designed to study CP violation the B-meson system with high precision. This paper will describe the LHCb online system, which consists of three sub-systems: - The Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system, responsible for distributing the clock and trigger decisions together with beam-synchronous commands. The system is based on the Cern's RD-12 TTC and LHCb specific infrastructure - The Data Acquisition (DAQ) system which performs the transfer of the physics data from the front-end electronics to the storage via a large CPU farm housing sophisticated trigger software. The DAQ system is based on GbEthernet throughout from the Front-End Electronics to storage. The scale of the system (56 GB/s bandwidth) is very much comparable with the big LHC experiments, even though the number of detector channels and the event size is significantly smaller due to high readout rate of 1 MHz. - An integrated Experiment Control System (ECS) responsible for controlling and monitoring the operational state of the entire experimental setup, i.e. the detector hardware as well as all the electronics of the TFC and the DAQ system. The design of the system is guided by simplicity, i.e. identifying components with simple functionalities and connecting them together via simple protocols. The implementation decisions were based on the ideas of using COTS components and links wherever possible and commodity hardware where appropriate. In this paper we will present the design of the system and the status of its implementation and deployment.
        Speaker: Dr Beat Jost (CERN)
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Software Components and Libraries: SCL-1 AG 69

      AG 69

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Common Application Software for the LHC Experiments 20m
        The Applications Area of the LCG Project is concerned with developing, deploying and maintaining that part of the physics applications software and associated supporting infrastructure software that is common among the LHC experiments. This area is managed as a number of specific projects with well-defined policies for coordination between them and with the direct participation of the primary users of the software, the LHC experiments. It has been organized to focus on real experiment needs and special attention has been given to maintaining open information flow and decision making. The Applications Area has recently stated the second phase and an overview of the recent changes in the scope, objectives and organization is presented. In particular, the merge of the ROOT and SEAL projects into a single project. In addition, we describe the steps taken to facilitate the long-term support and maintenance of the software products that are being currently developed and that are essential for the operation of the LHC experiments.
        Speaker: Dr Pere Mato (CERN)
        Slides
      • 14:20
        ATLAS Distributed Database Services Client Library 20m
        In preparation for data taking, the ATLAS experiment has run a series of large-scale computational exercises to test and validate distributed data grid solutions under development. ATLAS experience in prototypes and production systems of Data Challenges and Combined Test Team provided various database connectivity requirements for applications: connection management, online-offline uniformity, server indirection, etc. For example, the dynamics of ATLAS distributed database services requires a single point-of-control over server indirection - the logical-to-physical database server mapping, which is similar to the logical-to-physical mapping of file names on the grids. To address these requirements we developed, tested and deployed ATLAS database Client Library. In a heterogeneous distributed database services environment ATLAS database Client Library implements a consistent strategy for database server access and serves as a foundation layer for enforcing policies, following rules, establish best practices and encode logic to deliver efficient, secure and reliable database connectivity for applications. To provide scalable and robust applications access to databases the client library provides support for retries, failover, load balancing, etc. To hide the complexity of heterogeneous database technologies the library is separated in two layers. The outer layer provides management of database drivers, database connections and Connections/Servers lists. The extensible inner library layer is composed of a number of technology specific database drivers, currently supporting Oracle and MySQL. We present architecture of the Client Library services integration in ATLAS software framework Athena and use of these services by ATLAS major database applications – the Geometry HVS DB and Conditions IOV DB. We report on ATLAS Client Library integration through the ConnectionService module in the CORAL layer of the common LCG persistency project POOL.
        Speaker: Dr Alexandre Vaniachine (ANL)
        Slides
      • 14:40
        A Flexible, Distributed Event Level Metadata System for ATLAS 20m
        The ATLAS experiment will deploy an event-level metadata system as a key component of support for data discovery, identification, selection, and retrieval in its multi-petabyte event store. ATLAS plans to use the LCG POOL collection infrastructure to implement this system, which must satisfy a wide range of use cases and must be usable in a widely distributed environment. The system requires flexibility because it is meant to be used at many processing levels by a broad spectrum of applications, including primary reconstruction, creation of physics-group-specific datasets, and event selection or data mining by ordinary physicists at production and personal scales. We use to our advantage the fact that LCG collections support file-based (specifically, ROOT TTree) and relational database implementations. By several measures, the event-level metadata system is the collaboration's most demanding relational database application. The ROOT trees provide a simple mechanism to encapsulate information during collection creation, and the relational tables provide a system for data mining and event selection over larger data volumes. ATLAS also uses the ROOT collections as local indexes when collocated with associated event data. Significant testing has been undertaken during the last year to validate that ATLAS can indeed support an event-level metadata system with a reasonable expectation of scalability. In this paper we discuss the status of the ATLAS event-level metadata system, and related infrastructure for collection building, extraction, and distributed replication.
        Speakers: Caitriana Nicholson (Unknown), Caitriana Nicholson (University of Glasgow), Dr David Malon (ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        The Evolution of Databases in HEP - A Time-Traveler's Tale 20m
        The past decade has been an era of sometimes tumultuous change in the area of Computing for High Energy Physics. This talk addresses the evolution of databases in HEP, starting from the LEP era and the visions presented during the CHEP 92 panel "Databases for High Energy Physics" (D. Baden, B. Linder, R. Mount, J. Shiers). It then reviews the rise and fall of Object Databases as a "one size fits all solution" in the mid to late 90's and finally summarises the more pragmatic approaches that are being taken in the final stages of preparation for LHC data taking. The various successes and failures (depending on one's viewpoint) regarding database deployment during this period are discussed, culminating in the current status of database deployment for the Worldwide LCG.
        Speaker: Dr Jamie Shiers (CERN)
    • 14:00 15:30
      Software Tools and Information Systems: STIS-1 AG 77

      AG 77

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Prototyping an HEP Ontology Using Protégé 20m
        Protégé is a free, open source ontology editor and knowledge-base framework developed at Stanford University (http://protege.stanford.edu/). The application is based on Java, is extensible, and provides a foundation for customized knowledge-based and Semantic Web applications. Protégé supports Frames, XML Schema, RDF(S), and OWL. It provides a "plug and play environment" that makes it a flexible base for rapid prototyping and application development. This paper will describe initial efforts and experience using Protégé to develop an HEP/Particle Physics ontology capable of supporting Semantic Web applications in the HEP domain.
        Speaker: Bebo White (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER (SLAC))
      • 14:20
        Extending FOAF with HEPNames Information for Use in HEP Semantic Web Applications 20m
        The Semantic Web shows great potential in the HEP community as an aggregation mechanism for weakly structured data and a knowledge management tool for acquiring, accessing, and maintaining knowledge within experimental collaborations. FOAF (Friend-Of-A-Friend) (http://www.foaf-project.org/) is an RDFS/OWL ontology (some of the fundamental Semantic Web technologies) for expressing information about persons and their relationships. FOAF has become an active collaborative project that has evolved into a flexible and practically used ontology. The HEPNames database (http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/hepnames/about.shtml) is a comprehensive and widely used directory of individuals involved in HEP and related fields. The data in HEPNames is compiled from numerous sources, including laboratory directories and user supplied information. This paper will describe efforts for expanding the FOAF profile information with that data present in HEPNames thereby providing an expanded, machine-readable data format for HEP collaborator information that is understandable to HEP Semantic Web applications.
        Speaker: Bebo White (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER (SLAC))
      • 14:40
        Towards an Intelligent Agent Model Component agent Model 20m
        The objective of the paper is to advance the research in component-based software development by including agent oriented software engineering techniques. Agent oriented Component-based software development is the next step after object-oriented programming that promises to overcome the problems, such as reusability and complexity that have not yet been solved adequately with object-oriented programming. Component-based software development addresses the complexity problem by producing software from smaller, typically black box components. These advantages have also been identified by the industry and hence a number of commercial component models have been developed. But with the introduction of intelligent agents in component, the model will be able to provide advanced tools and framework for the development of intelligent system. Although these component models have been developed in the past, but are not very useful when dealing with large Multi agent system application, simulation and modeling, as well as for distributed application. We try to provide a first step towards the right direction that is not only scratching the surface of software composition.
        Speaker: Mr Deepak Narasimha (VMRF Deemed University)
      • 15:00
        "Software kernels" - Can we gauge total application performance by inspecting the efficiency of compiled small (but important) software kernels? 20m
        HEP programs commonly have very flat execution profiles, implying that the execution ime is spread over many routines/methods. Consequently, compiler optimization should be applied to the whole program and not just a few inner loops. In this talk I, nevertheless, discuss the value of extracting some of the most solicited routines (relatively speaking) and using them to gauge overall performance and potentially “critique” the code generated by the compiler(s). An initial set of ten C++ routines have been extracted from three HEP packages (ROOT, GEANT4 and CLHEP). One key advantage of this approach is that the selected routines compile and execute in seconds, allowing lots of testing of different platforms, compilers and compiler options. The speaker will review the initial selection and show results with GNU gcc and Intel icc on multiple hardware platforms.
        Speaker: Mr Sverre Jarp (CERN)
        Slides
    • 15:30 16:00
      Tea Break 30m
    • 16:00 18:00
      Computing Facilities and Networking: CFN-2 D405

      D405

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Chimera - a new, fast, extensible and Grid enabled namespace service 20m
        After successfully deploying dCache over the last few years, the dCache team reevaluated the potential of using dCache for extremely huge and heavily used installations. We identified the filesystem namespace module as one of the components which would very likely need a redesign to cope with expected requirements in the medium term future. Having presented the initial design of Chimera during CHEP05 we are now able to provide the first fully-fledged prototype implementation, working with existing dCache systems. In addition to an improved performance profile, Chimera provides a wide set or enhanced functionalities. Being fully database oriented, standard SQL queries may be used for administration and monitoring activities instead of being bound to non optimized file-system commands. Moreover, user customized metadata can be attached to files and directories and may be used in SQL queries as well. Although chimera is coming with an nfs2/3 interface and an optimized door to the dCache core, other access protocols, e.g. web access, can be easily adapted using the standard API. Talking strict JDBC allows to run chimera against any database providing the standard JDBC drivers. We have been positively tested Postgres, MySQL and Oracle. Chimera has been designed and optimized for dCache interactions. Nevertheless Chimera is independent of the dCache software and may be used as filesystem namespace provider for other applications as well. To make this possible, all interactions from Chimera to external applications are realized as event callbacks and are with that freely customizable.
        Speaker: Mr Tigran Mkrtchyan Mkrtchyan (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        Quantifying the Digital Divide: A scientific overview of the connectivity of South Asian and African Countries 20m
        The future of computing for HENP applications depends increasingly on how well the global community is connected. With South Asia and Africa accounting for about 36% of the world’s population, the issues of internet/network facilities are a major concern for these regions if they are to successfully partake in scientific endeavors. However, not only is the International bandwidth for these regions low, but also the internal network infrastructure is poor, rendering these regions hard to access for the global HENP community. In turn this makes collaborative research difficult and high performance grid activities essentially impractical. In this paper, we aim to classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of these regions as a function of time, as seen from within, without and between the regions, and draw comparisons with more developed regions. The performance measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; a lightweight approach using ICMP Ping packets. PingER has measurements to sites in over 110 countries that contain over 99% of the world’s Internet connected population and so is well-positioned to characterize the world’s connectivity. These measurements have been successfully used for quantifying, planning, setting expectations for connectivity and for identification of problems. The beneficiaries of this data range from international funding agencies and executive-level planners to network administrators.
        Speaker: Dr Roger Cottrell (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        UltraLight: An Ultrascale Information System for Data Intensive Research 20m
        UltraLight is a collaboration of experimental physicists and network engineers whose purpose is to provide the network advances required to enable petabyte-scale analysis of globally distributed data. Current Grid-based infrastructures provide massive computing and storage resources, but are currently limited by their treatment of the network as an external, passive, and largely unmanaged resource. The goals of UltraLight are to: (1) Develop and deploy prototype global services which broaden existing Grid computing systems by promoting the network as an actively managed component, (2) Integrate and test UltraLight in Grid-based physics production and analysis systems currently under development in ATLAS and CMS, (3) Engineer and operate a trans- and intercontinental optical network testbed, including high-speed data caches and computing clusters, with U.S. nodes in California, Illinois, Florida, Michigan and Massachusetts, and overseas nodes in Europe, Asia and Latin America.
        Speaker: Richard Cavanaugh (University of Florida)
        Slides
      • 17:00
        Storage for the LHC Experiments 20m
        Following on from the LHC experiments’ computing Technical Design Reports, HEPiX, with the agreement of the LCG, formed a Storage Task Force. This group was to: examine the current LHC experiment computing models; attempt to determine the data volumes, access patterns and required data security for the various classes of data, as a function of Tier and of time; consider the current storage technologies, their prices in various geographical regions and their suitability for various classes of data storage; attempt to map the required storage capacities to suitable technologies; and formulate a plan to implement the required storage in a timely fashion. This group met for several months, and can now report on its findings.
        Speaker: Dr Roger JONES (LANCASTER UNIVERSITY)
        Slides
      • 17:20
        openlab-II: where are we, where are we going? 20m
        The openlab, created three years ago at CERN, was a novel concept: to involve leading IT companies in the evaluation and the integration of cutting-edge technologies or services, focusing on potential solutions for the LCG. The novelty lay in the duration of the commitment (three years during which companies provided a mix of in-kind and in-cash contributions), the level of the contributions and more importantly the collaborative nature of the common undertaking which materialized in the construction of the opencluster. This phase, now called openlab-I, to which five major companies (Enterasys, HP, IBM, Intel and Oracle) contributed, is to be completed at the end of 2005, and a new phase, the openlab-II, is starting in 2006. This new three year period maintains the administrative framework of openlab-I (sufficient duration and level of contribution to permit the pursuit of ambitious goals) and will focus more on grid software, services and standardization. openlab- II comprises two related projects: PCC (the Platform Competence Centre Project) and GIC (the Grid Interoperability Centre Project). These activities can be characterized by a transversal theme: the application of virtualization to grids. The presentation will briefly draw lessons from openlab-I as a collaborative framework for R&D and will summarize the technical achievements. It will then describe the openlab-II projects, their goals, differences and commonalities, and will explain how they could contribute to the formalization of the “Virtualization for Grids” concept.
        Speaker: Mr Francois Fluckiger (CERN)
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Distributed Data Analysis: DDA-2 D406

      D406

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Grid Data Management: Simulations of LCG 2008 20m
        Simulations have been performed with the grid simulator OptorSim using the expected analysis patterns from the LHC experiments and a realistic model of the LCG at LHC startup, with thousands of user analysis jobs running at over a hundred grid sites. It is shown, first, that dynamic data replication plays a significant role in the overall analysis throughput in terms of optimising job throughput and reducing network usage; second, that simple file deletion algorithms such as LRU and LFU algorithms are as effective as economic models; third, that site policies which allow all experiments to share resources in a global Grid is more effective in terms of data access time and network usage; and lastly, that dynamic data management applied to user data access patterns where particular files are accessed more often (characterised by a Zipf power law function) lead to much improved performance compared to sequential access.
        Speaker: Caitriana Nicholson (University of Glasgow)
      • 16:20
        A skimming procedure to handle large datasets at CDF 20m
        The CDF experiment has a new trigger which selects events depending on the significance of the track impact parameters. With this trigger a sample of events enriched of b and c mesons has been selected and it is used for several important physics analysis like the Bs mixing. The size of the dataset is of about 20 TBytes corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 collected by CDF. CDF has developed a skimming procedure to reduce the dataset by selecting events which contain only B mesons in specifics decay modes. The rejected events are almost background, and this guarantees that no signal is lost while the processing time is reduced by factor 10. This procedure is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata), the CDF data handling system. Each file from the original dataset is read via SAM and processed on the CDF users farm at Fermilab. The outputs are stored and cataloged via SAM on a temporary disk location at Fermilab in order to be finally concatenated. This final step consists of copy and then store and catalog the output in Italy on disks hosted at Tier 1, permanently. These skimmed data are available in Italy for the CDF collaboration, and user can access them via the Italian CDF farm. We will describe the procedure to skim data, concatenate the output and the method used to control that each input file is processed once and only once. The tool to copy data from the users farm to temporary and permanent disk locations, developed by CDF,consists of users authentication plus a transfer layer. Users allowed to perform the copy are mapped in a gridmap file and authenticated with a Globus Security Infrastructure (GSI). Details on the tool performances and the use and the definition of a remote permanent disk location will be described in detail.
        Speakers: Dr Donatella Lucchesi (INFN Padova), Dr Francesco Delli Paoli (INFN Padova)
      • 16:40
        Automated recovery of data-intensive jobs in D0 and CDF using SAM 20m
        SAM is a data handling system that provides Fermilab HEP experiments of D0, CDF and MINOS with the means to catalog, distribute and track the usage of their collected and analyzed data. Annually, SAM serves petabytes of data to physics groups performing data analysis, data reconstruction and simulation at various computing centers across the world. Given the volume of the detector data, a typical physics analysis job consumes terabytes of information during several days of running at a job execution site. At any stage of that process, non systematic failures may occur, leaving a fraction of the original dataset unprocessed. To ensure convergence to completion of the computation request, a facility user has to employ a procedure to identify pieces of data that need to be re-analyzed in a manner that guarantees completeness without duplication in the final result. It is common that these issues are addressed by analyzing the output of the job. Such an approach is fragile, since it depends critically on the (changeable) output file format, and time-consuming. The approach that is reported in this article saves the user's time and ensures consistency in results. We present an automated method that uses SAM data handling to formalize distributed data analysis by defining a transaction based model of the physics analysis job work cycle to enable robust recovery of the unprocessed data.
        Speaker: Valeria Bartsch (FERMILAB / University College London)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        Resource Predictors in HEP Applications 20m
        The ATLAS experiment uses a tiered data Grid architecture that enables possibly overlapping subsets, or replicas, of original datasets to be located across the ATLAS collaboration. Many individual elements of these datasets can also be recreated locally from scratch based on a limited number of inputs. We envision a time when a user will want to determine which is more expedient, downloading a replica from a site or recreating it from scratch. To make this determination the user or his agent will need to understand the resources necessary both to recreate the dataset locally and to download any available replicas. We have previously characterized the behavior of ATLAS applications and developed the means to predict the resources necessary to recreate a dataset. This paper presents our efforts first to establish the relationship between various Internet bandwidth probes and observed file transfer performance, and then to implement a software tool that uses data transfer bandwidth predictions and execution time estimates to instantiate a dataset in the shortest time possible. We have found that file transfer history is a more useful bandwidth predictor than any instantaneous network probe. Using databases of application performace and file transfer history as predictors and using a toy model to distribute files and applications, we have tested our software tool on a number of simple Chimera-style DAG's and have realized time savings which are consistent with our expectations from the toy model.
        Speaker: John Huth (Harvard University)
      • 17:20
        CMS/ARDA activity within the CMS distributed computing system 20m
        The ARDA project focuses in delivering analysis prototypes together with the LHC experiments. The ARDA/CMS activity delivered a fully-functional analysis prototype exposed to a pilot community of CMS users. The current integration work of key components into the CMS system is described: the activity focuses on providing a coherent monitor layer where information from diverse sources is aggregated and made available for the services supporting the user activity, providing a coherent global view of the CMS activity. Of particular interest is a high-level service controlling the job execution and implementing experiment-specific policies for efficient error recovery. This control layer is in the state of advanced prototyping and experience in developing, deploying and some users feedback is presented and discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Julia Andreeva (CERN)
    • 16:00 18:00
      Distributed Event production and Processing: DEPP-2 AG 80

      AG 80

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        The ATLAS Computing Model 20m
        The ATLAS Computing Model is under continuous development. Previous exercises focussed on the Tier-0/Tier-1 interactions, with an emphasis on the resource implications and only a high-level view of the data and workflow. The work presented here attempts to describe in some detail the data and control flow from the High Level Trigger farms all the way through to the physics user. The current focus is on the use of TAG databases for access and the use of streaming at various levels to optimise the access patterns. There has also been detailed consideration of the required bandwidth to tape and disk, which then informs storage technology decisions. The modelling draws from the experience of previous and running experiments, but has also been tested in Data Challenges and will be tested in the LCG Service Challenge 4.
        Speaker: Dr Roger JONES (LANCASTER UNIVERSITY)
        Slides
      • 16:20
        ATLAS Experience on Large Scale Productions on the Grid 20m
        The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will start data acquisition in 2007. The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment is preparing for the data handling and analysis via a series of Data Challenges and production exercises to validate its computing model and to provide useful samples of data for detector and physics studies. DC1 was conducted during 2002-03; the main goals were to put in place the production infrastructure for a real worldwide collaborative effort and to gain experience in exercising an ATLAS wide production model. DC2 was run in the second half of 2004; the main goals were to test a new automated production system and to demonstrate that it could run in a coherent way on three different Grid flavours. DC2 was followed in the first half of 2005 by a new massive production of Monte Carlo data in order to provide the event samples for the ATLAS physics workshop in Rome in June 2005. We discuss the experience of the "Rome production" on the LHC Computing Grid infrastructure, describing its achievements, the improvements with respect to the previous Data Challenge and the actual problems observed. As a consequence of the observed shortcomings several improvements are being addressed in the ATLAS LCG/EGEE taskforce. Its activity ranges from testing new developments in workload management system (bulk submission), the integration the VOMS based model of authorization in the production environment and on the deployment of the ATLAS data management in the LCG infrastructure.
        Speaker: Dr Gilbert Poulard Poulard (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Studies with the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition "pre-series" setup 20m
        The ATLAS experiment at LHC will start taking data in 2007. As preparative work, a full vertical slice of the final higher level trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) chain, "the pre-series", has been installed in the ATLAS experimental zone. In the pre-series setup, detector data are received by the readout system and next partially analyzed by the second level trigger (LVL2). On acceptance by LVL2 all data are passed through the event building (EB) and the event filter (EF) farms; selected events are written to mass storage. The pre-series setup was used to validate the technology and implementation choices by comparing the final ATLAS readout requirements, to the results of performance, functionality and stability studies. These results were also used to validate the simulations of the components and subsequently to model the full size ATLAS system. The model was used to further confirm the ability of the final system to meet the requirements and to obtain indications on event building rate, latencies of the various stages, buffer occupancies of the network switches, etc. This note summarizes these studies together with other optimization investigations such as number of application instances per CPU and choice of network protocols. For the first time, realistic LVL2 and EF algorithms were utilized in such a large and realistic test-bed. Continuous deployment and test will take place during the assembly of the full ATLAS TDAQ system. The interfacing of the pre-series with one of the sub-detectors has also been successfully tested in ATLAS experimental zone. We show that all the components which are not running reconstruction algorithms match the final ATLAS requirements. For the others, we calculate the amount of time per event that could be allocated to run these not yet finalized algorithms. Based on the calculations, we estimate the computing power necessary for using the present implementation of the ATLAS reconstruction software.
        Speaker: Dr gokhan unel (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT IRVINE AND CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        The Use and Integration of Distributed and Object-Based File-Systems at Brookhaven National Laboratory 20m
        The roles of centralized and distributed storage at the RHIC/USATLAS Computing Facility have been undergoing a redefinition as the size and demands of computing resources continues to expand. Traditional NFS solutions, while simple to deploy and maintain, are marred by performance and scalability issues, whereas distributed software solutions such as PROOF and rootd are application specific, non-posix compliant, and do not present a unified namespace. Hardware and software-based storage offer differing philosophies with respect to administration, data access, and how I/O bottlenecks are resolved. Panasas, a clustered, load-balanced storage appliance utilizing an object-based file system, has been key in mitigating the problems inherent in NFS centralized storage. Conversely, distributed software storage implementations such as dcache and xrootd have enabled individual compute nodes to actively participate as a unified “file server”, thus allowing one to reap the benefits of inexpensive hardware without sacrificing performance. This talk will focus on the architecture of these file servers, how they are being utilized, and the specific issues each attempt to address. Furthermore, testing methodologies and expectations will be discussed as they pertain to the evaluation of new file servers.
        Speaker: Robert Petkus (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:20
        OSG-CAF - A single point of submission for CDF to the Open Science Grid 20m
        The increasing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron collider will cause the computing requirements for data analysis and MC production to grow larger than the dedicated CPU resources that will be available. In order to meet future demands, CDF is investing in shared, Grid, resources. A significant fraction of opportunistic Grid resources will be available to CDF before the LHC era starts and CDF could greatly benefit from using them. CDF is therefore reorganizing its computing model to be integrated with the new Grid model. In the case of Open Science Grid (OSG), CDF has extended its CDF Analysis Farm (CAF) infrastructure by using Condor glide-in and Generic Connection Brokering (GCB) to produce a CDF portal to the OSG that has an identical user interface to the CAF infrastructure used for submissions to the CDF dedicated resources, including its semi-interactive monitoring tools. This talk presents the architecture of the OSG-CAF and its current state-of-the-art implementation. We also present the issues we have found in deploying the system, as well as the solution we adopted to overcome them. Finally, we show our early prototype which uses the OSG opportunistic workload management system and Edge Services Framework to harvest the opportunistically schedulable resources on the OSG in ways that are transparent to the CDF user community.
        Speaker: Matthew Norman (University of California at San Diego)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:40
        GridX1: A Canadian Particle Physics Grid 20m
        GridX1, a Canadian computational Grid, combines the resources of various Canadian research institutes and universities through the Globus Toolkit and the CondorG resource broker (RB). It has been successfully used to run ATLAS and BaBar simulation applications. GridX1 is interfaced to LCG through a RB at the TRIUMF Laboratory (Vancouver), which is an LCG computing element, and ATLAS jobs are routed to Canadian resources. Recently, the BaBar application has also been implemented to run jobs through GridX1, concurrently with ATLAS jobs. Two independent RBs are being used to submit ATLAS and BaBar jobs for an efficient operation of the grid. The status of grid jobs and the resources are monitored using a web-based monitoring system.
        Speaker: Dr Ashok Agarwal (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:10
      Event Processing Applications: EPA-2 AG 76

      AG 76

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        HepData and JetWeb: HEP Data Archiving and Model Validation 18m
        Accurate modelling of hadron interactions is essential for the precision analysis of data from the LHC. It is therefore imperative that the predictions of Monte Carlos used to model this physics are tested against relevant existing and future measurements. These measurements cover a wide variety of reactions, experimental observables and kinematic regions. To make this process more reliable and easily verifiable, the CEDAR collaboration is developing a set of tools for tuning and validating models of such interactions based on the existing JetWeb automatic event generation system and the HepData data archive. We describe the work that has been done on the migration to a MySQL relational database of the already long established Durham HepData database, which contains an extensive archive of data cross sections. The new user web-based front end is described. We also discuss plans for direct experiment data entry and verification, and the status of the JetWeb system and its direct interface to HepData allowing concurrent validation over as wide a range of measurements as possible.
        Speakers: Dr Andy Buckley (Durham University), Andy Buckley (University of Cambridge)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:18
        Geant4 Acceptance Suite for Key Observables 18m
        The complexity of the Geant4 code requires careful testing of all of its components, especially before major releases. In this talk, we will concentrate on the recent development of an automatic suite for testing hadronic physics in high energy calorimetry applications. The idea is to use a simplified set of hadronic calorimeters, with different beam particle types, and various beam energies, and comparing relevant observables between a given reference version of Geant4 and the new candidate one. Only those distributions that are statistically incompatible are then printed out and finally inspected by a person to look for possible bugs. The suite is made of Python scripts, and utilizes the "Statistical Toolkit" for the statistical tests between pair of distributions, and runs on the Grid to cope with the large amount of CPU needed in a short period of time.
        Speaker: Dr Alberto Ribon (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:36
        Systematic validation of Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic models against proton data 18m
        A project is in progress for a systematic, rigorous, quantitative validation of all Geant4 physics models against experimental data, to be collected in a Geant4 Physics Book. Due to the complexity of Geant4 hadronic physics, the validation of Geant4 hadronic models proceeds according to a bottom-up approach (i.e. from the lower energy range up to higher energies): this approach allows establishin the accuracy of individual Geant4 models specific to a given energy range on top of already validated models pertinent to a lower energy. Results are presented concerning the lower hadronic interaction phases, involving nuclear de-excitation and pre-equilibrium (up to 100 MeV). All Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic physics models, and pre-packaged physics configurations distributed by the Geant4 Collaboration (PhysicsLists) relevant to this energy range have been included in the validation test. The electromagnetic models are Standard, LowEnergy-ICRU, LowEnergy-Ziegler (Ziegler-1977, Ziegler-1985, Ziegler-2000). The hadronic models for inelastic scattering involve Nuclear De-excitation in two variants (default and GEM), Precompound (with and without Fermi break-up), Bertini and Binary Cascade, and parameterised models. The models for elastic scattering under test are the parameterised one and the newly developed Bertini Elastic. Various prepackaged PhysicsLists are also subject to the same validation process. The validation of Geant4 physics models is performed against experimental data measured with 2% accuracy. The quantitative comparison of simulated and experimental data distributions is performed through a sophisticated goodness-of-fit statistical analysis, including Anderson-Darling and Cramer-von Mises tests. Please note that the speaker name is preliminary; the actual speaker among the authors will be communicated later.
        Speakers: Dr Aatos Heikkinen (HIP), Dr Barbara Mascialino (INFN Genova), Dr Francesco Di Rosa (INFN LNS), Dr Giacomo Cuttone (INFN LNS), Dr Giorgio Russo (INFN LNS), Dr Giuseppe Antonio Pablo Cirrone (INFN LNS), Dr Maria Grazia Pia (INFN GENOVA), Dr Susanna Guatelli (INFN Genova)
        Slides
      • 16:54
        Simulation for LHC radiation background: optimisation of monitoring detectors and experimental validation 18m
        Monitoring radiation background is a crucial task for the operation of LHC experiments. A project is in progress at CERN for the optimisation of the radiation monitors for LHC experiments. A general, flexibly configurable simulation system based on Geant4, designed to assist the engineering optimisation of LHC radiation monitor detectors, is presented. Various detector packaging configurations are studied through their Geant4-based simulation, and their behaviour is compared. A quantitative validation of Geant4 electromagnetic and hadronic models relevant to LHC radiation background monitoring is presented; the results are based on rigorous statistical methods applied to the comparison of Geant4 simulatin results and experimental data from dedicated test-beams.
        Speakers: Dr Barbara Mascialino (INFN Genova), Dr Federico Ravotti (CERN), Dr Maria Grazia Pia (INFN GENOVA), Dr Maurice Glaser (CERN), Dr Michael Moll (CERN), Dr Riccardo Capra (INFN Genova)
        Slides
      • 17:12
        Simulation of heavy ion therapy system using Geant4 18m
        Geant4 is a toolkit to simulate the passage of a particle through matter based on Monte Carlo method. Geant4 incorporates many of available experimental data and theoretical models over wide energy region, extending its application scope not only to high energy physics but also medical physics, astro-physics, etc. We have developed a simulation framework for heavy ion therapy system based on Geant4 to enable detailed treatment planning. Heavy ion beam features high RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and intensive dose given at certain depth (Bragg peak), allowing patients to suppress unwanted exposure on normal tissue. Pioneering trials of heavy ion therapy carried out in a few countries proved its availability, triggering many projects to construct new heavy ion therapy facilities around the world. However, reaction of heavy ions on material involves many complex processes as compared to X-ray or electron beam used in traditional radiation therapy, and the development of a new reliable simulator is essential to determine the beam intensity, energy, size of radiation field, and so on required for each case of treatment. Geant4 is a suitable tool for this purpose as a generalized simulator with powerful capability to describe complicated geometry. We implemented the heavy ion beam lines of several facilities in Geant4, including dedicated apparatus, and tested the Geant4 physics processes in comparison with experimental data. We will introduce the simualtion framework and present the validation results.
        Speaker: Dr Satoru Kameoka (High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation)
      • 17:30
        The ATLAS Detector Simulation -an LHC challenge 18m
        The simulation program for the ATLAS experiment at CERN is currently in a full operational mode and integrated into the ATLAS’s common analysis framework, ATHENA. The OO approach, based on GEANT4, and in use during the DC2 data challenge has been interfaced within ATHENA and to GEANT4 using the LCG dictionaries and Python scripting. The robustness of the application was proved during the DC2 data challenge. The Python interface has added the flexibility, modularity and interactivity that the simulation tool needs to tackle, in a common way, different full ATLAS simulations setups, test beams and cosmic ray studies. Generation, simulation and digitization steps were exercised for performance and robustness tests. The comparison with real data has been possible in the context of the ATLAS Combined Test Beam (2004) and ongoing cosmic ray studies.
        Speaker: Prof. Adele Rimoldi (University of Pavia)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:48
        EvtGen project in ATLAS 18m
        The project “EvtGen in ATLAS” has the aim of accommodating EvtGen into the LHC-ATLAS context. As such it comprises both physics and software aspects of the development. ATLAS has developed interfaces to enable the use of EvtGen within the experiment's object-oriented simulation and data-handling framework ATHENA, and furthermore has enabled the running of the software on the LCG. Modifications have been made to meet the requirements of simulating beauty events centrally produced in proton proton collisions, with which ATLAS is primarily concerned. Here we review the programme of work including both software and physics related activities. The results of validation simulations are shown, and future plans are discussed.
        Speaker: Roger Jones (Lancaster University)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Grid Middleware and e-Infrastructure Operation: GMEO-2 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        GRIF, a Tier2 center for Paris region 20m
        Several HENP laboratories in Paris region have joined together to provide an LCG/EGEE Tier2 center. This resource, called GRIF, will focus on LCG experiments but will also be opened to EGEE users from other disciplines and to local users. It will provide resources for both analysis and simulation and offer a large storage space (350 TB planned by end of 2007). This Tier2 will have resources distribued on several sites in Paris region. Our effort in the preliminary phase is focused on the best architecture to make an efficient and flexible use of such a distributed resources, in particular regarding storage. This talk will present the configuration choices evaluated and the preliminary conclusions regarding both computing resources and storage and the tools used to provide a consistent configuration and a centralized monitoring of the whole resource.
        Speaker: Mr Michel Jouvin (LAL / IN2P3)
        Slides
      • 16:20
        Grid Computing Research---Its influence on economic and scientific progress for Pakistan 20m
        We present a report on Grid activities in Pakistan over the last three years and conclude that there is significant technical and economic activity due to the participation in Grid research and development. We started collaboration with participation in the CMS software development group at CERN and Caltech in 2001. This has led to the current setup for CMS production and the LCG Grid deployment in Pakistan. Our research group has been participating actively in the development work of PPDG and OSG, and is now working in close collaboration with Caltech to create the next generation infrastructure for data intensive science under the Interactive Grid Enabled Environment (IGAE) project within a broader context of Ultralight collaboration. This collaboration is based on a partnership with the University of the West of England (UWE) UK under the EU funded Asia Link program and Caltech under an exchange program from the US state Department. The collaboration on Grid Monitoring and Digital divide activities with Caltech using the MonALISA monitoring framework and with SLAC on Maggie has not only helped to train our faculty and students but it has also helped to improve the infrastructure, bandwidth and computing capabilities in Pakistan. The collaboration extends to Wuhan University and BIT china, Comtec Japan and Kyong Hee University Korea on human resource and expertise development programmes in Grid and related areas. The dedicated team of researchers (faculty and students) not only participates in international research activities but also supports industry and advising the government to address the digital divide issues, and internet information access to its population. Our initiative proved to be a catalyst for other universities in Pakistan with a growing interest in all national universities to collaborate in Grid activities. This activity strengthened the learning abilities and concepts of our students who have become the first graduate student choice by universities of international repute. Discussions have already been started about establishment of a National Grid in Pakistan and the means to mobilize resources in basic sciences, government departments and the business community.
        Speaker: Prof. Arshad Ali (National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) Pakistan)
        Paper
      • 16:40
        Grid Operations: the evolution of operational model over the first year 20m
        The paper reports on the evolution of operational model which was set up in the "Enabling Grids for E-sciencE" (EGEE) project, and on the implications of Grid Operations in LHC Computing Grid (LCG). The primary tasks of Grid Operations cover monitoring of resources and services, notification of failures to the relevant contacts and problem tracking through a ticketing system. Moreover, an escalation procedure is enforced to urge the responsible bodies to address and solve the problems. An extensive amount of knowledge has been collected, documented and published in a way which facilitates a rapid resolution to the common problems. Initially, the daily operations were performed by only one person at CERN, but the task soon required setting up a small team. The number of sites in production quickly expanded from 60 to 170 in less than a year. The expansion of EGEE/LCG infrastructure has led to distributed workload which involves more and more geographically scattered teams. The evolution of both procedures and workflow requires steady refinement of the tools which consist of the ticketing system, knowledge database and integration platform and which are used for monitoring and operations management. Since EGEE/LCG production infrastructure relies on the availability of robust operations mechanisms, it is essential to gradually improve the operational procedures and to track the progress of the tools' on-going development.
        Speakers: Mr Gilles Mathieu (IN2P3, Lyon), Ms Helene Cordier (IN2P3, Lyon), Mr Piotr Nyczyk (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        Global Grid User Support: the model and experience in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid 20m
        The organization and management of the user support in a global e-science computing infrastructure such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) is one of the challenges of the grid. Given the widely distributed nature of the organization, and the spread of expertise for installing, configuring, managing and troubleshooting the grid middleware services, a standard centralized model could not be deployed in WLCG. We therefore have a central coordination model with distributed expertise and support, able to provide solutions for thousands of grid users and administrators with capacity for up to thousands requests per week. Problem reports can be submitted either through a central portal or using the regional support centers. The central infrastructure has been interfaced to the regional units to allow requests to flow in both directions from centre to region and vice versa. A first line support team provides support for generic grid problems while specialized units answer to middleware, deployment, network, other grid infrastructures and virtual organization specific problems. Furthermore, regional centers provide support for local site problems. Whenever the expertise is missing at a regional center, the problem can be forwarded to the central system for solving or forwarding to an appropriate specialist. The system plays a great role in daily operations support and therefore it is interfaced to the grid Core Infrastructure Center (CIC) for grid monitoring and specific virtual organization information. The central portal provides a set of useful services such as a collection of up to date and useful documents, a facility for problem report browsing, a powerful search engine, e-mail access, and hot-line service. Tutorials for users and supporters are organized regularly by the support training service. In this paper we describe the model and general infrastructure of the Global Grid User Support and provide results from experience with statistics on the operation of the service.
        Speakers: Dr Flavia Donno (CERN), Dr Marco Verlato (INFN Padova)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:20
        Gridview : A Grid Monitoring and Visualization Tool 20m
        The LHC Computing Grid (LCG) connects together hundreds of sites consisting of thousands of components such as computing resources, storage resources, network infrastructure and so on. Various Grid Operation Centres (GOCs) and Regional Operations Centres (ROCs) are setup to monitor the status and operations of the grid. This paper describes Gridview, a Grid Monitoring and Visualization Tool being developed for use primarily at GOCs and ROCs. It can also be used by Site Administrators and Network Administrators at various sites to view metrics for their site and by the VO Administrators to get a brief of resource availability/usage for their virtual organizations. The objective of this tool is to fetch grid status information and fault data from different sensors and monitoring tools at various sites, archive it into a central database, analyze, summarize it and display it in a graphical form. It is intended to serve as a dash-board (central interface) for status and fault information of the entire grid. The tool is based on the concept of loosely coupled components with independent sensors, transport, archival, analysis and visualization components. The sensors can be LCG information providers or any other monitoring tools, the transport mechanism used is Relational Grid Monitoring Architecture (R-GMA), Gridview provides the central archival, analysis and visualization functionality. The architecture of the tool is very flexible and new data sources can be easily added in the system. The first version of Gridview is deployed and was used extensively for online monitoring of data transfers among grid sites during LCG Service Challenge 3 (SC3) throughput tests. The paper discusses the architecture, current implementation and future enhancements to this tool. It summarizes the architectural and functional requirements of a monitoring tool for the grid infrastructure.
        Speaker: Mr Rajesh Kalmady (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:40
        GridICE: Requirements, Architecture and Experience of a Monitoring Tool for Grid Systems 20m
        The Grid paradigm enables the coordination and sharing of a large number of geographically-dispersed heterogeneous resources that are contributed by different institutions. These resources are organized into virtual pools and assigned to group of users. The monitoring of such a distributed and dynamic system raises a number of issues like the need for dealing with administrative boundaries, the heterogeneity of resources, the different types of monitoring information consumers and the various levels of abstraction. In this paper, we describe GridICE, a Grid monitoring system designed to meet the above requirements and for an easy integration with local monitoring systems. It promotes the adoption of de-facto standard Grid Information Service interfaces, protocols and data models. Further, different aggregations and partitions of monitoring data are provided based on the specific needs of different users categories. Being able to start from summary views and to drill down to details, it is possible to verify the composition of virtual pools or to sketch the sources of problems. A complete history of monitoring data is also maintained to deal with the need for retrospective analysis. In this paper, we offer the details of the requirements that have driven the design of GridICE and we describe the current architecture and implementation. An important part will be devoted to the description of the result of a 3-year experience in the LHC Computing Grid production environment and we highlight how GridICE can be used for supporting VO users, operations and disseminations activities.
        Speaker: Mr Sergio Andreozzi (INFN-CNAF)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Online Computing: OC-2 B333

      B333

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Unified Software Framework for Upgraded Belle DAQ System 20m
        The Belle experiment, which is a B-factory experiment at KEK in Japan, is currently taking data with a DAQ system based on FASTBUS readout, switchless event building and higher level trigger(HLT) farm. To cope with a higher trigger rate from the expected sizeable increase in the accelerator luminosity in coming years, the upgrade of the DAQ system is in progress. FASTBUS modules are being replaced with newly-developed pipelined readout modules equipped with Linux-operated CPUs, and additional units of the modularized event builder and HLT farm are beingadded. We developed a unified software framework for the upgraded DAQ system which can be used at all levels from the readout modules to the HLT farms. The software is modularized and consists of following components: a common data processing framework compatible with the offline analysis, point-to-point data transmitter and receiver programs over TCP connections, a ring buffer, an event building module, and a slow control framework. The advantage to have a unified framework is that a software module developed in offline can be directly executed at any levels of DAQ, even at the readout module. This makes the development of the DAQ software much easier. The experience with the unified framework in the partially-upgraded Belle DAQ system is presented.
        Speaker: Prof. Ryosuke ITOH (KEK)
        Slides
      • 16:20
        FutureDAQ for CBM: Online Event Selection 20m
        At the upcoming new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at GSI the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment CBM requires a new architecture of front-end electronics, data acquisition, and event processing. The detector systems of CBM are a Silicon Tracker System, RICH detectors, a TRD, RPCs, and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The envisioned interaction rate of 10~MHz produces a data rate of up to 1 TByte/s. Because of the complexity and variability of trigger decisions no common trigger will be applied. Instead, the front-end electronics of all detectors will be self-triggered and marked by time stamps. The full data rate must be switched through a high speed network fabric into a computational network with configurable processing resources for event building and filtering. The decision for selecting candidate events requires tracking, primary vertex reconstruction, and secondary vertex finding in the STS at the full interaction rate. The essential performance factor is now computational throughput rather than decision latency, which results in a much better utilization of the processing resources especially in the case of heavy ion collisions with strongly varying multiplicities. The development of key components is supported by the FutureDAQ project of the European Union (FP6 I3HP JRA1). The design and first simulation results of such a DAQ system are presented.
        Speaker: Dr Hans G. Essel (GSI)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Design and Performance of the CDF Experiment Online Control and Configuration Systems 20m
        The CDF Experiment's control and configuration system consists of several database applications and supportive application interfaces in both Java and C++. The CDF Oracle database server runson a SunOS platform and provide both configuration data, real-time monitoring information and historical run conditions archiving. The Java applications running on the Scientific Linux operating system implement novel approaches to mapping a relational database onto an object oriented language, while maintaining efficiency for modifying run configurations in a rapidly changing physics environment. Configuration and conditions data are propagated in real time from the central online system to multiple remote database sites in an effort to provide grid-like support for offline end-user analysis applications. We review details of the design, successes and pitfalls of a complex interoperative configuration system.
        Speaker: Dr William Badgett (Fermilab)
        Slides
      • 17:00
        Architecture and implementation of the ALICE Data-Acquisition System 25m
        ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A large bandwidth and flexible Data Acquisition System (DAQ) is required to collect sufficient statistics in the short running time available per year for heavy ion and to accommodate very different requirements originated from the large set of detectors and the different beams used. The DAQ system has been designed, implemented, and intensively tested. It has reached maturity and is being installed at the experimental area for tests and commissioning of detectors. It is heavily based on commodity hardware and open-source software but it also includes specific devices for custom needs. The interaction of thousands of DAQ entities turns out to be the core of this challenging project. We will present the overall ALICE data-acquisition architecture, showing how the data flow is handled from the front-end electronics to the permanent data storage. Then some implementation choices (PCs, networks, databases) will be discussed, in particular the usage of tools for controlling and synchronizing the elements of this diversified environment. Practical aspects of deployment and infrastructure running will be covered as well, including performance tests achieved so far.
        Speaker: Mr Sylvain Chapeland (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Software Components and Libraries: SCL-2 AG 69

      AG 69

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Recent Developments in the ROOT I/O and TTrees 20m
        Since version 4.01/03, we have continued to strenghten and improve the ROOT I/O system. In particular we extended and optimized support for all STL collections, including adding support for member-wise streaming. The handling of TTree objects was also improved by adding support for indexing of chains, for using bitmap algorithm to speed up search, and for accessing an sql table through the TTree interface. We also introduced several new convenient interfaces in the I/O and TTree to help to reduce coding errors. We will describe in details these new features and their implementation.
        Speaker: Mr Philippe Canal (FERMILAB)
        Slides
      • 16:20
        CORAL, a software system for vendor-neutral access to relational databases 20m
        The COmmon Relational Abstraction Layer (CORAL) is a C++ software system,developed within the context of the LCG persistency framework, which provides vendor-neutral software access to relational databases with defined semantics. The SQL-free public interfaces ensure the encapsulation of all the differences that one may find among the various RDBMS flavours in terms of SQL syntax and data types. CORAL has been developed following a component architecture where the various RDBMS-specific implementations of the interfaces are loaded as plugin libraries at run-time whenever required. The system addresses the needs related to the distributed deployment of relational data by providing hooks for client-side monitoring, database service indirection and application-level connection pooling.
        Speaker: Dr Ioannis Papadopoulos (CERN, IT Department, Geneva 23, CH-1211, Switzerland)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        COOL Development and Deployment - Status and Plans 20m
        Since October 2004, the LCG Conditions Database Project has focused on the development of COOL, a new software product for the handling of experiment conditions data. COOL merges and extends the functionalities of the two previous software implementations developed in the context of the LCG common project, which were based on Oracle and MySQL. COOL is designed to minimise the duplication of effort by developing a single implementation to support persistency for several relational technologies (Oracle, MySQL and SQLite), based on the POOL Relational Abstraction Layer (RAL) and on the SEAL libraries. The same user code may be used to store data into any one of these backends, as COOL functionalities are encapsulated by a technology-neutral C++ API. After several production releases of the COOL software, the project is now moving into the deployment phase in Atlas and LHCb, the two experiments that are developing the software in collaboration with CERN IT.
        Speaker: Dr Andrea Valassi (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        Using multiple persistent technologies in the Condition/DB of BaBar 20m
        The data production and analysis system of the BaBar Experiment has evolved through a series of changes from a day when the first data were taken in May 1999. The changes, in particular, have also involved persistent technologies used to store the event data as well as a number of related databases. This talk is about CDB - the distributed Conditions Database of the BaBar Experiment. The current production version of the database was deployed in 2002. One of the principles behind the design of CDB was its ability to deal with multiple persistent technologies to store the data. Originally, CDB was implemented using Objectivity/DB - the commercial OODB. Two new implementations of CDB, based on ROOT I/O and MySQL, are now available. All three are going to coexist and be used in the Experiment for a while, targeting various groups of users. This problem poses rather interesting challenges in managing this hybrid system in a highly distributed environment of the Experiment. The talk will cover key design decisions in a foundation of the database, its flexible API designed to cope with multiple persistent technologies, an information flow (transformation) between different formats of data, and other non-trivial aspects of managing this complex system.
        Speaker: Dr Douglas Smith (STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER)
        Slides
      • 17:20
        The LHCb Conditions Database Framework 20m
        The LHCb Conditions Database (CondDB) project aims to provide the necessary tools to handle non-event time-varying data. The LCG project COOL provides a generic API to handle this type of data and an interface to it has been integrated into the LHCb framework Gaudi. The interface is based on the Persistency Service infrastructure of Gaudi, allowing the user to load it at run-time only if needed. Since condition data are varying with time, as the events are processed, condition objects in memory must be kept synchronized to the values in the database for the current event time. A specialized service has been developed independently of the COOL API interface to provide an automated and optimized update of the condition objects in memory. The High Level Trigger of LHCb is a specialized version of an LHCb reconstruction/analysis program and as such it will need conditions, like alignments and calibrations, from the conditions database. For performance reasons, the HLT processes running on the Event Filter Farm cannot access the database directly. A special Online implementation of the CondDB service is thus needed under supervision of the LHCb Control system.
        Speaker: Marco Clemencic (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:40
        ROOT I/O for SQL databases 20m
        ROOT already has powerful and flexible I/O, which potentially can be used for storage of objects data in SQL databases. Usage of ROOT I/O together with SQL database will provide advanced functionality like: guarantee of data integrity, logging of data changes, possibility to rollback changes and lot of other features, provided by modern databases. At the same time data representation in SQL tables is main issue. To be able navigate and access data from non-ROOT environment objects data should be presented rather in native data types (integer, float, text) and not as set of BLOBs (binary block of data). A new TSQLFile class will be presented. It implements standard ROOT TFile interface for storage of object in human readable format in SQL database. Different possibilities for table design will be discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Sergey Linev (GSI DARMSTADT)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Software Tools and Information Systems: STIS-2 AG 77

      AG 77

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Web Access to Cms Tracker Monitoring Data with an AJAX Interface 20m
        The CMS tracker has more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one being a complete detector. Its monitoring requires the creation, analysis and storage of at least 4 histograms per module to be done every few minutes. The analysis of these plots will be done by computer programs that will check the data against some reference plots and send alarms to the operator in case of problems. Fast visual access to these plots by the operator is then essential to diagnose and solve the problem. We propose here a graphics interface to these plots similar to the one used by Google Maps to access satellite images (which uses the AJAX technique). We start with a "tracker map" i.e. an image that contains in a single screen a planar visualization of all modules. The operator can zoom on this image accessing first histogram miniatures drawn on top of the modules and then the full histograms. As in Google Maps the user can pan the image at any resolution and can switch between different representations showing different kind of plots.
        Speaker: Mr Giulio Eulisse (Northeastern University, Boston)
      • 16:20
        ROOT GUI, General Status 20m
        ROOT as a scientific data analysis framework provides a large selection data presentation objects and utilities. The graphical capabilities of ROOT range from 2D primitives to various plots, histograms, and 3D graphical objects. Its object- oriented design and developments offer considerable benefits for developing object- oriented user interfaces. The ROOT GUI classes support an extensive and rich set of widgets that allow an easy way to develop cross-platform GUI applications with a common look and feel. The object-oriented, event-driven programming model supports the modern signals/slots communication mechanism. This mechanism is an advanced object communication concept; it largely replaces the concept of callback functions to handle actions in GUIs. Signals and slots are just like any object-oriented methods implemented in C++. It uses ROOT dictionary information and CINT interpreter to connect signals to slots in ROOT. The progress of the recent user interface developments in ROOT are presented in this paper.
        Speakers: Fons Rademakers (CERN), Fons Rademakers (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        From Task Analysis to the Application Design 20m
        One of the main design challenges is the task of selecting appropriate Graphical User Interface (GUI) elements and organizing them to meet successfully the application requirements. - How to choose and assign the basic user interface elements (so-called widgets from `window gadgets') into the single panels of interactions? - How to organize these panels to appropriate levels of the application structure? - How to map the task sequence to these application levels? - How to manage the hierarchy of this structure with respect to different user profiles? - What information is absolutely necessary, what can be left out? The answers to all these questions are the subject of this paper.
        Speaker: Mr Fons Rademakers (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        ROME - a universally applicable analysis framework generator 20m
        This talk presents a new approach of writing analysis frameworks. We will point out a way of generating analysis frameworks out of a short experiment description. The generation process is completely experiment independent and can thus be applied to any event based analysis. The presentation will focus on a software package called ROME. This software generates analysis frameworks which are fully object oriented and based upon ROOT. The frameworks feature root functionality, sql database access, socket connections to GUI applications and connections to DAQ systems. ROME is currently used at PSI, Switzerland, Los Alamos National Laboratories, USA and Triumf, Canada.
        Speaker: Mr Matthias Schneebeli (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:20
        The LCG SPI project in LCG Phase II 20m
        In the context of the LCG Applications Area the SPI, Software Process and Infrastructure, project provides several services to the users in the LCG projects and the experiments (mainly at the LHC). These services comprise the CERN Savannah bug-tracking service, the external software service, and services concerning configuration management and applications build, as well as software testing and quality assurance. For the future phase II of the LCG the scope and organization of the SPI activities will be adjusted, adding emphasis to provide services to the experiments. The actual status of the services and their future evolution will be presented.
        Speaker: Dr Andreas Pfeiffer (CERN, PH/SFT)
        Slides
    • 09:00 10:30
      Plenary: Plenary 3 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India

      Plenary Session

      Convener: Kors Bos (NIKHEF)
      • 09:00
        Next Generation DAQ Systems 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr Beat Jost (CERN)
        Slides
      • 09:30
        Event Processing Frameworks; a Social and Technical Challenge 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr Elizabeth Sexton-Kennedy (FNAL)
        Minutes
        Slides
      • 10:00
        LHC-Era data rates in 2004 and 2005 - Experiences of the PHENIX Experiment with a PetaByte of Data 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr Martin Purschke (BNL)
        Slides
    • 09:00 18:10
      Poster: Poster 1
    • 10:30 11:00
      Tea Break 30m
    • 11:00 12:30
      Plenary: Plenary 4 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India

      Plenary Session

      Convener: Richard Mount (SLAC)
      • 11:00
        e-Science and Cyberinfrastructure 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr Tony Hey (Microsoft, UK)
        Slides
      • 11:30
        MySQL and Scalable Databases 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr David Axmark (MySQL)
      • 12:00
        High Performance Computing - Accelerating Discovery 30m Auditorium

        Auditorium

        Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

        Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
        Speaker: Dr Alan Gara (IBM T. J. Watson Research Center)
    • 12:30 14:00
      Lunch Break 1h 30m
    • 14:00 15:30
      Computing Facilities and Networking: CFN-3 D405

      D405

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        High End Visualization with Scalable Display System 20m
        Today we can have huge datasets resulting from computer simulations (CFD, physics, chemistry etc) and sensor measurements (medical, seismic and satellite). There is exponential growth in computational requirements in scientific research. Modern parallel computers and Grid are providing the required computational power for the simulation runs. The rich visualization is essential in interpreting the large, dynamic data generated from these simulation runs. The visualization process maps these datasets onto graphical representations and then generates the pixel representation. The large number of pixels shows the picture in greater details and interaction with it enables the greater insight on the part of user in understanding the data more quickly, picking out small anomalies that could turn out to be critical and make better decisions. However, the memory constraints, lack of the rendering power and the display resolution offered by even the most powerful graphics workstation makes the visualization of this magnitude difficult or impossible. The initiative to develop high end visual environment at Computer Division, BARC explores how to build and use a scalable display system for visual intensive applications by tiling multiple LCD displays driven by the Linux based PC graphics-rendering cluster. We are using the commodity off-the-shelf components such as PCs, PC graphics accelerators, network components and LCD displays. This paper focuses on building an environment which render and drive over 20 millions of pixels, using the open source software framework. We describe the software packages developed for such a system and its use to visualize data generated by computational simulations and applications requiring higher intrinsic display resolution and more display space.
        Speaker: Mr Dinesh Sarode (Computer Division, BARC, Mumbai-85, India)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        Performance Analysis of Linux Networking – Packet Receiving 20m
        The computing models for HEP experiments are becoming ever more globally distributed and grid-based, both for technical reasons (e.g., to place computational and data resources near each other and the demand) and for strategic reasons (e.g., to leverage technology investments). To support such computing models, the network and end systems (computing and storage) face unprecedented challenges. One of the biggest challenges is to transfer physics data sets – now in the multi-petabyte range and expected to grow to exabytes within a decade – reliably and efficiently among facilities and computation centers scattered around the world. Both the network and end systems should be able to provide the capabilities to support high bandwidth, sustained, end-to-end data transmission. Recent trends in technology are showing that although the raw transmission speeds used in networks are increasing rapidly, the rate of advancement of microprocessor technology has slowed down over the last couple of years. Therefore, network protocol-processing overheads have risen sharply in comparison with the time spent in packet transmission, resulting in the degraded throughput for networked applications. More and more, it is the network end system, instead of the network, that is responsible for degraded performance of network applications. In this paper, the Linux system’s packet receive process is studied from NIC to application. We develop a mathematical model to characterize the Linux packet receive process. Key factors that affect Linux systems’ network performance are analyzed.
        Speaker: Dr Wenji Wu (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Network Information and Monitoring Infrastructure (NIMI) 20m
        Fermilab is a high energy physics research lab that maintains a dynamic network which typically supports around 10,000 active nodes. Due to the open nature of the scientific research conducted at FNAL, the portion of the network used to support open scientific research requires high bandwidth connectivity to numerous collaborating institutions around the world, and must facilitate convenient access by scientists at those institutions. Network Information and Monitoring Infrastructure (NIMI) is a framework built to help network management personnel and the computer security team monitor and manage the FNAL network. This includes the portions of the network used to support open scientific research as well as the portions for more tightly controlled administrative and scientific support activities. NIMI has been used to build such applications as Node Directory, Network Inventory Database and Computer Security Issue Tracking System (TIssue). These applications have been successfully used by FNAL Computing Division personnel to manage local network, maintain necessary level of protection of LAN participants against external threats and promptly respond to computer security incidents. The article will discuss NIMI structure, functionality of major NIMI-based applications, history of the project, its current status and future plans.
        Speaker: Igor Mandrichenko (FNAL)
        Slides
      • 15:00
        TeraPaths: A QoS Enabled Collaborative Data Sharing Infrastructure for Peta-scale Computing Research 20m
        A DOE MICS/SciDac funded project, TeraPaths, deployed and prototyped the use of differentiated networking services based on a range of new transfer protocols to support the global movement of data in the high energy physics distributed computing environment. While this MPLS/LAN QoS work specifically targets networking issues at BNL, the experience acquired and expertise developed is expected to be more globally applicable to ATLAS and the high-energy physics community in general. TeraPaths is used to dedicate a fraction of the available network bandwidth to ATLAS Tier 1 data movement and limit its disruptive impact on BNL's heavy ion physics program and other more general laboratory network needs. We developed a web service based software system to automate the QoS configuration in LAN paths and negotiate network bandwidth with remote network domains on behalf of end users. Our system architecture could be easily integrated with other network management tools to provide a complete end-to-end QoS solution. We demonstrated TeraPaths' effectiveness in data transfer activities in Brookhaven National Lab. Our future work will focus on strategically scheduling network resource to shorten the transfer time for mission critical data relocation, thus reducing the error rates which are proportional to the transfer time. We will manage network resources which typically span many administrative domains, a unique characteristic compared with CPU and storage resource. The overall goal remains providing a robust, effective network infrastructure for High Energy and Nuclear Physics.
        Speakers: Dr Dantong Yu (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY), Dr Dimitrios Katramatos (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Distributed Data Analysis: DDA-3 D406

      D406

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        ARDA experience in collaborating with the LHC experiments 20m
        The ARDA project focuses in delivering analysis prototypes together with the LHC experiments. Each experiment prototype is in principle independent but commonalities have been observed. The first level of commonality is represented by mature projects which can be effectively shared across different users. The best example is GANGA, providing a toolkit to organize users’ activity, shielding users from execution back end details (like JDL preparation) and optionally supporting the execution of user application derived from the experiment framework (Athena and DaVinci for ATLAS and LHCb). The second level derives from the observation of commonality among different usage of the Grid: efficient access to resources from individual users, interactivity, robustness and transparent error recovery. High-level services built on top of a baseline layer are frequently needed to fully support specific activities like production and users’ analysis: these high-level services can be regarded as prototypes of future generic services. The observed commonality and concrete examples of convergence in the HEP community and outside are shown and discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Massimo Lamanna (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        Evolution of BOSS, a tool for job submission and tracking 20m
        BOSS (Batch Object Submission System) has been developed to provide logging and bookkeeping and real-time monitoring of jobs submitted to a local farm or a grid system. The information is persistently stored in a relational database for further processing. By means of user-supplied filters, BOSS extracts the specific job information to be logged from the standard streams of the job itself and stores it in the database in a structured form that allows easy and efficient access. BOSS has been used since 2002 for CMS Monte Carlo productions and is being re-engeneered to satisfy the needs of user analysis in highly distributed environment. The new architecture has the concept of composite jobs and of job clusters (Tasks) and benefits from a factorization of the monitoring system and the job archive.
        Speaker: Mr stuart WAKEFIELD (Imperial College, University of London, London, UNITED KINGDOM)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Interactive Web-based Analysis Clients using AJAX: with examples for CMS, ROOT and GEANT4 20m
        We describe how a new programming paradigm dubbed AJAX (Asynchronous Javascript and XML) has enabled us to develop highly-performant web-based graphics applications. Specific examples are shown of our web clients for: CMS Event Display (real-time Cosmic Challenge), remote detecotr monitoring with ROOT displays, and performat 3D displays of GEANT4 descriptions of LHC detectors. The Web-client performance can be comparable to a local application. Moreover the web client does not suffer from any of problems of software packaging, distribution and installation and configuration for multiple platforms. AJAX, which uses a mixture of Javascript, XML and DHTML, is spreading rapidly, helped by its support from industry leaders such as Google, Yahoo and Amazon. We describe how AJAX improves on the traditional post/reload web-page mechanisms, by supporting individual updates of sub-components of web pages and explain how we exploited these design patterns to develop real web-based High Energy Physics applications.
        Speaker: Mr Giulio Eulisse (Northeastern University, Boston)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        DIRAC Infrastructure for Distributed Analysis 20m
        DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management system for Monte Carlo simulation, data processing and distributed user analysis. Using DIRAC, a variety of resources may be integrated, including individual PC's, local batch systems and the LCG grid. We report here on the progress made in extending DIRAC for distributed user analysis on LCG. In this paper we describe the advances in the workload management paradigm for analysis with computing resource reservation by means of Pilot Agents. This approach allows DIRAC to mask any inefficiencies of the underlying Grid from the user thus increasing the effective performance of the distributed computing system. The modular design of DIRAC at every level lends the system intrinsic flexibility. The possible strategy for the evolution of the system will be discussed. The DIRAC API consolidates new and existing services and provides a transparent and secure way for users to submit jobs to the Grid. Jobs find their input data by interrogating the LCG File Catalogue which the LCG Resource Broker also uses to determine suitable destination sites. While it may be exploited directly by users, it also serves as the interface for the GANGA Grid front-end to perform distributed user analysis for LHCb. DIRAC has been successfully used to demonstrate distributed data analysis on LCG for LHCb. The system performance results are presented and the experience gained is discussed.
        Speaker: Mr Stuart Paterson (University of Glasgow / CPPM, Marseille)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Distributed Event production and Processing: DEPP-3 AG 80

      AG 80

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        GlideCAF - A Late-binding Approach to the Grid 20m
        Higher instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron Collider forces large increases in computing requirements for CDF experiment which has to be able to cover future needs of data analysis and MC production. CDF can no longer afford to rely on dedicated resources to cover all of its needs and is therefore moving toward shared, Grid, resources. CDF has been relying on a set of CDF Analysis Farms (CAFs), dedicated pools of commodity nodes managed as Condor pools, with a small CDF specific software stack on top of it. We have extended this model by using the Condor glide-in mechanism that allows for the creation of dynamic Condor pools on top of existing batch systems, without the need to install any additional software. The GlideCAF is essentially a CAF plus the tools needed to keep the dynamic pool alive. All the monitoring tools supported on the dedicated resource CAFs, including semi-interactive access to the running jobs and detailed monitoring, have been preserved. In this talk, we present the problems we have encountered during the implementation of glide-in based Condor pools and the challenges we have in maintaining them. We also show the amount of resources we manage with this technology and how much we have gained through it.
        Speaker: Subir Sarkar (INFN-CNAF)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        A generic approach to job tracking for distributed computing: the STAR approach 20m
        Job tracking, i.e. monitoring bundle of jobs or individual job behavior from submission to completion, is becoming very complicated in the heterogeneous Grid environment. This paper presents the principles of an integrating tracking solution based on components already deployed at STAR, none of which are experiment specific: a Generic logging layer and the STAR Unified Meta-Scheduler (SUMS). The first component is a "generic logging layer" built on the top of the logger family derived from the Jakarta "log4j" project that includes the "log4cxx", "log4c" and "log4perl" packages. These layers provide consistency across packages, platforms and frameworks. SUMS is a "generic" gateway to user batch-mode analysis and allows the user to describe tasks based on an abstract job description language (SUMS’s architecture was designed around a module plug-and-play philosophy and is therefore not experiment specific). We discuss how the tracking layer utilizes a unique ID generated by SUMS for each task it handles and the set of jobs it creates; how it is used for creating and updating Job records in the administrative database along with other vital job related information. Our approach does not require users to introduce any additional key to identify and associate the job with the database tables as the tree structure of information is handled automatically. Representing (sets of) jobs in a database makes easy to implement management, scheduling, and query operations as the user may list all previous jobs and get the details of status, time submitted, started, finished, etc…
        Speaker: Dr Valeri FINE (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Grid Deployment Experiences: The current state of grid monitoring and information systems. 20m
        As a result of the interoperations activity between LHC Computing Grid (LCG) and Open Science Grid (OSG), it was found that the information and monitoring space within these grids is a crowded area with many closed end-to-end solutions that do not interoperate. This paper gives the current overview of the information and monitoring space within these grids and tries to find overlapping areas that could be standardized. The idea of using a single interface and schema for information is investigated and a solution is presented along with a proposal for using this solution within both LCG and OSG.
        Speaker: Mr Laurence Field (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Event Processing Applications: EPA-3 AG 76

      AG 76

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        CMS Detector and Physics Simulation 18m
        The CMS simulation based on the Geant4 toolkit and the CMS object-oriented framework has been in production for almost two years and has delivered a total of more than a 100 M physics events for the CMS Data Challenges and Physics Technical Design Report studies. The simulation software has recently been successfully ported to the new CMS Event-Data-Model based software framework. In this paper, we present the experience from two years in physics production, the migration process to the new architecture and some newly-commissioned features for specific studies (e.g. exotic particles) and different operational scenarios in terms of hit simulation, event mixing and digitization.
        Speaker: Dr Maya Stavrianakou (FNAL)
        Slides
      • 14:18
        The new ATLAS Fast Track Simulation engine (FATRAS) 18m
        Various systematic physics and detector performance studies with the ATLAS detector require very large event samples. To generate those samples, a fast simulation technique is used instead of the full detector simulation, which often takes too much effort in terms of computing time and storage space. The widely used ATLAS fast simulation program ATLFAST, however, is based on intial four momentum smearing and does not allow tracking detector studies on hit level. Alternatively, the new ATLAS Fast Track Simulation engine (FATRAS) that comes intrinsically with the recently developed track extrapolation package is capable of producing full track information, including hits on track. It is based on the reconstruction geometry and the internal navigation of the track extrapolation package that has been established in the restructured ATLAS offline reconstruction chain. Its modular design allows easy control of the inert material, detector resolutions and acceptance, the magnetic field configuration and the general noise level. The application of the FATRAS simulation in a systematic detector performance study as well as a physics analysis will be presented.
        Speaker: Mr Andreas Salzburger (UNIVERSITY OF INNSBRUCK)
        Paper
        Paper_PDF
        Slides
      • 14:36
        GFLASH - parameterized electromagnetic shower in CMS 18m
        An object-oriented package for parameterizing electromagnetic showers in the framework of the Geant4 toolkit has been developed. This parameterization is based on the algorithms in the GFLASH package (implemented in Geant3 / FORTRAN), but has been adapted to the new simulation context of Geant4. This package can substitute the full tracking of high energy electrons/positrons(normally form above 800 MeV ) inside Geant4 with the probability density function of the shower profile. A mixture of full simulation and fast parameterization is also possible. This new implementation of the GFLASH package leads to a significant gain in simulation time for pp events at 14 TeV at the LHC, without sacrificing too much the simulation accuracy and can be used for any homogenous calorimeter. GFLASH has been also included into the GEANT 4.7 release and the CMS detector imulation OSCAR, which is based on Geant4. Some GFLASH parameters has been also tuned to achieve better agreement with the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. Comparisons between GFLASH and full simulation in timing and physics performance will be presented as well.
        Speaker: Joanna Weng (Karlsruhe/CERN)
        eps
        eps
        eps
        Paper
        pdf
        pdf
        Slides
        tex
      • 14:54
        The ATLAS Event Data Model 18m
        The event data model (EDM) of the ATLAS experiment is presented. For large collaborations like the ATLAS experiment common interfaces and data objects are a necessity to insure easy maintenance and coherence of the experiments software platform over a long period of time. The ATLAS EDM improves commonality across the detector subsystems and subgroups such as trigger, test beam reconstruction, combined event reconstruction, and physics analysis. Furthermore the EDM allows the use of common software between online data processing and offline reconstruction. One important task of the EDM group is to provide know-how and the infrastructure to secure the accessibility of data even after changes to the data model. New processes have been put into place to manage the decoupling of the persistent (on disk) storage and the transient (in memory), and how to handle requests from developers to change or add to the stored data model.
        Speaker: Dr Edward Moyse (University of Massachusetts)
        Paper
        Paper sources
        Paper sources
        Slides
      • 15:12
        The New CMS Event Data Model and Framework 18m
        The new CMS Event Data Model and Framework that will be used for the high level trigger, reconstruction, simulation and analysis is presented. The new framework is centered around the concept of an Event. A data processing job is composed of a series of algorithms (e.g., a track finder or track fitter) that run in a particular order. The algorithms only communicate via data stored in the Event. To facilitate testing, all data items placed in the Event are storable to ROOT/IO using POOL. This allows one to run a partial job (e.g., just track finding) and check the results without having to go through any further processing steps. In addition, the POOL/ROOT files generated by the new framework are directly browseable in ROOT. This allows one to accomplish simple data analyses without any additional tools. More complex studies can be supported in ROOT just by loading the appropriate shared libraries which contain the dictionaries for the stored objects. By taking the time now before data taking has begun to re-engineer the core framework, CMS hopes to provide a clean system that will serve it well for the decades to come.
        Speaker: Dr Christopher Jones (CORNELL UNIVERSITY)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Grid Middleware and e-Infrastructure Operation: GMEO-3 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Operations structure for the management, control and support of the INFN-GRID/Grid.It production infrastructure 20m
        Moving from a National Grid Testbed to a Production quality Grid service for the HEP applications requires an effective operations structure and organization, proper user and operations support, flexible and efficient management and monitoring tools. Moreover the middleware releases should be easily deployable using flexible configuration tools, suitable for various and different local computing farms. The organizational model, the available tools and the agreed procedures for operating the national/regional grid infrastructures that are part of the world-wide EGEE grid as well as the interconnection of the regional operations structures with the global management, control and support structure play a key role for the success of a real production grid. In this paper we describe the operations structure that we are currently using at the Italian Grid Operation and Support Center. The activities described cover monitoring, management and support for the INFN-GRID/Grid.It production grid (spread over more than 30 sites) and its interconnection with the EGEE/LCG structure as well as the roadmap to improve the global support quality, stability and reliability of the Grid service.
        Speaker: Dr Maria Cristina Vistoli (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        Integrating a heterogeneous and shared computer cluster into grids 20m
        Computer clusters at universities are usually shared among many groups. As an example, the Linux cluster at the "Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik" (IEKP), University of Karlsruhe, is shared between working groups of the high energy physics experiments AMS, CDF and CMS, and has successfully been integrated into the SAM grid of CDF and the LHC computing grid LCG for CMS while it still supports local users. This shared usage of the cluster effects heterogeneous software environments, grid middleware and access policies. Within the LCG, the IEKP site realises the concept of a Tier-2/3 prototype center. The installation procedure and setup of the LCG middleware has been modified according to the local conditions. With this dedicated configuration, the IEKP site offers the full grid functionality such as data transfers, CMS software installation and grid based physics analyses. The need for prioritisation of certain user groups has been satisfied by supporting different virtual organisations. The virtualisation of the LCG components, which can improve the utilisation of resources and security aspects, will be implemented in the near future.
        Speaker: Anja Vest (University of Karlsruhe)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Grid Deployment Experiences: The interoperations activity between OSG and LCG. 20m
        Open Science Grid (OSG) and LHC Computing Grid (LCG) are two grid infrastructures that were built independently on top of a Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) core. Due to the demands of the LHC Virtual Organizations (VOs), it has become necessary to ensure that these grids interoperate so that the experiments can seamlessly use them as one resource. This paper describes the work that was necessary to achieve interoperability and the challenges that were faced. Problems overcome and solutions are discussed along with a recommendation on what are the critical components required for retaining interoperabilty. The current state of the interoperations actively is described, an outline for the future direction.
        Speaker: Mr Laurence Field (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        Grid Data Management: Reliable File Transfer Services' Performace 20m
        Data management has proved to be one of the hardest jobs to do in a the grid environment. In particular, file replication has suffered problems of transport failures, client disconnections, duplication of current transfers and resultant server saturation. To address these problems the globus and gLite grid middlewares offer new services which improve the resiliancy and robustness of file replication on the grid. gLite has the File Transfer Service (FTS) and globus offers Reliable File Transfer (RFT). Both of these middleware components offer clients a web service interface to which they can submit a request to copy a file from one grid storage element to another. Clients can then return to the web service to query the status of their requested transfer, while the services can schedule, load balance and retry failures between the recieved requests. In this paper we compare these two services, examining, a) Architecture and features offered to clients and grid infrastructure providers. b) Robustness under load: e.g., when large numbers of clients attempt to connect in a short time or large numbers of transfers are scheduled at once. c) Behaviour under common failure conditions - loss of network connectivity, failure of backend database, sudden client disconnections. Lessons learned in the deployment of gLite FTS during LCG Service Challenge 3 are also discussed. Finally, further development of higher level data management services, including interaction with catalogs in gLite File Placement Service and Globus Data Replication Service is considered.
        Speaker: Dr Graeme A Stewart (University of Glasgow)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Online Computing: OC-3 B333

      B333

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        The ATLAS Data acquisition and High-Level Trigger: concept, design and status. 25m
        The Trigger and Data Acquisition system (TDAQ) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is based on a multi-level selection process and a hierarchical acquisition tree. The system, consisting of a combination of custom electronics and commercial products from the computing and telecommunication industry, is required to provide an online selection power of 105 and a total throughput in the range of Terabit/sec. The concept and design of the ATLAS TDAQ have been developed to take maximum advantage of the physics nature of very high-energy hadron interactions. The trigger system is implemented to provide a background rejection of one to two orders of magnitude before the events are fully reconstructed. The Region-of-Interest (RoI) mechanism is used to minimise the amount of data needed to calculate the trigger decisions thus reducing the overall network data traffic considerably. The final system will consist of a few thousands processors, interconnected by multi-layer Gbit Ethernet networks. The selection and data acquisition software has been designed in-house, based on industrial technologies (such as CORBA, CLIPS and Oracle). Software releases are produced on a regular basis and exploited on a number of test beds as well as for detector data taking in test labs and test beams. This paper introduces the basic system requirements and concepts. describes the architecture and design of the system and reports on the actual status of construction. It serves as introduction to the functionally and performance measurements made on large-scale test systems (LST) and on the TDAQ Pre-series installation, reported in separate papers at this conference.
        Speaker: Dr Benedetto Gorini (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:25
        Online reconstruction of a TPC as part of the continuous sampling DAQ of the PANDA experiment. 20m
        PANDA is a universal detector system, which is being designed in the scope of the FAIR-Project at Darmstadt, Germany and is dedicated to high precision measurements of hadronic systems in the charm quark mass region. At the HESR storage ring a beam of antiprotons will interact with internal targets to achieve the desired luminosity of 2x10^32cm^-2s^-1. The experiment is designed for event rates of up to 2x10^7s^-1. To cope with such high rates a new concept of data acquisition will be employed: the triggerless continuous sampling DAQ. Currently it is being investigated if a time projection chamber (TPC) will fulfill the requirements of the central tracking device and consequently what role it will have in the final design of the detector. The proposed TPC would have an expected raw data rate of up to 400 GB/s. Extensive online data processing is needed for data reduction and flexible online event selection. Our goal is to reach a compression factor of the raw data rate of at least 10 by exploiting the known data topology through feature extraction algorithms such as tracklet reconstruction or hit train compression. The full reconstruction of events on the fly is a key technology for the operation of a TPC in continous mode. This talk describes the conceptual design of the online reconstruction for this detector. Results of prototype algorithms and simulations will be shown.
        Speaker: Mr Sebastian Neubert (Technical University Munich)
        Slides
      • 14:45
        ALICE High Level Trigger interfaces and data organisation 20m
        The HLT, integrating all major detectors of ALICE, is designed to analyse LHC events online. A cluster of 400 to 500 dual SMP PCs will constitute the heart of the HLT system. To synchronize the HLT with the other online systems of ALICE (Data Acquisition (DAQ), Detector Control System (DCS), Trigger (TRG)) the Experiment Control System (ECS) has to be interfaced. In order to do so, the implementation of finite state machines, with the usage of SMI++, offers an easy way to coordinate the running conditions of the HLT with the other online systems. The mapping of the HLT states has to offer the possibility to run the HLT in stand alone mode (for commissioning and calibration) as well as controlled by ECS during the operational stage. After a full reconstruction of an event, the HLT provides Trigger decisions, regions-of-interest (ROI) and compressed data to the DAQ in order to reduce the data rate to permanent storage. In addition, the result of the online event reconstruction, organised as ESD (Event Summary Data), has to be classified and indexed for later reference to the offline analysis. This talk will cover HLT interfaces as well as the structure of the processed data.
        Speaker: Sebastian Robert Bablok (Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Norway)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:05
        Status and Performance of the DØ Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System 25m
        DØ, one of two collider experiments at Fermilab's Tevatron, upgraded its DAQ system for the start of Run II. The run started in March 2001, and the DAQ system was fully operational shortly afterwards. The DAQ system is a fully networked system based on Single Board Computers (SBCs) located in VME readout crates which forward their data to a 250 node farm of commodity processors for trigger selection under the control of a routing node interfaced to DØ's lower level hardware triggers. After a slow start, the Tevatron has made a great deal of progress towards its luminosity goals and, recently, has been breaking records almost every month. The Level 3 Trigger/DAQ system has survived the increased demands placed on it by the high luminosity running, but not without some modification and improvements. The basic design, performance, and improvements will be discussed in this report, highlighting the problems, scalability and configuration issues, and solutions we've encountered with the high luminosity running.
        Speaker: Gordon Watts (University of Washington)
        Slides
    • 14:00 15:30
      Software Components and Libraries: SCL-3 AG 69

      AG 69

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Reflex, reflection for C++ 20m
        Reflection is the ability of a programming language to introspect and interact with it's own data structures at runtime without prior knowledge about them. Many recent languages (e.g. Java, Python) provide this ability inherently but it is lacking for C++. This paper will describe a software package, Reflex, which provides reflection capabilities for C++. Reflex was developed in the context of the LCG Applications Area at CERN. The package tries to comply fully to the ISO/IEC standard for C++ which was taken as the main design guideline. In addition it is light, standalone and non intrusive towards the user code. This paper will focus on the user API of the package and its underlying design issues, the way to generate reflection information from arbitrary C++ definitions and recent additions. Reflex has been adapted by several projects at CERN e.g. POOL, RAL, COOL. Recently Reflex started to be integrated with the ROOT data analysis framework where it will strongly collaborate with the CINT interpreter. An overview of the plans and developments in this area will be discussed. An outlook to possible further modifications e.g. IO/Persistency, Python bindings, plugin management will be given.
        Speaker: Dr Stefan Roiser (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        C++ introspection with JIL 20m
        The JLab Introspection Library (JIL) provides a level of introspection for C++ enabling object persistence with minimal user effort. Type information is extracted from an executable that has been compiled with debugging symbols. The compiler itself acts as a validator of the class definitions while enabling us to avoid implementing an alternate C++ preprocessor to generate dictionary information. The dictionary information is extracted from the executable and stored in an XML format. C++ serializer methods are then generated from the XML. The advantage of this method is that it allows object persistence to be incorporated into existing projects with minimal or, in some cases, no modification of the existing class definitions (e.g. storing only public data members). While motivated by a need to store high volume event-based data, configurable features allow for easy customization making it a powerful tool for a wide variety of projects.
        Speaker: Dr David Lawrence (Jefferson Lab)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Concepts, Developments and Advanced Applications of the PAX Toolkit 20m
        Physics analyses at modern collider experiments enter a new dimension of event complexity. At the LHC, for instance, physics events will consist of the final state products of the order of 20 simultaneous collisions. In addition, a number of today’s physics questions is studied in channels with complex event topologies and configuration ambiguities occurring during event analysis. The Physics Analysis eXpert toolkit (PAX) is a continuously maintained and advanced C++ class collection, specially designed to assist physicists in the analysis of complex scattering processes. PAX allows definition of an abstraction layer beyond detector reconstruction by providing a generalized, persistent HEP event container with three types of physics objects (particles, vertices and collisions), relation management and file I/O scheme. The PAX event container is capable of storing the complete information of multi-collision events (including decay trees with spatial vertex information, four-momenta as well as additional reconstruction data). An automated copy functionality for the event container allows the analyst to consistently duplicate event containers for hypothesis evolution, including its physics objects and relations. PAX physics objects can hold pointers to an arbitrary number of instances of arbitrary C++ classes, allowing the analyst to keep track of the data origin within the detector reconstruction software. Further advantages arising from the usage of the PAX toolkit are a unified data model and nomenclature, and therefore increased code lucidity and more efficient team work. The application of the generalized event container provides desirable side-effects, such as protection of the physics analysis code from changes in the underlying software packages and avoidance of code duplication by the possibility of applying the same analysis code to various levels of input data. We summarize basic concepts and class structure of the PAX toolkit, and report about the developments made for the recent release version (2.00.10). Finally, we present advanced applications of the PAX toolkit, as in use at searches and physics analyses at Tevatron and LHC.
        Speaker: Dr Steffen G. Kappler (III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen university (Germany))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        ATLAS Physics Analysis Tools 20m
        The physics program at the LHC includes precision tests of the Standard Model (SM), the search for the SM Higgs boson up to 1 TeV, the search for the MSSM Higgs bosons in the entire parameter space, the search for Super Symmetry, sensitivity to alternative scenarios such as compositeness, large extra dimensions, etc. This requires general purpose detectors with excellent performance. ATLAS is one such detectors under construction for the LHC. Data taking is expected to start in April 2007. The detector performance and the prospects for discoveries are studied in various physics and detector performance working groups. The ATLAS offline computing system includes the development of common tools and of a framework for analysis. Such a development consists of studying the different approaches to the analysis domain, in order to identify commonalities, and to propose a basline unified framework for analysis in collaboration with the various software and computing groups, the physics and detector performance working groups integrating feedback from the user community. In this talk, we will review the common tools, event data formats for analysis, and the activities toward the Analysis Model.
        Speakers: Dr Ketevi Adikle Assamagan (Brookhaven National Laboratory), PAT ATLAS (ATLAS)
    • 14:00 15:30
      Software Tools and Information Systems: STIS-3 AG 77

      AG 77

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 14:00
        Worm and Peer To Peer Distribution of ATLAS Trigger & DAQ Software to Computer Clusters 20m
        ATLAS Trigger & DAQ software, with six Gbytes per release, will be installed in about two thousand machines in the final system. Already during the development phase, it is tested and debugged in various Linux clusters of different sizes and network topologies. For the distribution of the software across the network there are, at least, two possible aproaches: fixed routing points, and adaptive distribution. The first one has been implemented with the SSH worm Nile. It is a utility to launch connections in a mixture of parallel and cascaded modes, in order to synchronize software repositories incrementally or to execute commands. A system administrator configures, in a single file, the routes for the propagation. Therefore it achieves scalable delivery, as well as being efficiently adapted to the network. The installation of Nile is trivial, since it is able to replicate itself to other computers memory, being implemented as a worm. Moreover, the utilization of routing and status monitoring protocols together with an adaptive runtime algorithm to compensate for broken paths, make it very reliable. The other aproach, adaptive distribution, is implemented with peer to peer protocols, or P2P. In these solutions, a node interested in a file acts as both client and server for small pieces of the file. The strength of the P2P comes from the adaptive algorithm that is run in every peer. Its goal is to maximize the peer's own throughput, and the the overall throughput of the network. Hence the network resources are used efficiently, with no configuration effort. The selected tool in this case is BitTorrent. This paper describes tests performed in CERN clusters of 50 to 600 nodes, with both technologies and compares the benefits of each.
        Speaker: Hegoi Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta (Instituto de Fisica de Altas Energias (IFAE))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 14:20
        The Capone Workflow Manager 20m
        We describe the Capone workflow manager which was designed to work for Grid3 and the Open Science Grid. It has been used extensively to run ATLAS managed and user production jobs during the past year but has undergone major redesigns to improve reliablility and scalability as a result of lessons learned (cite Prod paper). This paper introduces the main features of the new system covering job management, monitoring, troublehsooting, debugging and job logging. Next, the modular architecture which implements several key evolutionary changes to the system is described: a multi-threaded pool structure, checkpointing mechanisms, and robust interactions with external components, all developed to address scalability and state persistence issues uncovered during operations running of the production system. Finally, we describe the process of delivering production ready tools, provide results from benchmark stress tests, and compare Capone with other workflow managers in use for distributed production systems.
        Speaker: Marco Mambelli (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO)
        35-Capone-pdf-v12
        35-Capone-src-v12
        Slides
      • 14:40
        Testing Grid Software: The development of a distributed screen recorder to enable front end and usability testing 20m
        Ongoing research has shown that testing grid software is complex. Automated testing mechanisms seem to be widely used, but are critically discussed on account of their efficiency and correctness in finding errors. Especially when programming distributed collaborative systems, structures get complex and systems get more error-prone. Past projects done by the authors have shown that the most important part of the tests seem to be tests conducted in a test-bed. However, reconstructing errors was nearly impossible. The researchers have developed a distributed screen recorder as proof-of-concept, which enables the tester to record screens in different locations. The playback is synchronous and can therefore be used to easily reconstruct moments in time, for example when errors have occurred. Additionally, the screen recorder allows conducting usability tests of distributed applications by recording web cam pictures of the user. The application will make front-end and usability testing of Grid applications easier and more efficient.
        Speaker: Mr Florian Urmetzer (Research Assistant in the ACET centre, The University of Reading, UK)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 15:00
        The CMS Simulation Validation Suite 20m
        Monte Carlo simulations are a critical component of physics analysis in a large HEP experiment such as CMS. The validation of the simulation sofware is therefore essencial to guarantee the quality and accuracy of the Monte Carlo samples. CMS is developing a Simulation Validation Suite (SVS) consisting of a set of packages associated with the different sub-detector systems: tracker, electromagnetic calorimeter, hadronic calorimeter, and muon detector. The Suite also contains packages to verify detector geometry parameters, and the magnetic field. Each package consists of one or more tests running on single particle or collider samples, producing distributions of validation quantities which are checked against reference values. The tests are performed at different levels or modes, to verify from the basic objects such as "hits" to more complex physics quantities such as resolutions, and shower profiles.
        Speaker: Dr Victor Daniel Elvira (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL))
        Paper
        Slides
    • 15:30 16:00
      Tea Break 30m
    • 16:00 18:00
      Computing Facilities and Networking: CFN-4 D405

      D405

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        apeNEXT: Experiences from Initial Operation 20m
        apeNEXT is the latest generation of massively parallel machines optimized for simulating QCD formulated on a lattice (LQCD). In autumn 2005 the commissioning of several large-scale installations of apeNEXT started, which will provide a total of 15 TFlops of compute power. This fully custom designed computer has been developed by an European collaboration composed of groups from INFN (Italy), DESY (Germany) and CNRS (France). We will give an overview on the system architecture and place particular emphasis to the system software, i.e. the programming environment and the operating system. In this talk we will present and analyze performance numbers and finally report on experiences gained during the first months of machine operation.
        Speaker: Dr Dirk Pleiter (DESY)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        Migration: Surfing on the Wave of Technological Evolution - An ENSTORE Story 20m
        ENSTORE is a very successful petabyte-scale mass storage system developed at Fermilab. Since its inception in the late 1990s, ENSTORE has been serving the Fermilab community, as well as its collaborators, and now holds more than 3 petabytes of data on tape. New data is arriving at an ever increasing rate. One practical issue that we are confronted with is: storage technologies have been evolving at an ever faster pace. New drives and media have been brought to the market constantly with larger capacity, better performance, and lower price. It is not cost effective for a forward looking system to stick with older technologies. In order to keep up with this technological evolution, ENSTORE was in need of a mechanism to migrate data onto newer media. Migrating large quantities of data in a highly available mass storage system does present a technical challenge. An auto-migration scheme was developed in ENSTORE that carries out this task seamlessly, behind the scenes, and without interrupting service nor requiring much operational attention. After two years in service, auto-migration has lived up to its expectation and ENSTORE has gone through several generations of drives and media. In addition, migration can be used in media copying, media consolidation, and data compaction. In this paper, we are going to present the conceptual design of ENSTORE, the issues in data migration in a highly available mass storage system, the implementation of auto-migration in ENSTORE, our experience and extended applications.
        Speaker: Dr Chih-Hao Huang (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
        Paper
      • 16:40
        T2K LCG Portal 20m
        A working prototype portal for the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) is being customised for use by the T2K 280m Near Detector software group. This portal is capable of submitting jobs to the LCG and retrieving the output on behalf of the user. The T2K specific developement of the portal will create customised submission systems for the suites of production and analysis software being written by the T2K software team. These software suites are computationally intensive, and therefore warrant utilisation of the LCG. The portal runs on an Apache server with the GridSite module. It is accessed over https, identifying users by their Certificate Authority signed Grid certificate. A user can upload files to the portal, as well as edit them, using the GridSite CGI. Proxy certificates are created on a users desktop/laptop machine using a JavaWebStart program that does the equivalent of a voms-proxy-init using the user's Grid certificate, and this limited time proxy is then securely put on the portal. Once there, the proxy is available exclusively to that user to utilise in submiting jobs to the LCG. The portal may also be used as a joint collaborative site for the experiment. GridSite makes it easy to have joint responsibility for maintaining public web pages spread amongst collaboration members. Other collaborative tools such as diaries and lists of publications and submitted abstracts are also easily implementable.
        Speaker: Dr Gidon Moont (GridPP/Imperial)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        UltraLight: A Managed Network Infrastructure for HEP 20m
        We will describe the networking details of NSF-funded UltraLight project and report on its status. The project’s goal is to meet the data-intensive computing challenges of the next generation of particle physics experiments with a comprehensive, network-focused agenda. The UltraLight network is a hybrid packet- and circuit-switched network infrastructure employing both “ultrascale” protocols such as FAST, and the dynamic creation of optical paths for efficient fair sharing on long range networks in the 10 Gbps range. Instead of treating the network traditionally, as a static, unchanging and unmanaged set of inter-computer links, we instead are enabling it as a dynamic, configurable, and closely monitored resource, managed end-to-end, to construct a next-generation global system able to meet the data processing, distribution, access and analysis needs of the high energy physics (HEP) community. To enable this capability as broadly as possible we are working closely with core networks like ESNet, Abilene, Canarie, GEANT; related network efforts like Terapaths, Lambda Station, OSCARs, HOPI, USNet, Gloriad; grid/computing research projects like OSG, GriPhyN, iVDGL, DISUN; and both the US ATLAS and US CMS collaborations.
        Speaker: Shawn Mc Kee (High Energy Physics)
        Paper
        Slides
        UltraLight Homepage
      • 17:20
        Dynamically Forecasting Network Performance of Bulk Data Transfer Applications using Passive Network Measurements 20m
        High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments generate unprecedented volumes of data which need to be transferred, analyzed and stored. This in turn requires the ability to sustain, over long periods, the transfer of large amounts of data between collaborating sites, with relatively high throughput. Groups such as the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) and Globus are developing and deploying tools to meet these needs. An additional challenge is to predict the network performance (TCP/IP end-to-end throughput and latency) of the bulk data transfer applications (bbftp, ftp, scp, GridFTP etc) without injecting additional test traffic on to the network. These types of forecasts are needed for: making scheduling decisions, data replication, replica selection and to provide quality of service guarantee in the Grid environment. In this paper, we demonstrate with the help of comparisons that active and passive (NetFlow) measurements are highly correlated. Furthermore, we also propose a technique for application performance prediction using passive network monitoring data without requiring invasive network probes. Our analysis is based on passive monitoring data measured at the site border of a major HENP data source (SLAC). We performed active measurements using iperf and passive (NetFlow) measurements on the same data flows for comparison. We also take into account aggregated throughput for applications using multiple parallel streams. Our results show that active and passive throughput calculations are well-correlated. Our proposed approach to predict the performance of bulk-data transfer applications offers accurate and timely results, while eliminating additional invasive network measurements.
        Speaker: Dr Les Cottrell (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC))
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Distributed Data Analysis: DDA-4 D406

      D406

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        The ATLAS Strategy for Distributed Analysis on several Grid Infrastructures 20m
        The ATLAS strategy follows a service oriented approach to provide Distributed Analysis capabilities to its users. Based on initial experiences with an Analysis service, the ATLAS production system has been evolved to support analysis jobs. As the ATLAS production system is based on several grid flavours (LCG, OSG and Nordugrid), analysis jobs will be supported by specific executors on the different infrastructures (Lexor, CondorG, Panda and Dulcinea). First implementations of some of these executors in the new schema are currently under test, in particular also in the Analysis scenario. While submitting jobs to the overall system will provide seamless access to all ATLAS resources, we also support user analysis by submitting directly to the separate grid infrastructures (Panda at OSG, direct submission to LCG and Nordugrid.) A common job definition system is currently under development that will be supported by all systems. Finally a common user interface project, GANGA, will provide support for the various submission options and will provide a consistent user experience. We will review the status of the different subprojects and report on initial user experiences.
        Speaker: Dr Dietrich Liko (CERN)
        Slides
      • 16:20
        Prototype of a Parallel Analysis System for CMS using PROOF 20m
        A typical HEP analysis in the LHC experiments involves the processing of data corresponding to several million events, terabytes of information, to be analysed in the last phases. Currently, processing one million events in a single modern workstation takes several hours, thus slowing the analysis cycle. The desirable computing model for a physicist would be closer to a High Performance Computing one where a large number of CPUs are required for short periods (of the order of several minutes). Where CPU farms are available, parallel computing is an obvious solution to this problem. Here we present the tests along this line using a tool for parallel physics analysis in CMS based on the PROOF libraries. Special attention has been paid in the development of this tool to modularity and easiness of usage to enable the possibility of sharing algorithms and simplifying software extensibility while hiding the details of the parallelisation. The first tests performed using a medium size (90 nodes) cluster of dual processor machines on a typical CMS analysis dataset (corresponding to root files for one million top qurk pairs producing fully leptonic final state events distributed uniformly among the computers) show quite promising results on scalability.
        Speaker: Dr Isidro Gonzalez Caballero (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        JobMon: A Secure, Scalable, Interactive Grid Job Monitor 20m
        We present the architecture and implementation of a bi-directional system for monitoring long-running jobs on large computational clusters. JobMon comprises an asyncronous intra-cluster communication server and a Clarens web service on a head node, coupled with a job wrapper for each monitored job to provide monitoring information both periodically and upon request. The Clarens web service provides authentication, encryption and access control for any external interaction with individual job wrappers.
        Speaker: Dr Conrad Steenberg (CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        CRAB: a tool to enable CMS Distributed Analysis 20m
        CRAB (Cms Remote Analysis Builder) is a tool, developed by INFN within the CMS collaboration, which provides to physicists the possibility to analyze large amount of data exploiting the huge computing power of grid distributed systems. It's currently used to analyze simulated data needed to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report. Data produced by CMS are distributed among several Computing Centers, and CRAB allows a generic users, without specific knowledge of grid infrastracture, to access and analyze those remote data, hiding the complexity of distributed computational services and making job submission and management as simple as in a local environment. The experience gained during the current CMS distributed data analysis effort is reported, along with CRAB ongoing developments. The interaction of CRAB with the actual and future CMS Data Management services is described, as well as the usage of WLCG/gLite/OSG middleware to provide access to different grid environments. Finally, the use within CRAB of BOSS for logging, bookkeeping and monitoring is presented.
        Speaker: Mr Marco Corvo (Cnaf and Cern)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Distributed Event production and Processing: DEPP-4 AG 80

      AG 80

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Data and Computational Grid decoupling in STAR – An Analysis Scenario using SRM Technology 20m
        This paper describes the integration of Storage Resource Management (SRM) technology into the grid-based analysis computing framework of the STAR experiment at RHIC. Users in STAR submit jobs on the grid using the STAR Unified Meta-Scheduler (SUMS) which in turn makes best use of condor-G to send jobs to remote sites. However, the result of each job may be sufficiently large that existing solutions to transfer data back to the initiator site have not proven reliable enough in a user analysis mode or would lock the computing resource (batch slot) while the transfer is in effect. Using existing SRM technology, tailored for optimized and reliable transfer, is the best natural approach for STAR, which is already relying on such technology for massive (bulk) data transfer. When jobs complete the output files are returned to the local site by a 2-step transfer utilizing a Disk Resource Manager (DRM) service running at each site. The first transfer is a local transfer from the worker node (WN) where the job is executed to a DRM cache local to the node, the second transfer is from the WN local DRM cache to the initiator site DRM. The advantages of this method include SRM management of transfers to prevent gatekeeper overload, release of the remote worker node after initiating the second transfer (delegation) so that the computation and data transfer can proceed concurrently, and seamless mass storage access as needed by using a Hierarchical Resource Manager (HRM) to access HPSS.
        Speaker: Dr Eric HJORT (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        The LCG based mass production framework of the H1 Experiment 20m
        The H1 Experiment at HERA records electron-proton collisions provided by beam crossings of a frequency of 10 MHz. The detector has about half a million readout channels and the data acquisition allows to log about 25 events per second with a typical size of 100kB. The increased event rates after the upgrade of the HERA accelerator at DESY led to a more demanding usage of computing and storage resources. The analysis of these data requires an increased amount of Monte Carlo events. In order to exploit the new necessary resources, which are becoming available via the Grid, the H1 collaboration has therefore started to install a mass production system based on LCG. The H1 mass production system utilizes Perl and Python scripts on top of the LCG tools to steer and monitor the productions. Jobs and their status are recorded in a MySQL database. During autonomous production a daemon lunches appropriate scripts while a web interface can be used for manual intervention. Additional effort has been put into the sandbox environment in which the executable runs on the worker node. This was necessary to work around present weaknesses in the LCG tools, especially in the area of storage management, and to recover automatically from crashes of the executable. The system has proven to able to track several hundred jobs allowing for production rates of more than one million events per day. At the end of 2005 ten sites in five countries are contributing to the production.
        Speaker: Mr Christoph Wissing (University of Dortmund)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Experience Supporting the Integration of LHC Experiments Computing Systems with the LCG Middleware 20m
        The LHC Computing Grid Project (LCG) provides and operates the computing support and infrastructure for the LHC experiments. In the present phase, the experiments systems are being commissioned and the LCG Experiment Integration Support team provides support for the integration of the underlying grid middleware with the experiment specific components. The support activity during the experiments’ data and service challenges provides valuable information on the infrastructure performance and deeper understanding of the whole system. Results from the major activities in 2005 are reviewed and a summary of the related activities is given, In addition the support of non High-Energy Physics communities (Biomed, GEANT4 and UNOSAT) is discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Simone Campana (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        CMS Monte Carlo Production in the Open Science and LHC Computing Grids 20m
        In preparation for the start of the experiment, CMS must produce large quantities of detailed full-detector simulation. In this presentation we will present the experiencing with running official CMS Monte Carlo simulation on distributed computing resources. We will present the implementation used to generate events using the LHC Computing Grid (LCG-2) resources in Europe, as well as the implementation using the Open Science Grid (OSG) resources in the U.S.. Novel approaches have been deployed that make it possible to run the full CMS production chain on distributed computing resources from the generation of events, to the publication of data for analysis, including all the intermediate steps. The CMS transfer system has been coupled to the LCG production chain to make the tools more robust and significantly improving the performance of the production in LCG. The CMS production has been running on LCG-2 and OSG for several months and an analysis of performance and operational experience will be presented.
        Speaker: Dr Pablo Garcia-Abia (CIEMAT)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:20
        Development of the Monte Carlo Production Service for CMS 20m
        The Monte Carlo Processing Service (MCPS) package is a Python based workflow modelling and job creation package used to realise CMS Software workflows and create executable jobs for different environments ranging from local node operation to wide ranging distributed computing platforms. A component based approach to modelling workflows is taken to allow both executable tasks as well as data handling and management tasks to be included within the workflow. Job Creation is controlled so that regardless of the components used, a common self contained job sandbox and execution structure is produced allowing the job to be run on most batch systems via a submission interface. In this presentation we will discuss the architectural choices made in MCPS, the development status, and experiences deploying to both the European and U.S Grid infrastructure.
        Speaker: Dr Peter Elmer (PRINCETON UNIVERSITY)
      • 17:40
        Italian Tiers hybrid infrastructure for large scale CMS data handling and challenge operations 20m
        The CMS experiment is travelling its path towards the real LHC data handling by building and testing its Computing Model through daily experience on production-quality operations as well as in challenges of increasing complexity. The capability to simultaneously address both these complex tasks on a regional basis - e.g. within INFN - relies on the quality of the developed tools and related know-how, and on their capability to manage switches between testbed-like and production-like infrastructures, to profit from the configuration flexibility of a unique robust data replication system, to adapt to evolving scenarios in distributed data access and analysis. The work done in INFN in the operations of Tier-1 and Tier-2's within event simulation, data distribution and data analysis activities, in daily production-like activities as well as within LCG Service Challenges testing efforts, are here presented and discussed.
        Speaker: Dr Daniele - on behalf of CMS Italy Tier-1 and Tier-2's Bonacorsi (INFN-CNAF Bologna, Italy)
        Paper
        PAPER: Figure-1
        PAPER: Figure-2
        PAPER in doc format
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:10
      Event Processing Applications: EPA-4 AG 76

      AG 76

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        The ALICE Offline framework 18m
        The ALICE Offline framework is now in its 8th year of development and is now close to be used for data taking. This talk will provide a short description of the history of AliRoot and then will describe the latest developments. The newly added alignment framework, based on the ROOT geometrical modeller will be described. The experience with the FLUKA MonteCarlo used for full detector simulation will be reported. AliRoot has also been used extensively for data challenges, and in particular for the parallel and distributed analysis of the generated data. This experience will be described. The talk will also describe the roadmap from now to the initial data taking and the scenario for the usage of AliRoot for early physics at LHC.
        Speaker: Federico Carminati (CERN)
        Slides
      • 16:18
        The BESIII Offline Software 18m
        The BESIII is a general-purpose experiment for studying electron-positron collision at BEPCII, which is currently under construction at IHEP, Beijing. The BESIII offline software system is built on the Gaudi architecture. This contribution describes the BESIII specific framework implementation for offline data processing and physics analysis. And we will also present the development status of simulation and reconstruction algorithms as well as results obtained from physics performance studies.
        Speaker: Dr Weidong Li (IHEP, Beijing)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:36
        A modular Reconstruction Software Framework for the ILC 18m
        The International Linear Collider project ILC is in a very active R&D phase where currently three different detector concepts are developed in international working groups. In order to investigate and optimize the different detector concepts and their physics potential it is highly desirable to have flexible and easy to use software tools. In this talk we present Marlin, a modular C++ application framework for the ILC. Marlin is based on the international data format LCIO and allows the distributed development of reconstruction and analysis software. Marlin is used throughout the european ILC community to develop reconstruction algorithms for the ILC based on the so called Particle Flow paradigm.
        Speaker: Frank Gaede (DESY)
        Slides
      • 16:54
        CBM Simulation and Analysis Framework 18m
        The simulation and analysis framework of the CBM collaboration will be presented. CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) is an experiment at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt. The goal of the experiment is to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The Virtual Monte Carlo concept allows performing simulations using Geant3, Geant4 or Fluka without changing the user code. The same framework is then used for the data analysis. An Oracle database with a build-in versioning management is used to efficiently store the detector geometry, materials and parameters.
        Speaker: Dr Denis Bertini (GSI Darmstadt)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:12
        FLUKA and the Virtual Monte Carlo 18m
        The ALICE Offline Project has developed a virtual interface to the detector transport code called Virtual Monte Carlo. It isolates the user code from changes of the detector simulation package and hence allows a seamless transition from GEANT3 to GEANT4 and FLUKA. Moreover, a new geometrical modeler has been developed in collaboration with the ROOT team, and successfully interfaced to the three programs. This allows the use of one description of geometry, which can be used also during reconstruction and visualization. In this paper we present the present status of the Virtual Monte Carlo and in particular the FLUKA Virtual Monte Carlo implementation, its testing and application for detector response simulation and radiation studies.
        Speaker: Andreas.Morsch@cern.ch Morsch (CERN)
        Slides
      • 17:30
        CMS Reconstruction Software 18m
        The Reconstruction Software for the CMS detector is designed to serve multiple use cases, from the online triggering of the High Level Trigger to the offline analysis. The software is based on the CMS Framework, and comprises reconstruction modules which can be scheduled independently. These produce and store event data ranging from low-level objects to objects useful for analysis on reduced Data Sets, such as particle identification information or complex decay chains. The performance is presented, together with a roadmap leading up to real LHC physics.
        Speaker: Dr Tommaso Boccali (Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa)
        Slides
      • 17:48
        Track reconstruction algorithms for the ALICE High-Level Trigger 18m
        An overview of the online reconstruction algorithms for the ALICE Time Projection Chamber and Inner Tracking System is given. Both the tracking efficiency and the time performance of the algorithms are presented in details. The application of the tracking algorithms in possible high transverse momentum jet and open charm triggers is discussed.
        Speaker: Marian Ivanov (CERN)
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Grid Middleware and e-Infrastructure Operation: GMEO-4 Auditorium

      Auditorium

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        The gLite File Transfer Service: Middleware Lessons Learned from the Service Challenges 20m
        In this paper we report on the lessons learned from the Middleware point of view while running the gLite File Transfer Service (FTS) on the LCG Service Challenge 3 setup. The FTS has been designed based on the experience gathered from the Radiant service used in Service Challenge 2, as well as the CMS Phedex transfer service. The first implementation of the FTS was put to use in the beginning of the Summer 2005. We report in detail on the features that have been requested following this initial usage and the needs that the new features address. Most of these have already been implemented or are in the process of being finalized. There has been a need to improve the manageability aspect of the service in terms of supporting site and VO policies. Due to different implementations of specific Storage systems, the choice between 3rd party gsiftp transfers and SRM-copy transfers is nontrivial and was requested as a configurable option for selected transfer channels. The way the proxy certificates are being delegated to the service and are used to perform the transfer, as well as how proxy renewal is done has been completely reworked based on experience. A new interface has been added to enable administrators to perform Channel Management directly by contacting the FTS, without the need to restart the service. Another new interface has been added in order to deliver statistics and reports to the sites and VOs interested in useful monitoring information. This is also presented through a web interface using javascript. Stage pool handling for the FTS is being added in order to allow pre-staging of sources without blocking transfer slots on the source and also to allow the implementation of back-off strategies in case the remote staging areas start to fill up.
        Speaker: Mr Paolo Badino (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        A Scalable Distributed Data Management System for ATLAS 20m
        The ATLAS detector currently under construction at CERN's Large Hadron Collider presents data handling requirements of an unprecedented scale. From 2008 the ATLAS distributed data management (DDM) system must manage tens of petabytes of event data per year, distributed around the world: the collaboration comprises 1800 physicists participating from more than 150 universities and laboratories in 34 countries. The ATLAS DDM project was established in spring 2005 to develop the system, Don Quijote 2 (DQ2), drawing on operational experience from a previous generation of data management tools. The foremost design objective was to achieve the scalability, robustness and flexibility required to meet the data handling needs of the ATLAS Computing Model, from raw data archiving through global managed production and analysis to individual physics analysis at home institutes. The design layers over a foundation of basic file handling Grid middleware a set of loosely coupled components that provide logical organization at the dataset (hierarchical, versioned file collections) level, supporting in a flexible and scalable way the data aggregations by which data is replicated, discovered and analyzed around the world. A combination of central services, distributed site services and agents handle data transfer, bookkeeping and monitoring. Implementation approaches were carefully chosen to meet performance and robustness requirements. Fast and lightweight REST-style web services knit together components which utilize through standardized interfaces cataloging and file movement tools chosen for their performance and maturity, with the expectation that choices will evolve over time. In this paper we motivate and describe the architecture of the system, its implementation, the current state of its deployment for production and analysis operations throughout ATLAS, and the work remaining to achieve readiness for datataking.
        Speaker: Dr David Cameron (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN))
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Enabling Grid features in dCache 20m
        dCache collaboration actively works on the implementation and improvement of the features and the grid support of dCache storage. It has delivered Storage Resource Managers (SRM) interface, GridFtp server, Resilient Manager and Interactive Web Monitoring tools. SRMs are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management of shared storage components on the Grid. SRMs support protocol negotiation and a reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard allows independent institutions to implement their own SRMs, thus allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. Fermilab has implemented SRM interface v1.1 for dCache and now actively pursues SRM v2.1 implementation. GridFtp is a standard grid data transfer protocol, which supports GSI authentication, control channel encryption, data channel authentication, and extended block mode parallel transfers. We have implemented and continue to improve the GridFtp server in dCache. Resilient Manager is a top-level service in dCache, which is used to create a more reliable and highly available data storage out of the commodity disk nodes, which are part of dCache. New interactive web-based monitoring tools will dramatically improve the understanding of a complex distributed system like dCache by both administrators and users. The monitoring includes a variety of plots and bar diagrams graphically representing the state and history of the dCache system. I will discuss these features and the benefits derived from them to Grid Storage Community.
        Speaker: Timur Perelmutov (FERMI NATIONAL ACCELERATOR LABORATORY)
        Slides
      • 17:00
        BNL Wide Area Data Transfer for RHIC and ATLAS: Experience and Plan 20m
        We describe two illustrative cases in which Grid middleware (GridFtp, dCache and SRM) was used successfully to transfer hundreds of terabytes of data between BNL and its remote RHIC and ATLAS collaborators. The first case involved PHENIX production data transfers to CCJ, a regional center in Japan, during the 2005 RHIC run. Approximately 270TB of data, representing 6.8 billion polarized proton-protoncollisions, was transferred to CCJ using GridFtp tools. The local network was reconfigured and tuned to route data directly from the online data acquisition system to the BNL public network, thus avoiding the use of tape storage as an intermediate buffer and preserving the scarce resource of tape I/O bandwidth. A transfer speed of 60 MB/s was achieved around the clock, sufficient to keep up with the incoming data stream from the detector. The second case involved transfers between the ATLAS Tier 1 center at BNL and both CERN and the US ATLAS Tier 2 centers, as part of the ATLAS Service Challenge (SC). This demanded even larger data transfer rates, with the goal of validating the current computing model. We were able to demonstrate 150 MB/s wide area data transfer rates using the SC infrastructure with our dCache configuration. We describe the deployment of the major components of this infrastructure, including the ATLAS Distributed Data Management System, File Transfer Service and dCache/SRM and its connection to the mass storage system. The operational model and various monitoring tools are also described. These exercises demonstrated the current level of maturity of Grid tools being used by large physics experiments to satisfy their data distribution requirements. Future work will focus on applying this dCache/SC experience to large scale RHIC data transfers and improving the stability and performance of data transfers as the BNL backbone is upgraded to multiple 10 Gbps bandwidth.
        Speakers: Dr Dantong Yu (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY), Dr Xin Zhao (BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:20
        Project DASH: Securing Direct MySQL Database Access for the Grid 20m
        High energy and nuclear physics applications on computational grids require efficient access to terabytes of data managed in relational databases. Databases also play a critical role in grid middleware: file catalogues, monitoring, etc. Crosscutting the computational grid infrastructure, a hyperinfrastructure of the databases emerges. The Database Access for Secure Hyperinfrastructure (DASH) project develops secure high-performance database access technology for distributed computing. To overcome database access inefficiencies inherent in a traditional middleware approach the DASH project implements secure authorization on the transport level. Pushing the grid authorization into the database engine eliminates the middleware message-level security layer and delivers transport-level efficiency of SSL/TLS protocols for grid applications. The database architecture with embedded grid authorization provides a foundation for secure end-to-end data processing solutions for the experiments. To avoid a brittle, monolithic system DASH uses an aspect-oriented programming approach. By localizing Globus security concerns in a software aspect, DASH achieves a clean separation of Globus Grid Security Infrastructure dependencies from the MySQL server code. During the database server build, the AspectC++ tool automatically generates the transport-level code to support a grid security infrastructure. The DASH proof-of-concept prototype provides Globus grid proxy certificate authorization technologies for MySQL database access control. Direct access to database servers unleashes a broad range of MySQL server functionalities for HENP data processing applications: binary data transport, XA transactions, etc. Prototype servers built with DASH technology are being tested in ANL, BNL, and CERN. To provide on-demand database services capability for Open Science Grid, the Edge Services Framework activity builds the DASH mysql-gsi database server into the virtual machine image, which is dynamically deployed via Globus Virtual Workspaces. The DASH project is funded by the U.S. DOE Small Business Innovative Research Program.
        Speaker: Dr Alexandre Vaniachine (ANL)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:40
        The AMGA Metadata Service in gLite 20m
        We present the AMGA (ARDA Metadata Grid Application) metadata catalog, which is a part of the gLite middleware. AMGA provides a very lightweight metadata service as well as basic database access functionality on the Grid. Following a brief overview of the AMGA design, functionality, implementation and security features, we will show performance comparisons of AMGA with direct database access as well as with other Grid catalog services. Finally the replication features of AMGA are presented and a comparison with proprietary database replication solutions is shown. A series of examples of usage from HEP and other communities is also presented.
        Speaker: Dr Birger Koblitz (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Online Computing: OC-4 B333

      B333

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        Physical Study of the BES3 Trigger System 20m
        Physical study is the base of the hardware designs of the BES3 trigger system. It includes detector simulations, generation and optimization of the sub-detectors’ trigger conditions, main trigger simulations (Combining the trigger conditions from different detectors to find out the trigger efficiencies of the physical events and the rejection factors of the backgrounds events.) and hardware implementation feasibility considerations. The detector simulations are based on the GEANT3 and the others are based on the self-coded software in which the MDC (Main Drift Chamber), EMC (ElectroMagnetic Calorimeter), TOF (Time Of Flight) and main trigger sub-triggers are included. Schemes, procedure and typical results of the trigger system study will be introduced in some detail. From the physical studies, we determined the preliminary trigger tables and get the corresponding trigger efficiencies of the physical events and the rejection factors of the backgrounds events. Also determined are the hardware schemes of the whole trigger system and all of the sub-trigger systems. All are going forward smoothly. A brief introduction of the status of the hardware designs of the trigger system will be presented. Finally, there will be a summary.
        Speaker: Dr Da-Peng JIN (IHEP (Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China))
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        A configuration system for the ATLAS trigger 20m
        The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a nominal rate of 1 GHz from beams crossing at 40 MHz. A three-level trigger system will select potentially interesting events in order to reduce this rate to about 200 Hz. The first trigger level is implemented in custom-built electronics and firmware, whereas the higher trigger levels are based on software. A system for the configuration of the complete trigger chain is being constructed. It is designed to deliver all relevant configuration information - e.g. physics selection criteria like transverse momentum thresholds encoded in settings for level-1 hardware registers, parameter values of high-level trigger selection algorithms, algorithm versions used or prescale factors. The system should be easy to operate. It must store the history of each trigger setup for later analysis. The same system will be used to configure the offline trigger simulation. In this presentation an overview of the ATLAS trigger configuration system is given including the underlying relational database, and the tools for populating and accessing configuration information.
        Speakers: Hans von der Schmitt (MPI for Physics, Munich), Hans von der Schmitt (ATLAS)
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Steering the ATLAS High Level Trigger 20m
        This paper descibes an analysis and conceptual design for the steering of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT). The steering is the framework that organises the event selection software. It implements the key event selection strategies of the ATLAS trigger, which are designed to minimise processing time and data transfers: reconstruction within regions of interest, menu-driven selection and fast rejection. This analysis also considers the needs of online trigger operation, and offline data analysis. The design addresses both the static configuration and dynamic steering of event selection. Trigger menus describe the signatures required to accept an event at each stage of processing. The signatures are arranged in chains through these steps to ensure coherent selection. The event processing is broken into a series of sequential steps. At each step the steering will call algorithms needed according to the valid signatures from the previous step, the existing data and the signatures that it should attempt to validate for the next decision. After each step the event can be rejected if it no longer satisfies any signatures. The same steering software runs in both offline and online software environments, so the impact of the HLT on physics analysis can be directly assessed.
        Speaker: Mr Gianluca Comune (Michigan State University)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 17:00
        ATLAS High Level Trigger Infrastructure, RoI Collection and EventBuilding 25m
        The ATLAS experiment at the LHC will start taking data in 2007. Event data from proton—proton collisions will be selected in a three level trigger system which reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz at its first level trigger (LVL1) to 75 kHz with a fixed latency of 2.5 μs. The second level trigger (LVL2) collects and analyses Regions of Interest (RoI) identified by LVL1 and reduces the event rate further to ~3 kHz with an average latency of tens of ms. Subsequently the EventBuilder collects the data from all readout systems and provides fully assembled events to the the Event Filter (EF), which is the third level trigger. The EF analyzes the entirety of the event data to achieve a further rate reduction to ~200 Hz, with a latency of a few seconds. While LVL1 is based on custom hardware, LVL2, EventBuilder and EF are based on compute farms of O(3000) PCs, interconnected via Gigabit Ethernet, running Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. This note focuses on the common design and implementation of the High Level Trigger Infrastructure, RoI Collection and the EventBuilding. Both LVL2 and EF (collectively called High Level Trigger) use online software for the control and data collection aspects, but the actual trigger selection is developed and tested using the offline software environment. A common approach of the LVL2 Processing Unit and the EF Processing Task for the steering, seeding and sequential processing of the selection algorithms has been developed. Significant improvements and generalization of the system design, allow for complex data flow functionality steered by the results of the event selection at LVL2 and EF. This allows the handling of events in parallel data streams for physics, calibration, monitoring or debug purposes. The possibility for event duplication, partial Event Building and data stripping are currently under development. Insight in special features of the system, such as load balancing of the various compute farms, traffic shaping and garbage collection will also be given. The HLT and EventBuilder are being integrated with the LVL1 trigger and the ATLAS subdetectors and will be operated with cosmic events as part of the commissioning in the 2nd half of 2006.
        Speaker: Kostas Kordas (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF))
        Slides
    • 16:00 18:00
      Software Components and Libraries: SCL-4 AG 69

      AG 69

      Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

      Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400005 India
      • 16:00
        New Developments of ROOT Mathematical Software Libraries 20m
        LHC experiments obtain needed mathematical and statistical computational methods via the coherent set of C++ libraries provided by the Math work package of the ROOT project. We present recent developments of this work package, formed from the merge of the ROOT and SEAL activities: (1) MathCore, a new core library, has been developed as a self contained component encompassing basic mathematical functionality: special and mathematical functions used in statistics, random number generators, physics vectors, and numerical algorithms such as integration and derivation. (2) The new MathMore library provides a complementary and expanded set of C++ mathematical functions and algorithms, some of them based on existing mathematical libraries such as the GNU Scientific library. Wrappers to this library are written in C++ and integrated in a coherent object oriented framework. (3) The fitting libraries of ROOT have been extended by integrating the new C++ version of MINUIT and adding the linear and robust fitters. We will provide an overview of the ROOT Mathematical libraries and will describe in detail the functionality and design of these packages recently introduced in ROOT. We will also describe the planned improvements and redesign of old ROOT classes to use the new facilities provided by MathCore and MathMore.
        Speaker: Dr Lorenzo Moneta (CERN)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:20
        The Phystat Repository For Physics Statistics Code 20m
        We have initiated a repository of tools, software, and technique documentation for techniques used in HEP and related physics disciplines, which are related to statistics. Fermilab is to assume custodial responsibility for the operation of this Phystat repository, which will be in the nature of an open archival repository. Submissions of appropriate packages, papers, modules and code fragments will be from (and be available to) the HEP community. A preliminary version of this repository is at Phystat.org. Details of the purposes and organization of the repository are presented.
        Speaker: Philippe Canal (FNAL)
        Paper
        Slides
      • 16:40
        Evaluation of the power of Goodness-of-Fit tests for the comparison of data distributions 20m
        Many Goodness-of-Fit tests have been collected in a new open-source Statistical Toolkit: Chi-squared, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Goodman, Kuiper, Cramer-von Mises, Anderson-Darling, Tiku, Watson, as well as novel weighted formulations of some tests. None of the Goodness-of-Fit tests included in the toolkit is optimal for any analysis case. Statistics does not provide a universal recipe to identify the most appropriate test to compare two distributions; the limited available guidelines derive from relative power comparisons of samples drawn from smooth theoretical distributions. A comprehensive study has been performed to provide general guidelines for the practical choice of the most suitable Goodness-of-Fit test under general non-parametric conditions. Quantitative comparisons among the two-sample Goodness-of-Fit tests contained in the Goodness-of-Fit Statistical Toolkit are presented. This study is the most complete and general approach so far available to characterize the power of goodness-of-fit tests for the comparison of two data distributions; it provides guidance to the user to identify the most appropriate test for his/her analysis on an objective basis.
        Speakers: Dr Alberto Ribon (CERN), Dr Andreas Pfeiffer (CERN), Dr Barbara Mascialino